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JOHN  EADIE,  D.D.,  LL.D., 


VOL.    II. 



All  rights  reserved. 


-4  ^ 

VJ  J 




Marian  Refugees — Geneva — Whittingham —  His  New  Testament — Genevan 
Bible — Those  Employed  in  the  Revision — Dedication  to  Queen  Elizabeth 
—  To  the  Christian  Reader  —  Causes  of  its  Popularity  —  Breeches 
Bible,  ........  Page  3 


The  Genevan  a  Revision  of  Tyndale  collated  with  Great  Bible — Collation 
showing  this,  and  also  Influence  of  Beza — A  decided  Advance  on  the 
Great  Bible — Excerpts — Changes  to  the  better  in  the  Apocrypha,  .  1(> 


Terms  with  Latin  Signification — Felicitous  Renderings — Antique  Words  and 
Senses — Old  Spelling — Unwarrantable  Supplementary  Clauses — Marginal 
Notes — Calvinism  of  Notes — Excellence  of  Version,  .  .  23 


Bodley's  Patent  for  printing  Genevan  Bible — Not  printed  in  England  during 
Parker's     Life-time — Tomson's    Revision — Great     Popularity — Vitality— 
Esme  Stuart  and  Cobham,    ...... 

VOL.  IT.  a 



Genevan  Bible  in  Scotland — "  Common  Band"  of  Protestant  Nobles — Scottish 
Scholars  who  might  have  taken  part  in  Biblical  Revision—  Publication  of 
Genevan  Version  and  First  General  Assembly  of  the  Kirk — First  Edition 
printed  in  Scotland — Measures  for  increasing  its  Circulation — English  of 
the  South  intelligible  to  Scottish  Population — Overture  for  Revision  of 
Genevan  Version,  .......  39 


Genevan  the  favourite  Volume  in  Scottish  Families — Laud's  Dislike  to  it — 
Attacks  upon  it  by  Howson  and  Martin — Priest  Hamilton  and  his 
Attack  no 



Early  Part  of  Elizabeth's  Reign  beset  with  Difficulties — Agnes  Prest  and  Joan 
Waste — Elizabeth's  R,egard  for  the  Scriptures — Her  Eagerness  for  Uni 
formity — Different  Bibles  in  Circulation — Parker  and  the  Proposal  for 
another  Revision  —  His  Coadjutors — The  Various  Translators— Bible 
Finished  and  Presented  to  the  Queen — Parker  on  Affectionate  Terms  with 
Fellow- Workers,  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  59 


Description  of  First  Edition  of  Bishops'  Bible — Parker's  Preface — No  Royal 
Confirmation — Rebellion  of  Northern  Earls — Critical  Remarks  by  Law 
rence — New  Testament  Revised — Collation  of  Three  Versions  in  Ezekiel 
and  Matthew — Notes — Burleigh's  Portrait — Price,  .  .  76 



Specimens  of  Literal  Translations — Supplements — More  Stately  than  Precise — 
Want  of  Uniformity — The  Great  Bible  superseded — Three  Versions  in 
Circulation — Martin's  Attack  and  Fulke's  Defence,  .  .  95 



This  Version  taken  from  the  Vulgate — Account  of  the  Vulgate — The  Church  of 
Rome — Its  Reluctance  to  give  Vernacular  Versions  to  the  People — 
Catholic  Refugees  in  Reign  of  Elizabeth — Seminary  at  Douai — New 
Testament  Translated  at  Rheims — Martin  and  Allen — Preface  to  New 
Testament — Motives  for  Translating — Method  of  Translation — Close 
Adherence  to  Latin  Text — -Answers  of  Fulke  and  Cart\vright — Reasons  for 
Translating  from  Vulgate — Polemical  Notes — Translated  with  the  Greek 
Text  before  them — Latinized  English — Good  Renderings — Use  of  the 
Genevan  and  the  Bishops' — Uniformity — Rheims  New  Testament  appealed 
to  by  Mary,  Queen  of  Scots,  on  the  Evening  before  her  Execution,  .  107 


Old  Testament  published  at  Douai — Described — Preface  sets  forth  Impedi 
ments —  Gives  Reasons  for  Translating  from  Latin  Text — For  Strictness  in 
Translating  some  Words — Obscure  Renderings,  especially  in  Psalter — 
Idiomatic  Renderings — Romish  Notes — Controversy  between  Fulke  and 
Martin — Whitgift  and  Cartwright — Table  of  Protestant  Errors — Second 
Edition — Changes  in  subsequent  Versions — Challoner  and  Lingard— 
Theological  Nomenclature,  .  .  .  .  .  .137 

viii  CONTENTS. 



King  James — Strange  Incidents  of  Infantine  Years — His  Character  presents  a 
species  of  Dualism — Belief  in  Kingly  Supremacy — Early  Knowledge  of 
Scripture — Fondness  for  Theological  Discussion — Intolerance — Changes  of 
Opinion — Flatteries  heaped  upon  him — The  Millenary  .Petition — Hampton 
Court  Conference — Dr.  Ileynolds — The  King  and  the  Genevan  Notes — 
New  Translation  agreed  to — Bancroft's  Correspondence  with  regard  to  it — 
Profusion  and  Poverty  of  the  King — The  Board  of  Revisers — Short  Notices 
— Rules  laid  down  for  the  Revision — Revision  not  Translation — Their  own 
Arguments  for  Revision — Their  Commendation  of  Scripture  Study — Com 
pletion  of  the  Work — Published — Dedication  to  the  King — The  Clause, 
"Appointed  to  be  read  in  Churches" — Galloway,  the  Pioyal  Chaplain — 
Fuller's  Eulogy  of  the  New  Bible,  .  .  .  .  .159 


Constant  Use  of  Hebrew  and  Greek  Originals — Hebrew  Text — Greek  Text — 
Stephens  and  Beza — Marginal  Notes — No  Historical  Notes — Help  from 
various  Translations— Other  Helps — Selden's  Glimpse  into  their  Method  of 
Procedure — Alternative  Renderings  in  Margin — Influence  of  Bishops' — 
Of  Earlier  Versions — Care  in  Choice  of  Words — Excellence  of  English 
Style  —  Hebrew  Phrases  —  Ingenious  Turns  of  Diction  —  The  English 
specially  Saxon — Terms  occurring  only  once — License  taken  in  Trans 
lating  the  Apocrypha— Simplicity,  Clearness,  and  Harmony — Univer 
sality  of  Adaptation — The  English  of  the  Beginning  of  the  Seventeenth 
Century,  ......  208 


Different  Fate  of  Words  in  Margin  and  in  Text— Words  and  Phrases  in  Con 
tents  of  Chapters  which  have  wholly  or  nearly  passed  away — Obsolete 
Words  in  Text— Words  changed  in  Meaning — Archaisms — Words  which 



have  only  their  Latin  Meaning — Peculiar  Phrases  and  Syntax — Varying 
Forms — Old  Use  of  "  His  "  — Variations  in  Spelling — Various  Pecu 
liarities,  ....  242 


Hostility  to  their  Version  anticipated  by  Translators — Charges  of  Broughton, 
Gell,  and  Ward — "Witchcraft" — "God  Save  the  King" — Ecclesiastical 
Predilection — Doctrinal  Influence — Anti-Popish  Leanings — How  far  Beza 
was  followed,  .  2G4 


Supplemental  Words — Italics — Supplements  often  unnecessary — Sometimes 
unwarranted — Headings  of  Chapters  made  by  Command — Some  Particu 
lars  regarding,  .......  280 


The  Barkers  and  the  Printing  of  Authorized  Version — Bibliography — First 
Editions  brought  into  Correspondence  with  the  Bishops'  and  the  Genevan 
— Specimens  of  Inaccuracy  in  Early  Issues — Various  Editions — Edition  of 
Buck  and  Daniel  — Kilburne  on  the  Errors  in  Editions  of  Hill  and  Field — 
Field's  Pearl  Bible — Assembly's  Annotations — Lightfoot  on  the  Apocrypha 
— Editions  of  Blayney  and  Others — American  Revised  Edition — Punctua 
tion  and  Paragraph  Marks,  ......  288 


Scotland  never  had  any  Indigenous  Translation — Content  to  receive  its  Bible 
from  Abroad  and  especially  from  England — Authorized  Version  gradually 
made  its  way  in  Scotland — Editions  Printed  in  that  Country — Anderson's 
Patent — Numerous  and  Gross  Blunders  in  Widow  Anderson's  Bibles — And 
in  those  of  her  Successors — James  Watson's  Bibles— Row's  Proposals  for 
Revision — Bible  Monopoly  in  Scotland — The  "Sweet  Singers"  and  their 
Rejection  of  Authorized  Version  —  Superstitious  L"se  of  the  Bible  — 
Misquotations — Number  of  Chapters,  Verses,  Words,  and  Letters  in 
Bible — Wonderful  and  Suggestive  History  of  English  Bible.  .  311 

CON  TEN  Iti. 



The  Bible  at  once  Divine  and  Human — Hostility  to  Settlement  of  the  Text — 
Labours  of  Origen,  Jerome,  and  Robert  Stephens — Walton  and  Owen — 
Bengel,  Mill,  and  Bentley — Various  Scholars  on  the  Desirableness  of 
Revision  of  Authorized  Version — The  Long  Parliament  and  Bill  for 
Revision — Changes  in  the  Original  Text  call  for  Revision  of  the  Version 
— Nature  of  a  True  Revision — Futility  of  Objections — Xo  Ground  for 
Alarm — Strange  Specimens  of  Revision  by  Scarlett  and  Heinfetter — 
Other  Examples  of  Revision — Works  on  Revision — Tischendorf  and 
Tregelles.  ........  337 


Defects  of  Authorized  Version — Ambiguities — Inexact  Renderings — Claiises 
Liable  to  be  Misunderstood — Misleading  Punctuation — Difficult  Idioms 
and  Technical  Words.  365 


Want  of  Uniformity — Variation  so  far  Allowable  —  Terms  Characteristic 
of  a  Divine  Revelation  of  Love  to  a  Sinful  World — 'Variations  which 
are  Unnecessary — Capricious — Prejudicial — Motives  Inducing — "  Parable," 
"  Love" — "  Straightway  "  in  Mark — Connection  weakened  by  Variation — 
Example  in  St.  Paul's  Address  at  Athens-^-His  Repeated  Use  of  the  Same 
Term  not  brought  out — Other  Examples  of  Variation.  .  .  383 


One  English  Term  represents  several  Greek  Words — Distinctions  thereby 
Effaced— Several  Examples — Crown,  People,  Godhead,  True,  Temple, 
Life — John  xxi,  15-17 — New  Light  —  Clusters  of  Instances  —  Child, 
Beasts,  Die  and  Dead,  World,  Will,  Weep,  Servant,  Judge,  Wash, 
Remission,  Repent,  Hell — Devil  and  Demon — Miracle,  Sign,  Wonder — 
Anacolouthon  and  Paronomasia.  416 



The  Greek  Article— Inconsistencies  of  Translators  in  dealing  with — Before 
the  Name  Christ — Some  Point  or  Specialty  lost  by  its  Omission  — 
Wrongly  Inserted — Overpressed.  ....  437 


The  Greek  Tenses — Aorist  misrendered  by  Perfect — Perfect  by  Present — 
Perfect  and  Pluperfect — Epistle  to  Hebrews  characterized  by  use  of 
Perfect — Imperfect  not  correctly  Rendered — Mark  and  the  Use  of  the 
Present — Greek  Verbs  corresponding  to  "become"  and  "be"  con 
founded.  ........  443 


Prepositions — Misrendering  of  tv — oid — tk — IK  and  «TTO — v-n-ip  and  iript — iiri  and 
Trio's — The  conjunctions  oVcos  and  'tva.  ....  458 


Proper  Names — Most  Familiar  Forms  employed — Jehovah — Proper  Names 
variously  spelled — Official  Names — Chaldee  Names.  .  .  466 


Topography  and  Productions  of  Palestine — The  Land  illustrates  the  Book — 
Terms  belonging  to  Botany  and  Zoology  misrendered — Specific  Topo 
graphical  Terms  —  Measures,  Weights,  and  Coins  —  Qualifications  of  a 
Translator — Hallam  and  Newman  on  the  English  of  the  Authorized 
Version — Brief  Account  of  the  Revision  at  present  in  progress.  .  472 

INDEX,    .........  485 


Page    39,  line  9  from  top,  for  "  Bible,"  read  "  Bibles." 
„     171,  headline,  for  "  Millenary  Position,"  read  "  Millenary  Petition. 
,,    328,  line  8  from  top,  for  "  part  of  fat  things,"  read  "  feast  of  fat  things." 
,,    342,  line  G  from  bottom, /or  "  exposition,"  read  "  exposure." 



VOL.    II. 

"  BEZA  also,  in  his  Epistle  to  the  prince  off  condy  aiid  nobles  of  France 
hathe  these  wordes.  Seinge  then  all  theis  controuersies  muste  be  discussed 
by  Goddes  worde,  I  suppose  that  this  thinge  ought  chiefly  to  be  prouided  for, 
that  seinge  all  canot  haue  the  knowledge  to  vnderstand  the  worde  off  God 
in  theis  peculiar  languages,  the  Hebrue  and  the  greek  (whiche  were  to  be 
wished)  that  there  shulde  be  some  true  and  apte  translation  of  the  olde  and 
newe  testamete  made  the  whiche  diuers  haue  already  labored  to  bringe  to 
passe,  but  yet  no  man  hathe  hitherto  sufficiently  performed  it.  For  the 
olde  translation  (whose  so  euer  it  is)  although  it  ought  not  to  be  con 
demned,  yet  is  it  founde  bothe  obscure  vnperfect  and  superfluous  and  also 
false  in  many  places,  to  speake  nothinge  off  an  infinite  variete  off  the  copies. 
The  whiche  texte  therfore  many  lerned  and  godly  men  haue  laboured  to 
amende,  but  not  with  like  successe.  And  yet  howe  necessary  a  thinge  this 
is,  who  so  euer  shall  reade  those  moste  lerned  wryters  off  the  gretiaus,  and 
shall  compare  their  interpretations  (whiche  are  manie  times  farr  from  the 
purpos)  with  the  Hebrue  veritie,  he  shall  coufesse  it  with  great  sorowe. 

"  And  the  same  euill  was  not  onely  hurtef  ull  aniouge  the  latten  writers, 
but  also  the  ignorance  off  the  greeke  tonge  wherwith  many  off  them  were 
troubled,  whiles  they  did  depend  off  the  common  translation,  they  oftimes 
seeke  a  knott  in  a  rushe  (according  to  the  olde  prouerbe)  and  fell  into  moste 
fowle  errors. 

"  Here  might  I  touche  a  thinge  parhapp  worthe  the  hearinge  yff  hope 
were  off  redresse,  whiche  is,  that  yff  the  lerned  were  but  one  halff  so  earneste, 
zelous,  and  carefull,  to  se  that  the  holy  Scriptures  in  this  Eealme  might  be 
faithfully  translated  and  trulye  corrected,  as  they  are  many  tymes  abowte 
matters  nothinge  so  necessarie  :  I  woulde  not  dowte  to  saie  that  they 
shulde  do  vnto  god  an  excellent  peece  off  seruice, 

"  For  the  moste  parte  off  oure  Englishe  Bibles  are  so  ill  translated  (as  the 
lerned  report)  and  so  falsely  printed  (as  the  simple  maie  find)  that  suche 
had  nede  to  be  verie  well  acquainted  with  scripture,  as  in  many  places 
shulde  get  owte  the  true  meaninge  and  sence." 

Troubles  begun  at  Frankfort, 


A  S  the  storm  did  not  burst  for  some  time  after  the  accession 
of  Mary  Tudor,  a  crowd  of  persons,  to  the  number  of 
eight  hundred,  who  saw  the  clouds  gathering,  made  their 
immediate  escape  to  the  Continent,  and  found  refuge  at  Emb- 
den,  Wesel,  Strasburg,  Worms,  Berne,  Basle,  Zurich,  and 
Frankfort.  Bishop  Gardyner's  character  and  antecedents  were 
well  known ;  and  he  told  Renard,  the  Spanish  Ambassador, 
with  quiet  complacency,  that  "  a  few  messages  asking  some  of 
them  to  visit  him  at  his  house  had  given  them  wings."  Among 
the  refugees  were  saintly  and  learned  men — five  bishops,  five 
deans,  fifty  eminent  divines,  and  also  several  persons  of  high 
•social  distinction — six  knights,  three  ladies  of  title — one  of  them 
the  Duchess  of  Norfolk,  the  queen's  cousin.  Many  foreigners 
who  had  come  to  England  in  Edward's  reign  also  fled  away. 
Among  them  was  the  uncle  of  the  King  of  Poland,  the  well 
known  John  a  Lasco,  who  obtained  liberty  from  the  Queen 
to  leave  the  country.  Under  Edward  VI  he  had  the  pastoral 
charge  of  a  congregation  of  foreigners  that  met  in  the  church 
of  the  Austin  Friars.  Many  states  and  free  cities  assisted 
the  exiles,  for  the  spirit  of  brother-love,  rising  above  terri 
torial  barriers,  was  fresh,  and  unwearied  in  its  manifestations.1 
Nationality  was  forgotten,  and  the  sufferings  of  the  poor 
strangers  were  pitied,  and  relieved  with  unstinted  hand. 
They  enjoyed  rest  and  peaceful  worship  for  a  brief  season ;  but 
what  were  significantly  called  the  "  Troubles  "  soon  sprang  up 

1  Grafton,  the  printer  of  the  Great  his  "  Chronicle,"  and  Foxe  was  at 
Bible,  was  among  the  exiles,  and  he  Basle,  engaged  on  his  "Acts  and 
employed  his  leisure  in  composing  Monuments." 


at  Frankfort.  The  question  of  clerical  vestments  and  of  church 
service  vexed  them — some  of  them  being  of  freer  opinions, 
and  others  more  conservative ;  some  being  disposed  to  compro 
mise,  and  others  to  hold  fast  by  the  Prayer  Book  of  Edward 
VI.  Knox  was  not  hostile  to  read  prayers  in  themselves,  for 
he  helped  to  compose  a  "  Book  of  Common  Order  "  ;x  but  Cox, 
who  had  been  tutor  to  the  late  king,  was  intolerant  of  all 
modification.  The  controversy  might  surely  have  been  allowed 
to  sleep  among  persons  who  were  living  by  sufferance  and 
charity  in  a  foreign  land,  and  certainly  it  was  not  one  that 
necessitated  an  immediate  solution  in  their  circumstances. 
The  thought  of  so  many  brethren  being  burned  at  home  might 
have  saddened  them  into  mutual  forbearance,  and  gratitude 
for  their  own  escape  might  have  absorbed  many  minor  predi 
lections.  But  both  parties  grew  more  decided  and  passionate, 
and  at  length  "the  contention  was  so  sharp  between  them 
that  they  parted  asunder  one  from  the  other,"  and  the  non- 
conforming  section  removed  to  Geneva. 

This  fair  city,  at  the  outlet  of  Lake  Leman,  girt  with  the 
mighty  mountains,  was  regarded  as  the  citadel  of  Protestantism, 
and  it  held  in  it  the  fate  of  Europe.  Keligion  was  therefore  a 
matter  of  life  and  death  to  its  inhabitants,  who  having  fre 
quently  and  gallantly  defended  themselves  against  surrounding 
enemies,  felt  that  in  fighting  for  Geneva  they  were  upholding 
the  liberties  of  humanity ;  for  they  knew  that  the  triumph  of 
the  Duke  of  Savoy  would  entail  civil  and  ecclesiastical  ruin, 
and  yoke  all  southern  lands  to  ultramontane  despotism.  Their 
theology,  whatever  may  now  be  said  of  it,  exercised  a  mighty 
influence  in  England,  had  an  ennobling  ascendancy  in  Scotland, 
and  has  been  carried  across  the  ocean  to  strengthen  and  sane- 

1  Carefully    reprinted    at    Edin-  prayer  following,    or    such    like "  ; 

burgh  by  Blackwood  &  Sous,  1868,  "  either  in  the  words  following,  or 

under  the  editorship  of  the  Rev.  W.  like  in   effect";    "the  action  thus 

Sprott  and  the  Eev.  Thomas  Leish-  ended,    the  people  sing   the    103rd 

man,  M.A.     One  characteristic  dif-  Psalm,  or  some  other  of  thanksgiv- 

ference  between  it  and  the  English  ing."      See    also    Lorimer's    "  John 

Book  is,  that  the  former  allows  vari-  Knox  and  the  Church  of  England,''' 

utions — "using    after    sermon    this  London,  1875. 

xxxii.]  WHITTINGHAM.  5 

tify  another  great  republic.  A  collection  was  made  in  England, 
through  the  bishops,  for  the  city  of  Geneva  in  1582,  and  in 
1603  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  issued,  with  the  royal  sanc 
tion,  a  proclamation  to  gather  another  gift. 

But  the  "gospellers"  were  not  idle  in  their  picturesque 
retreat,  and  a  revision  of  the  New  Testament  was  soon  taken 
in  hand.  Such  a  work  was  in  harmony  with  the  literary  and 
Biblical  enterprises  of  that  city  of  refuge  under  the  shadow  of 
the  Alps ;  and  Calvin,  Beza,  and  their  colleagues,  shed  a  new 
lustre  on  its  history.  Olivetan,  a  relative  of  Calvin,  had 
already  translated  and  published  a  French  Bible,  and  in  the 
execution  of  the  work  Calvin  had  rendered  him  considerable 
assistance.  An  edition  of  the  New  Testament,  which,  how 
ever,  is  not  a  portion  of  the  Genevan  Bible  proper,  was 
published  in  1557,  on  the  10th  of  June — one  of  the  most 
terrible  months  in  England,  for  between  the  18th  and  22nd 
days  of  that  month  twenty-seven  martyrs  yielded  up  their 

The  editor  of  this  New  Testament  was  William  Whit- 
tingham. 1  William  Whittingham  was  born  in  1524,  in  the 
parish  of  Lanchester,  near  Durham.  He  became  a  com 
moner  of  Brasenose,  Oxford,  about  1540,  and  five  years  after 
wards  a  fellow  of  All  Souls.  According  to  Wood,  he  was,  on 
account  of  his  scholarship,  chosen  one  of  the  senior  students  of 
Christ  Church,  Henry  wishing  to  fill  it  with  the  most  promis 
ing  young  men,  as  had  also  been  the  desire  of  Wolsey.  Whit 
tingham  had  returned  home  from  twelve  years'  foreign  travel 
and  sojourn  a  few  weeks  before  King  Edward's  death.  But 
he  again  left  his  native  land,  and,  with  many  others,  arrived  in 
Frankfort  on  the  27th  of  June,  1554.  Having  gone  to  Geneva 
toward  the  end  of  1555,  he  married  Catherine,  the  sister  of  John 
Calvin.  Whittingham  came  back  to  England  on  the  accession 
of  Elizabeth,  and  was  promoted  in  1563  to  the  deanery  of 
Durham,  which  he  held  for  sixteen  years.  He  had  been  for  a 
period  chief  engineer  and  chaplain  in  the  defence  of  Havre  de 
Grace,  the  general  in  command  being  the  Earl  of  Warwick 

1  Whittingham  distinctly  identi-  of  the  Troubles  begun  at  Frankfort, 
fies  himself  as  the  editor.  Discourse  p.  cxciii,  Petheram,  London,  1846. 


brother  to  the  Earl  of  Leicester  through  whose  influence  he  so 
speedily  obtained  promotion,1  though  he  had  not  been  episco- 
pally  ordained.  He  dealt  roughly  with  some  of  the  monuments 
in  his  cathedral ;  but  his  wife  showed  what  blood  was  in  her, 
when  she  took  "  the  blessed  banner  of  St.  Cuthbert,"  which 
had  once  waved  victorious  on  Flodden  Edge,  and  "  despitefully 
burned  it  in  her  fire,  to  the  open  contempt  and  disgrace  of  all 
sacred  relics." 2 

The  New  Testament  so  speedily  revised,  and  published 
anonymously,  is  the  work  of  one  man,  for  in  the  explanatory 
address  to  the  reader,  he  speaks  uniformly  in  the  first 
person  singular.  His  words  are :  "  To  these  therfore  which 
are  of  the  flocke  of  Christ  which  knowe  their  Father's  wilr 
and  are  affectioned  to  the  trueth,  I  rendre  a  reason  of  nry 
doing  in  few  lines.  First,  as  touching  the  perusing  of  the 
text,  it  was  diligently  reuised  by  the  moste  approued 
Greke  examples,  and  conference  of  translations  in  other 
tonges  as  the  learned  may  easily  iudge,  both  by  the  faithful 
rendering  of  the  sentence,  and  also  by  the  proprietie  of  the 
wordes,  and  perspicuite  of  the  phrase.  Forthermore  that  the 
Reader  might  be  by  all  meanes  profited,  I  haue  deuided  the 
text  into  verses  and  sections,  according  to  the  best  editions  in 
other  langages,  and  also,  as  to  this  day  the  ancient  Greke  copies 
mencion,  it  was  wont  to  be  vsed.  And  because  the  Hebrewe  and 
Greke  phrases,  which  are  strange  to  rendre  in  other  tongues,  and 
also  short,  shulde  not  be  to  harde,  I  haue  sometyme  interpreted 
them  without  any  whit  diminishing  the  grace  of  the  sense,  as. 
our  langage  doth  vse  them,  and  sometime  haue  put  to  that  worde, 
which  lacking  made  the  sentence  obscure,  but  haue  set  it  in 
such  letters  as  may  easily  be  discerned  from  the  common  text. 
As  concerning  the  Annotations,  wherunto  these  letters  a,  b,  c, 
<fcc.,  leade  vs,  I  haue  endeuored  so  to  proffit  all  therby,  that 
both  the  learned  and  others  might  be  holpen :  for  to  my  knol- 

1  See  a  short  Life  of  Whittingham  2  Whittingham  contributed  several 

in  Lorimer's  "  John  Knox  and  the  Psalms  to  the  collection  that  went 

Church  of  England,"  taken  from  the  by  the  name  of  Sternhold  and  Hoj  - 

papers  of  Anthony  a  Wood,  Appen-  kins. 
dix,  p.  303. 


lage  I  haue  omitted  nothing  vnexpoundcd,  \vherby  he  that  is 
any  thing  exercised  in  the  Scriptures  of  God,  might  iustely 
complayn  of  hardenes :  and  also  in  respect  of  them  that  haue 
more  profited  in  the  same,  I  haue  explicat  all  such  places  by 
the  best  learned  interpreters,  as  ether  were  falsely  expounded 
by  some,  or  els  absurdely  applyed  by  others :  so  that  by  this 
meanes  both  they  which  haue  not  abilitie  to  by  the  Com 
mentaries  vpon  the  New  Testament,  and  they  also  which 
haue  not  opportunitie  and  leasure  to  reade  them  be  cause  of 
their  prolixitie  may  vse  this  book  in  steade  therof ;  and  some 
tyme  wher  the  place  is  not  greatly  harde,  I  haue  noted 
with  this  mark  ",  that  which  may  serve  to  the  edification  of 
the  Reader :  adding  also  such  commone  places,  as  may  cause 
him  better  to  take  hede  to  the  doctrine.  Moreouer,  the  diverse 
readings  according  to  diuerse  Greke  copies,  which  stand  but  in 
one  worde,  may  be  known  by  this  note  ",  and  if  the  bookes  do 
alter  in  the  sentence  then  it  is  noted  with  this  starre  *  as 
the  cotations  are.  Last  of  all  remayne  the  arguments  aswel 
they  which  conteyne  the  summe  of  euery  chapter  as  the  other 
which  are  placed  before  the  bookes  and  epistles :  wherof  the 
commoditie  is  so  great,  that  they  may  serue  in  stede  of  a  Com- 
mentarie  to  the  Reader."  There  was  also  prefixed  a  stirring 
and  eloquent  Epistle,  declaring  that  "  Christ  is  the  end  of  the 
lawe,"  by  John  Calvin. 

Many  erroneous  statements  have  been  made  about  this  New 
Testament,  such  as,  that  it  was  'edited  or  prepared  by  a  com 
pany  of  the  exiles — the  theory  of  Lewis,  Newcome,  and  of 
Todd  who  is  in  utter  uncertainty  on  the  matter,  and  like  many 
others,  does  not  distinguish  the  New  Testament  of  1557  from 
that  published  along  with  the  Old  Testament  in  15GO.  Some 
even  have  held  that  this  New  Testament  was  the  first  edition 
of  that  reprinted  in  the  Genevan  Bible  three  years  afterwards. 
Lewis  and  Newcome  in  their  respective  histories,  D'Oyly  and 
Mant  in  their  preface,  C.  Rogers,1  Dean  Hook,2  and  others, 

1  Collation  of  the  principal  English  a  collation,  but  merely  the  printing 

translations  of  the  sacred  Scriptures,  of  some  verses  of  the  older  transla- 

p.  40,  by  Charles  Eogers,   Dundee,  tions  in  parallel  columns. 
1847.     This  book  is  in  no  true  sense        "  Lives    of    the    Archbishops    of 


have  fallen  into  this  error.  But  this  New  Testament  is  quite 
distinct  from  that  of  15 GO — is,  in  fact,  a  different  version.1 
The  Genevan  exiles  regarded  the  New  Testament  of  their 
Bible  as  their  own  completed  and  standard  work,  and  never 
reprinted  Whittingham's  earlier  publication.  In  fact,  the  New 
Testament  was  published  before  the  translation  of  the  Bible 
was  commenced,  being  finished  at  press  on  the  10th  of  June, 
1557.  The  Bible  was  begun  by  January  of  the  following  year, 
and  it  occupied  the  exiles  "for  the  space  of  two  years  and 
more,  day  and  night." 

The    New    Testament    was    in    small    octavo     or    duode 
cimo — 

"  The  Newe  Testament  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  conferred 
diligently  with  the  Greke  and  best  approved  translations.  With 
the  arguments  as  well  before  the  Chapters,  as  for  euery  Boke  and 
Epistle,  also  diuersities  of  readings,  and  moste  profitable  anno 
tations  of  all  harde  places  :  wherunto  is  added  a  copious  Table . 
At  Geneva,  printed  by  Conrad  Badius,  M.D.LVII;"  the  same  words 
forming  the  colophon,  with  the  addition,  "this  x  day  of  June." 
There  is  a  peculiar  engraving  on  the  title-page,  represent 
ing  Time,  with  wings,  scythe,  and  hour  glass,  helping  Truth 
out  of  the  grave,  with  this  motto  on  its  two  sides — "  God 
by  Tyme  restoreth  Truth  and  maketh  her  victorious."  The 
greater  portion  of  the  marginal  notes  of  this  New  Testament 
were  transferred  to  that  of  1560.  Thus,  in  the  first  nine 
chapters  of  Matthew,  out  of  one  hundred  and  thirty -four 
notes,  there  are  only  twenty  not  taken  from  this  earlier 
New  Testament.  For  the  first  time  the  chapters  of  the  New 
Testament  were  divided  into  verses,  with  the  number  prefixed 
to  each ;  and  indeed  they  had  been  already  marked  on  the 
margin  of  Stephen's  Greek  Testament  of  1551,  his  fourth 
edition,  printed  at  Geneva. 2  Supplemented  words  were 

(,'anterbury,  vol.  IV,  new  series,  p.  tion  of  1560  differs  in  twenty-nine 
320.     It  is  a  thankless  task  to  cor-  places  from  that  of  1557. 
rect  inaccuracies,  but  if  any  one  will  l  A  separate  New  Testament,  pub- 
only  collate  a  single  chapter,  such  as  lished  in  1560,  is  a  reprint  of  that  iu 
the  third   chapter  of  Matthew,  he  the  Bible  of  the  same  date, 
will  see  that  in  it  alone  the  transla-  2  Robert  Stephens  introduced  the 

xxxii.]  GENEVAN  BIBLE.  9 

printed  in  italics,  or  in  letters  that  might  be  easily  distin 
guished  from  the  common  text,  in  imitation  of  Minister's 
Old  Testament  of  1534.  There  were  also  clear  pointed  mar 
ginal  notes  that  in  those  days  were  greedily  welcomed, 
especially  such  of  them  as  were  charged  with  theology. 

This  New  Testament  had  been  brought  over  to  England 
before  the  death  of  Queen  Mary;  for  we  find  that  when  John 
Living,  who  had  been  a  priest  at  Auburn,  and  was  under 
hiding  in  London,  was  informed  against,  brought  before 
Bonner's  chancellor,  and  carried  to  the  jailor's  house  in  Pater 
noster  Row,  he  complained  of  being  robbed  there  of  "my  purse, 
my  girdle,  my  psalter,  and  a  New  Testament  of  Geneva." 

The  Genevan  exiles,  having  resolved  to  revise  the  English 
Bible,  braced  themselves  for  their  work,  and  took  hold  of  the 
best  helps  in  their  power.  Their  revision  shows  their  method 
of  procedure,  and  what  versions,  Latin,  German,  and  French, 
they  chiefly  followed.  A  goodly  number  of  scholars  has  some 
times  been  named  as  engaged  in  the  enterprise — Le  Long,  Wood,1 
Todd,  Newcome,  Townley,2  and  Boothroyd,3  mention  John 
Bodleigh,  Miles  Coverdale,  Thomas  Cole,  Anthony  Gilby, 
Christopher  Goodman,  John  Knox,  John  Pullain,  Thomas 
Sampson,  and  William  Whittingham.  But  all  those  nine 
could  not  have  given  themselves  to  the  labour,  or  continued  at 
it  till  it  was  concluded.  Coverdale  was  at  Geneva  only  for  a 
brief  period  after  the  version  had  been  commenced  ;  for  on  the 
12th  November,  1559,  he  was  preaching  in  his  turn  at  Paul's 
Cross,  and  Cole,  Pullain,  and  Bodleigh  came  home  during  the 
same  year.  Knox  went  to  Geneva  in  1554,  and  left  it  in 
November  for  Frankfort.  He  returned  to  Geneva  in  1555, 

numbering  of  the  verses  in  his  edition  2nd  ed.,  Cambridge,  1874.      Eabbi 

of  1551,  as  one  means  of  facilitating  Nathan  had  set  an  example  in  his 

the  preparation    of    a    concordance  Hebrew  Bible.     The  verses  in  the 

which  he  had  planned,  and  Henry  Latin  translation  of  Pagninus  are,  in 

Stephens  had  printed  verse  numbers  the    New    Testament,    short    para- 

in  his  Psalterium  Quincuplex,  1509.  graphs. 

Versus  was  the  Latin  form  of  the  1  Athenae,  2nd  ed.,  p.  194. 

Greek  "stichoi,"  there  being,according  2  Biblical   Literature,   vol.  II,   p. 

to  Dr.  Scrivener,  about  five  stichoi  to  286. 

two  verses.  Plain  Introduction,  p.  65,  3  Introduction,  p.  21. 


and  in  the  winter  of  that  year  came  over  to  Scotland.  Going 
back  once  more  to  Geneva  for  a  brief  period,  he  bade  a  final 
farewell  to  it  in  January,  1559.1  Goodman,  accompanied  by 
Knox's  wife  and  children,  arrived  in  Edinburgh  on  the  20th 
September,  1559.  The  accession  of  Elizabeth  in  November, 
1558,  left  it  open  for  the  exiles  to  come  home,  after  they  heard 
the  good  news,  in  the  following  month.  When  intelligence 
came  that  the  persecutor  had  died — in  their  own  phrase,  that 
"  the  Lord  had  showed  mercy  unto  England  by  the  removal  of 
Queen  Mary  by  death e,  and  placing  the  queen's  majesty  that 
now  is,  in  the  seate,"  the  work  of  revision  was  not  nearly- 
finished,  but  Whittingham,  Gilby,  and  Sampson  remained  to 
carry  it  through.  Thus  Wood  says,  "  Whittingham  with  one 
or  two  more  did  tarry  at  Geneva  a  year  and  a  half  after  Queen 
Elizabeth  came  to  the  crown,  being  resolved  to  go  through  with 
the  work." 2  The  author  of  the  "  History  of  the  Troubles  "  3 
records  that  "the  congregation  (after  that  they  had  rendred 
their  humble  thankes  to  the  magistrates  for  their  great  goodnes 
towards  them)  prepared  themselues  to  depart  sauinge  certeine 
whiche  remained  behinde  the  reste,  to  witt,  to  finishe  the  bible, 
and  the  psalmes  bothe  in  meeter  and  prose,  whiche  were 
already  begon,  at  the  charges  off  suche  as  were  off  most 
habilitie  in  that  congregation.  And  with  what  successe  those 
workes  were  finished  (especially  the  Bible)  I  must  leaue  it  to 
the  ludgementes  off  the  godly  lerned,  who  shulde  bestludge  off 
the  same."  But  it  would  seem  from  the  language  of  their 
preface  that  others  beyond  those  three  gave  assistance  and 
counsel.  The  writer  just  quoted  proceeds,  "  There  is  nothinge 
more  requisite  to  attaine  the  right  and  absolute  knowledge  oft" 
the  doctrine  of  saluation,  wherby  to  resist  all  herisie  and 
falshod,  then  to  haue  the  texte  off  the  Scriptures  faithfully  and 
truly  translated,  the  consideration  wheroff  moued  them  with 

1  John  Knox  had  two  sons  born  "  Annals,  vol.  I,  p.  151. 

to     him    during  his    residence     in  3  Whittingham  was  very  probably 

Geneva.    At  the  baptism  of  the  first,  the  author.    Goodman  was  first  Pro- 

Whittingham  was  godfather;  and  at  testant  Professor  of  Divinity  at  St. 

the  baptism  of  the  second,  Bishop  Andrews. 
Miles  Coverdale  was  godfather. 

xxxii.]  ITS  REVISERS.  \\ 

one  assent  to  requeste  2  off  their  brethern,  to  witt,  Caluin  and 
Beza,  efsonnes  to  peruse  the  same  notwithstandinge  their 
former  trauells." 

Gilby  on  his  return  became  rector  of  Ashby-de-la-Zouch, 
the  gift  of  the  Earl  of  Huntington.  He  wrote  a  Commen 
tary  on  Micah  and  some  others  of  the  Minor  Prophets. 
Sampson,  who  is  said  by  Wood  to  have  been  the  means 
of  converting  Bradford  the  martyr,  was  offered  the  see  of 
Norwich  which  he  declined ;  and  in  15G1  he  became  Dean 
of  Christ's  Church,  Oxford,  but  was  removed  in  15G4,  on 
account  of  his  refusing  to  wear  the  vestments.  In  September, 
1570,  he  was  collated  to  the  prebend  of  St.  Pancras  in  St. 
Paul's — the  stall  of  Ridley  and  Rogers  in  former  days. 
Sampson  was  noted  as  a  very  able  man.  In  a  recommenda 
tion  to  the  queen  on  his  behalf  it  is  said  "  that  it  is  doubtful 
whether  he  is  a  greater  linguist,  or  a  more  complete  scholar 
and  profound  divine."  Native  scholars  were  also  engaged 
on  the  actual  work,  for  they  seized  the  "  great  opportunity 
and  occasion  which  God  presented  unto  us  in  this  church  by 
reason  of  so  many  godly  and  learned  men,  and  such  diversities 
of  translations  in  divers  tongues."  They  were  urged  by  many 
"  who  put  them  on  this  work  by  their  earnest  desire  and 
exhortation,"  and  they  were  told  "  not  to  spare  any  charge  for 
the  furtherance  of  such  a  benefit  and  favour  of  God  towards  his 
church."  The  Bible  was  finished  and  published  in  April,  15GO, 
with  the  following  title  : — 

"  The  Bible  and  Holy  Scriptures  conteyned  in  the  Olde 
and  Newe  Testament,  translated  according  to  the  Ebrue  and 
Greeke,  and  conferred  with  the  best  translations  in  divers 
language.  With  most  profitable  annotations  upon  all  the 
hard  places,  and  other  things  of  great  import,  as  may 
appear  in  the  epistle  to  the  reader.  At  Geneva,  printed  by 
Rouland  Hall,  MDLX.1  The  Newe  Testament  of  our  Lord 
Jesus  Christ  conferred  diligently  with  the  Greke  and  best 
approved  translations  in  divers  languages,  &c." 

1  The  printer  was  himself  a  re-     press,    among  others,   in   1560    the 
fngee  from  England,  and  after  his     Scottish  Confession  of  Faith, 
return  many  books  issued  from  his 


The  woodcut  in  botli  titles  is  the  passage  of  the  Hebrews 
through  the  Red  Sea — the  motto  above  and  below  being 
Exodus  xiii,  13,  divided,  and  that  on  the  sides  similarly 
halved  is  Ps.  xxxiv,  19.  There  are  several  "pictures"  and 
maps  interspersed  through  the  volume.  The  Apocrypha  has 
few  marginal  notes. 

The  Bible  was  dedicated  to  Queen  Elizabeth  in  simple  and 
vigorous  language,  without  adulation  or  the  cant  of  loyalty,  and 
it  thus  addresses  her  Majesty :  "  The  eyes  of  all  that  fear  God 
in  all  places  behold  your  countries,  as  an  example  to  all  that 
believe,  and  the  prayers  of  all  the  godly  at  all  times  are  directed 
to  God  for  the  preservation  of  your  majesty.  For,  considering 
God's  wonderful  mercies  towards  you  at  all  seasons,  who  hath 
pulled  you  out  of  the  mouth  of  lions,  and  how  that  from  your 
youth  you  have  been  brought  up  in  the  Holy  Scriptures,  the 
hope  of  all  men  is  so  increased  that  they  cannot  but  look  that 
God  should  bring  to  pass  some  wonderful  work  by  your  grace 
to  the  universal  comfort  of  his  Church.  This  Lord  of  Lords 
and  King  of  Kings  who  hath  ever  defended  his,  strengthen, 
comfort,  and  preserve  your  majesty,  that  you  may  be  able  to 
build  up  the  ruins  of  God's  house  to  His  glory,  the  discharge  of 
your  conscience,  and '  to  the  comfort  of  all  them  that  love  the 
coming  of  Christ  Jesus  our  Lord.  .  .  ."  Yet  these  men, 
exiles  themselves  suffering  from  Popish  persecution,  tell  the 
queen  to  unsheath  the  sword  against  the  Papists,  and  "  utterly 
to  abolish  idolatry ;  to  root  out,  cut  down,  these  weeds  and 
impediments.  ...  in  imitation  of  the  noble  Josias  who 
destroyed  not  only  their  idols  and  appurtenances,  but  also 
burnt  the  priests'  bones  upon  their  altars,  and  put  to  death  the 
false  prophets  and  sorcerers  .  .  .  yea,  and  in  the  days  of 
King  Asa,  it  was  enacted  that  whosoever  would  not  seek  the 
Lord  God  of  Israel  should  be  slain,  whether  he  were  small  or 
great,  man  or  woman."  Then  followed  an  epistle :  "  To  our 
beloved  in  the  Lord,  the  brethren  of  England,  Scotland,  and 
Ireland.  Now,  for  as  much  as  this  thing  (progress  in  a  holy 
life)  is  chiefly  attained  by  the  knowledge  and  practising  of  the 
Word  of  God  (which  is  the  light  to  our  paths,  the  key  of  the 
kingdom  of  heaven,  our  comfort  in  affliction,  our  shield  and 


sword  against  Satan,  the  school  of  all  wisdom,  the  glass 
wherein  we  behold  God's  face,  the  testimony  of  his  favour  and 
the  only  food  and  nourishment  of  our  souls),  we  thought  we 
could  bestow  our  labours  and  study  in  nothing  which  could  be 
more  acceptable  to  God,  and  comfortable  to  his  Church,  than  in 
the  translating  of  the  Scriptures  into  our  native  tongue ;  the 
which  thing,  albeit  that  others  heretofore  have  endeavoured  to 
achieve ;  yet,  considering  the  infancy  of  those  times,  and  im 
perfect  knowledge  of  the  tongues,  in  respect  of  this  ripe  age 
and  clear  light  which  God  hath  now  revealed,  the  translations 
required  greatly  to  be  perused  and  reformed." 

"To  the  Christian  Reader,"  they  describe  their  work:  "Now 
as  we  haue  chiefly  obserued  the  sense,  &  laboured  always  to 
restore  it  to  all  integritie:  so  haue  we  most  reuerently  kept  the 
proprietie  of  the  words,  considering  that  the  Apostle  who  spake 
&  wrote  to  the  Gentiles  in  the  Greeke  tongue,  rather  constrained 
them  to  the  liuely  phrase  of  the  Ebrewe,  then  enterprised  farre 
by  mollifying  their  language  to  speake  as  the  Gentiles  did.  And 
for  this  &  other  causes  we  haue  in  many  places  reserued  the 
Ebrew  phrases,  notwithstanding  that  they  may  seeme  some 
what  hard  in  their  eares  that  are  not  well  practised,  &  also 
delight  in  the  sweet  sounding  phrases  of  the  Holy  Scriptures. 
Yet  lest  either  the  simple  should  be  discouraged,  or  the 
malicious  haue  any  occasion  of  iust  cauillation,  seeing  some 
translations  reade  after  one  sort,  &  some  after  another,  whereas 
all  may  serue  to  good  purpose  &  edification,  we  haue  in  the 
margent  noted  that  diuersitie  of  speech  or  reading  which  may 
also  seeme  agreeable  to  the  minde  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  &: 
proper  for  our  language  with  this  marke  ||.  Againe,  whereas 
the  Ebrewe  speech  seemed  hardly  to  agree  with  ours,  we  haue 
noted  it  in  the  margent  after  this  sort  J,  vsing  that  which  was 
more  intelligible.  And  albeit  that  many  of  the  Ebrew  names 
be  altered  from  the  old  text,  &  restored  to  the  true  writing  &: 
first  originall,  whereof  they  haue  their  signification  yet  in  the 
vsuall  names,  little  is  changed  for  feare  of  troubling  the  simple 
readers.  Moreouer,  whereas  the  necessitie  of  the  sentence 
required  any  thing  to  be  added  (for  such  is  the  grace  &  proprietk' 
of  the  Ebrewe  &  Greeke  tongues  that  it  cannot  but  either  03- 


circumlocution  or  by  adding  the  verbe  or  some  word,  be  vnder- 
stood  of  them  that  are  not  well  practised  therein)  wee  haue 
put  it  in  the  text  with  another  kinde  of  letter,  that  it  may 
easily  bee  discerned  from  the  common  letter.     As  touching  the 
diuision  of  the  verses,  we  haue  folowed  the  Ebrew  examples 
which  haue  so  euen  from  the  beginning  distinguished  them. 
Which  thing  as  it  is  most  profitable  for  memorie,  so  doth  it 
agree  with  the  best  translations,  &  is  most  easie  to  finde  out 
both  by  the  best  Concordances,  &  also  by  the  quotations  which 
we   haue   diligently   herein    perused   &   set   forth   by   this  *. 
Besides  this,  the  principall  matters  are  noted  and  distinguished 
by  this  marke  IT.     Yea,  &  the  arguments  both  for  the  booke  & 
for  the  chapters  with  the  number  of  the  verse  are  added,  that 
by  all  means  the  reader  might  be  holpen.     For  the  which  cause 
also  we  haue  set  ouer  the  head  of  every  page  some  notable 
worde  or  sentence  which   may  greatly  further  as    well    for 
memorie  as  for  the  chiefe  point  of  the  page.     And  considering 
how  hard  a  thing  it  is  to  understand  the  Holy  Scriptures,  & 
what  errors,  sects,  &  heresies  grow  dayly  for  lacke  of  the  true 
knowledge  thereof,   &   how   many   are   discouraged    (as  they 
portend)  because  they  cannot  attaine  to  the  true  &  simple 
meaning  of  the  same,  we  haue  also  indeuoured  both  by  the 
diligent  reading  of  the  best  commentaries,  &  also  by  the  con 
ference  with  the  godly  &  learned  brethren,  to  gather  briefe 
annotations  vpon  all  the  hard  places,  as  well  for  the  vnderstand- 
ing  of  such  words  as  are  obscure,  &  for  the  declaration  of  the 
text,  as  for  the  application  of  the  same,  as  may  most  appertaine 
to  God's  glory,  &  the  edification  of  his  Church.     Finally,  that 
nothing  might  lacke  which  might  be  bought  by  labours,  for  the 
increase  of  knowledge  &  furtherance  of  God's  glory,  there  are 
adioyned  two  most  profitable  tables,  the  one  seruing  for  the 
interpretation  of  the  Ebrewe  names  :  &  the  other  containing  all 
the  chiefe  &  principal  matters  of  the  whole  Bible  :  so  that 
nothing  (as  we  trust)  that  any  could  iustly  desire  is  omitted." 

Many  things  about  this  edition  gave  it  immediate,  wide,  and 
lasting  popularity.  It  was  printed  in  Roman  characters,  with 
division  into  chapters  and  verses,  as  in  the  previous  New 
Testament.  It  was  not  a  heavy,  unhandy  folio  like  the  editions 

xxxii.]  BREECHES  BIBLE.  J5 

of  Coverdale,  Rogers,  or  the  Great  Bible  ;  but  a  moderate  and 
manageable  quarto.  Its  marginal  notes  were  a  kind  of 
running  comment — vigorous  and  lucid,  dogmatic  and  prac 
tical,  presenting  such  aspects  of  truth  and  duty  as  were 
then  all  but  universally  prized,  and  such  political  lessons 
as  the  History  of  England  so  naturally  shaped  and  sug 
gested.  It  became  at  once  the  people's  Book  in  England  and 
Scotland,  and  it  held  its  place  not  only  during  the  time  of  the 
Bishops'  Bible,  but  even  against  the  present  Authorized  Version 
for  at  least  thirty  years.  It  was  the  first  Bible  ever  printed 
in  Scotland  (1576-79),  and  it  was  the  cherished  volume  in  all 
Covenanting  and  Puritan  households.  And  it  was  entitled  to 
this  pre-eminence  as  a  learned  and  cautious  revision. 

The  Genevan  version  is  often  called  the  "Breeches  Bible,"  from 
its  rendering  of  Gen.  iii,  7 — "  They  sewed  fig  leaves  together, 
and  made  themselves  breeches."  The  translation  "  breeches  " 
is  not,  however,  peculiar  to  the  Genevan,  for  it  is  the  transla 
tion  of  "perizomata"  in  both  the  Wycliffite  versions.  The  term 
occurs  afterwards  in  the  "  Golden  Legende  " — that  is,  portions 
of  the  historical  books  of  Scripture,  translated  and  printed  by 
Caxton,  1503— "And  thenne  they  toke  fygge  levys,  &  sewed 
them  togyder  for  to  cover  their  membres  in  the  manner  of 
breches."  *• 

1  Mr.  Blunt  says,  "  Sonte  editions  in  tall  and  unwieldy  folio,  printed 
of  the  Geneva  Bible  are  called  the  by  Basket,  Oxford,  1717.  The  error 
Vinegar  Bible,  from  a  misprint  of  occurs  in  the  running  title  at  Luke 
vinegar  for  vineyard."  But  the  so-  xxii,  "  parable  of  the  vinegar," 
called  Vinegar  Bible  is  only  an  instead  of  "parable  of  the  vine- 
edition  of  the  Authorized  Version,  yard." 


Genevan  New  Testament  of  1557  is  a  revision  of 
Tyndale's  version  collated  with  the  Great  Bible.  The 
work  was  carefully  done,  but  without  due  leisure.  The 
influence  of  Beza  is  perceptible,  his  Latin  version  having  been 
published  in  1556.  It  usually  follows  Tyndale  in  the  basis  of 
the  version  or  in  form  and  phrase,  and  Tyndale  is  also  the 
foundation  of  the  New  Testament  of  the  Great  Bible.  It  often 
agrees  with  him  against  the  Great  Bible.  Thus,  in  the  first 
chapter  of  Galatians  : — 



10.  "  Preach  I  now  man's  doctrine  or  God's?"  after  Tyndale — the 

Great  Bible  having,  "  Do  I  now  persuade  men  or  God?"- 

"  speak  nnto  men,"  ed.  1539.     The  Genevan,  after  Tyndale, 

omits  the  "  hitherto  "  of  the  Great  Bible. 
19.   The  Great  Bible  has,   "  Other  of  the  apostles  saw  I  none  "  ;  the 

Genevan,  following  Tyndale,  has  "  no  nother  of  the  apostles 

sawe  I." 
21.  The  Great  Bible  has,  "They  glorified  God  in  me,"  the  correct 

rendering;  but  the  Genevan  "for  me"  is  based  on  Tyndale's 

"  on  my  behalfe." 

In  the  same  chapter  the  Genevan  follows  the  Great  Bible  in 
the  following  places  as  against  Tyndale  :— 

4.   "  according  to  the  will  of  God"  ;  Tvndale,  "  thorow  the  will  of 

O  J  *• 


9.   "  as  we  sayde  before  "  ;  Tyndale,  "  as  I  saidde  before." 
12.   "but   by  the  revelation  of  Jesus    Christe";   Tyndale,   "but 
received  it  bv." 


Though  the  translation  follows  Tyndale  generally  as  against 
the  Great  Bible,  it  sometimes  differs  from  both,  and  is  often 
led  by  Beza.  Thus  again,  Galatians,  chap,  i  : — 


2.   " unto  the  churches  in  Galatia"1;  "congregations"  being  the 
rendering  in  Tyndale  and  in  the  Great  Bible. 

13.  "the  Church  of  God,"2  Tyndale  and  the  Great  Bible  having 

"  congregation,"  as  in  verse  2.  The  word  "  church,"  which 
has  given  rise  to  so  much  dispute  about  its  meaning,  rights, 
and  powers,  was  thus  brought  in  by  the  puritan  revisers,  and 
was  naturally  preserved  both  in  the  Bishops'  and  in  the 
Authorized  Version. 
"  extremely  "  3 ;  Tyndale  and  Great  Bible,  "  beyond  measure." 

14.  "  traditions  received  of  my  father"4 — Tyndale  and  Great  Bible, 

"  traditions  of  the  elders." 
16.   "to  reveal  his  Son  to  me"5;  Tyndale  and  the  Great  Bible, 

"  for  to  declare  his  Son  by  me." 
20.  No  initial  particle  in  Tyndale  and  the  Great  Bible — the  "now" 

of  the  Genevan  (1560)  perhaps  representing  autem,  Beza. 
22.  "  They  heard  only  some  say  that  he  " 6 ;  Tyndale  and  the  Great 

Bible,  "  they  heard  only  that  he." 

The  same  chapter  in  the  Bible  of  1560  has  other  changes, 
making  it  yet  a  better  and  a  more  literal  translation — many  of 
the  changes  being  suggested  by  Beza. 


1.   "  which  hath  raysed  him  from  the  dead  "  7 ;  Tyndale,  the  Great 

Bible,  and  Genevan,  1557,  "  raysed  hym  from  death." 
4.   "  which  gave  him  selfe  for  oure  sinnes,  that  he  might  deliver 

us"8;  Tyndale  and  Genevan  of  1557  having,  "to  deliver 

6.   "so  soon  .  .   .  from  him  that  had  called  you,"  Genevan,  1560; 

"  forsaking  him  that  had  called  you,"  Genevan,  1557. 
9.   "  let  him  be  accursed  "  9 ;  Tyndale,  "  hold  him  accursed." 

1  Beza,  Ecclesiis.  6  Beza,   Sed  sohim  audierant  qui 

2  Beza,  ecclesiam  Dei.  dicerent. 

3  Beza,  summe.  7  Beza,  ex  mortuis. 

4  Beza,  patribus  meis  acceperam.  8  Beza,  ut  eximeret  nos. 
6  But  Beza  has,  "  in  me."  9  Beza,  anathema  sit. 
VOL.  II.  B 


GALATIANS  I — Continued. 


11.   "  not  after  man  "  ] ;  Tyndale,  Great  Bible,  and  the  Genevan  of 
1557,  "  not  after  the  manner  of  man." 

16.  "I  communicated  not  " 2 ;  Tyndale,  Great  Bible,  and  Genevan, 

1557,  "  I  commened  not  of  the  matter." 

1 7.  "  turned  againe  vnto  Damascus  "  3 ;  Tyndale,  Great  Bible,  and 

Genevan,  1557,  "Came  agayne  to  Damascus,"  an  improve 
ment  on  Beza,  though  not  a  correct  translation. 
In  verses  6  and  15  the  pluperfect  is  wrongly  used  in  both  Genevan 

versions,   "  had  called  you,"  "  had  separated  me  "  ;  Tyndale  and  the 

Great  Bible  being  more  literal. 

Tyndale,  as  we  have  seen,  is  very  careless  about  the  connect 
ing  particles,  and  usually  omits  them  as  yap  in  verse  10, 
8e  in  verse  11,  yap  in  verse  12,  3e  in  verses  19  and  20 ;  the 
Great  Bible  follows  Tyndale  in  all  these  places  but  verse  12  ; 
the  Genevan  of  1557  does  not  translate  the  small  words  in 
verses  11  and  20,  but  that  of  1560  translates  the  particles  in 
all  these  instances,  and  its  translations  are  preserved  in  the 
Authorized  Version.  This  rendering  of  the  particles  is  a 
characteristic  improvement  on  Tyndale. 

The  Genevan  Old  Testament  is  a  decided  advance  on  the 
Great  Bible,  as  two  excerpts,  one  from  the  historical  books  and 
the  other  from  the  prophets,  may  show.  Though  the  version  is 
brought  nearer  to  the  Hebrew,  it  does  not  suffer  in  its 
English  style.  Sampson  was  reputed  to  be  a  good  Hebrew 
scholar,  and  guidance  was  found  in  Pagninus,  Miinster,  and 
Leo  Judse.4 

1  Beza, secundum  hominem.  be  the  real  name.     Leo  Judse  dying 

2  Beza,  non  contuli.  before  the  work  was  concluded,  it 

3  Beza,    ac    denuo    reversus    sum  was  finished   by  Bibliander  (Buch- 
Damascum.  mann),   Cholin,  and    Gualter,     and 

4  The   reference   is  to  the   Latin  published  in  folio  at  Zurich  in  1543, 
version  of  Leo  Judce,  which  is  some-  Pellicanus    being    editor.      Frosch- 
times  called  the   Tigurine  Bible —  over's  arms,  the  tree  and  the  frogs 
Tigurum    being    a   Latin    name    of  — a  punning  use  of  his  own  name — 
Zurich ;  Turicum  is  said,  however,  to  adorn  the  title-page. 








1.  And  the  children  of  Israeli  came 
with  the  whole  multitude 1  vnto 
the  deserte  of  Sin,  in  the  fyrst 
moneth,  &  the  people  abode  at 
Cades ;  and  there  dyed  Mir  lam, 
&  was  buryed  there.  2 
2.  But  there  was  no  water  for  the 
multitude,  4  &  they  gathered  5 
themselves  together  againste 
Moyses  &  Aaron.6 

3.  And  the  people  chode  with  Moyses 

and  spake,  saying  :  woulde  God 
that  we  hadde  perished,  when  our 
brethren  dyed 9  before  the  Lord. 

4.  Why  have  ye  broughte   the  con 

gregation  of  the  Lorde  into  this 
wyldernesse  :  that  bothe  we  & 
oure  cattell  should  dye  in  it  ?  n 

5.  Wherefore  have  ye  made  us  to  go 

out  of  Egypt,  to  bring  us  into 
this  ungracious 13  place,  which  is 
no  place  of  seede,  nor  of  fygges, 
nor  vines,  nor  of  pomegranates, 
neither  is  there  any  water  to 

Then  the  children  of  Israel 
came  with  the  whole  congrega 
tion  3  to  the  desert  of  Ziii  in  the 
first  moneth,  &  the  people  abode 
at  Kadesh,  where  Miriam  dyed 
&  was  buryed  there. 

But  there  was  no  water  for  the 
congregation,7  &  they  assembled 
themselves  against  Moses  and 
&  against  Aaron.8 

And  the  people  chode  with  Moses 
&  spake  saying.  Woulde  God 
we  had  perished  when  our  breth 
ren  dyed 10  before  ye  Lord. 

Why  have  ye  broght  the  congrega- 
cion  of  the  Lord  unto  this  wil 
derness  that  both  we  &  our  cattel 
shulde  dye  there  ?  12 

Wherefore  now  have  ye  made  us  to 
come  up 14  from  Egypt,  to  bring 
us  into  this  miserable  place •> 
which  is  no  place  of  sede,  nor 
figs,  nor  vines,  nor  pomgranates  ? 
neither  is  there  anie  water  to 

3  C  umuni  versa  multitudine,  Miin- 


•  "  Ibi,"  repeated  in  Pagninus  and 
in  Coverdale,  after  Luther  and  the 
"  daselbst "  of  the  Zurich. 

3  Omnis     congregatio,     Pagninus. 
"The  children  of   Israel   even  the 
whole  congregation,"  of  the  Author 
ized  being  according  to  the  Hebrew. 
Universus  scilicet  ccetus,  Leo  Judoe. 

4  Multitudini,  Miinster. 

5  Preserved  in  the   Bishops'  and 

6  Second  "against"  of  the  Hebrew 
not  repeated  in  Coverdale  and  the 
ZUrich  Bible. 

7  Congregationi,  Paguinus. 

8  Contra  .  .  .  contra;  ad  versus  .  .  . 
adversus,  Paguinus,  Leo  Judoe,  &  ac 
cording  to  the  Hebrew. 

9  The   same   verb   is   repeated   in 
Tyndale   (Matthew),  Paguinus,  and 
Leo  Judoe,  after  the  Hebrew ;  so  in 
Luther  and  the  Zurich  version,  and 
in  Coverdale. 

10  In    morte   fratrum    nostrorum, 

11  In  eo,  Miinster. 

12  Ibi,  Pagninus. 

13  Tyndale  (Matthew). 

14  Fecistis  ascendere,  Vulgate;  ef- 
fecistis  ut  ascenderemus,  Leo  Judse. 






NUMBERS  XX — Continued. 


6.  And    Moyses    and     Aaron    went 

from  the  congregation  unto  the 
doore  of  the  tabernacle  of  wyt- 
nesse?  &  fell  upon  theyr  faces 
[&  they 2  cryed  unto  the  Lorde 
&  saide  :  O  Lorde  God,  heare 
the  crye  of  this  people,  &  open 
them  thy  tresure,  even  a  foun- 
tayne  of  ly ving  water  that  they 
maye  bee  satysfied,  &  that  theyr 
murmurying  maye  ceassej  & 
the  glory  of  the  Lorde  appeared 
upon  them. 

7.  And  the  Lord  spake  unto  Moyses, 


8.  Take  the  rodde,  and  gather  thou 

&  thy  brother  Aaron  the  con 
gregation  together,  &  speake 
unto  the  rocke  before  theyr 
eyes  &  it  shall  give  forthe  hys 
water.  And  thou  shalt  brynge 
them  water  out  of  the  rocke,  to 
give  the  company 4  drinke  & 
theyr  beastes 5  also. 

9.  And  Moyses  took  the  rodde  from  7 

before  the  Lorde,  as  he  com 
manded  hym. 

10.  And  Moyses  &"  Aaron  gathered  the 
congregation  together  before  the 
rocke  :  &  Moyses 9  sayde  unto 

Then  Moses  and  Aaron  went  from 
the  assemblie  unto  the  dore  of 
the  Tabernacle  of  the  congrega 
tion  3  &  f el  upon  their  faces  :  & 
the  glorie  of  the  Lord  appeared 
unto  them. 

And  the  Lord  spake  unto  Moses 
saying — 

Take  the  rod,  &  gather  thou  & 
thy  brother  Aaron  the  congrega 
tion  together,  &  speake  ye  unto 
the  rocke  before  their  eies,  &  it 
shall  give  forthe  his  water,  & 
thou  shalt  bring  them  water 
out  of  the  rocke  :  so  thou  shalt 
give 6  the  congregation  &  their 
beastes  drinke. 

Then  Moses  toke  the  rod  from 
before  the  Lord,  as  he  had 
commanded  him.8 

And  Moses  &  Aaron  gathered  ye 
congregacion  together  before  the 
rocke  &  Moses  sayd  unto  them 

1  Septuagint,   fiapTvpiov-  Vulgate, 
foederis;  similaiiy  Minister,  Luther, 
and  the    Zurich,    taking   the  word 
from  a  root  similar  to  the  true  one. 

2  An  interpolation  from  the  Vul 

3  Ecclesise,  Pagninus,  and  accord 
ing  to  the  Hebrew. 

4  Tyndale  (Matthew 

5  Tyndale  (Matthew). 

6  Ut  potum  pra;stes  ccetui,  et  ju- 
mentis  eorum,  Miinster. 

7  Authorized  goes  back  to  Tyndale, 
"  from  before  the  Lord." 

8  Sicut  praeceperat,  Vulgate  ;  jus- 
serat,  Munster. 

9  A  supplemented  nominative  to 
the  singular  verb,  "he  said,''  Tyndale. 




NUMBERS  XX — Continued. 


them:  heare  ye  rebsllyons,  must1  — Heare  now,  ye  rebels  :  shal 3 

vfefette*  you  water  out  of  the  we  bring  you  water  out  of  this 

roche.  rock. 

11.  And  Moyses  lift  up  hys  hande,  &  Then  Moses  lift  up  his  hand  & 

with  hys  rodde  he  smote  the 
rocke  two  times,*  &  the  water 
came  out  aboundantlye,  &  the 
multitude 5  drauke  &  theyr 
beastes  also. 

with  his  rod  he  smote  the  rock 
twice,  &  the  water  came  out 
abundantly  :  so  the s  congrega- 
ciou  &  their  beastes  dranke. 


For  marck  7  the  daye  commeth  that 
shall  burne  as  an  oven  :  &  all 
the  proude,  yea,  &  all  such  as  do 
wyckednesse,  shal  be  strawe8  & 
the  daye  that  is  for  to  come,9 
shall  burne  theym  up  (saieth 
the  Lorde  of  hostes,  so  that 10  it 
shall  leave  them  nether  rote 
nor  braunche. 

For  beholde 1]  the  day  cometh  that 
shal  burne  as  an  oven,  &  all  the 
proude  yea  &  all  that  do  wick 
edly,  shall  be  stubble,12  &  the  day 
that  cometh n  shal  burne  them 
up  saith  the  Lord  of  hostes  & 
shall  leave  them  neither  roote 
nor  brauche. 

2.  But  unto  you  that  feare  my  name     But  unto  you  that  feare  my  name 

shall  that  Sonne  of  ryghteous- 
nesse  aryse,  and  health  shal  be 
under  hys  wynges  :  ye  shal  go 
forth  &  multifile 14  as  the  fat 

shal  the  Sunne  of  righteousness 
arise,  &  health  shal  be  under  his 
wings,  and  ye  shal  go  forthe,  & 
growe  \6  up  as  fat  calves. 

1  Must,  Tyndale  (Matthew). 

2  Fette,  fetch,  kept  in  the  Author 
ized  Version. 

3  Coverdale,  "Werden  wir  .  .  .  brin- 
gen,  Zurich  and  Luther. 

4  Duabus  vicibus,  Pagninus. 

5  Multitude,  Miinster. 

6  Ita  ut,  Vulgate. 

7  Coverdale. 

8  Strouw,  Ziirich. 

9  Dies  venturus,  Pagniuus. 

10  Coverdale,  Adeo  ut,  Leo  JudaB. 

11  Ecce  enim,  Pagninus;  quoniam 
ecce,  Mtinster. 

12  Stipula,  Pagninus  and  Vulgate. 

13  Dies  veniens,  Vulgate. 

14  Multiplicabimini,  Pagninus. 

15  Mastkalber,  Luther. 

16  Pinguescetis.     But  the  meaning 
is,  "  shall  leap  in  wanton  joy. '    The 
verb  describes  the  prancing  of  horses 
in  Hab.  i,  8. 

"And,"  in  last  clause,  omitted  in 
Luther  and  the  Zurich,  and  after 
them  by  Coverdale. 





MALACHI  III—  Continued. 


3.  Ye  shal  tread  e  downe  the  ungodly, 

for  they  shalbe  lyke  the  asshes ] 
under  the  soles  of  youre  fete  in 
the  day*  that  I  shal  make,  sayeth 
the  Lorde  of  hoostes. 

4.  Remembre  the  lawe  of  Moses  my 

servaunt  whych  I  commytted5 
uuto  him  iii  Horeb  for  all  Israel 
wyth  the  statutes  &  ordinaunces.6 

5.  Behold  I  wyll  send  you  Elias  the 

prophet  :  before  the  commynge 
of  the  daye  of  thegreate 9  &  fear- 
full  Lorde. 

6.  He   shal  turne  the  hertes  of  the 

fathers  to  theyr11  children  and 
the  hertes  of  the  chyldren  to 
their  fathers,  that  I  come  not12  & 
smyte  the  earth  with  cursinge. 

And  ye  shal  treade  downe  the 
wicked,  for  they  shal  be  dust  3 
under  the  soles  of  youre  fete 
in  the  day  that  I  shal 4  do  this 
saith  the  Lord  of  hostes. 

Eemember  the  lawe  of  Moses  my 
servant,  which  I  commanded  7 
unto  him  in  Horeb  for  all  Israel 
with  the  statutes  and  judge 

Beholde  I  will  send  you  Eliah  the 
prophet  before  the  comming  of 
the  great  and  f careful 10  day  of 
the  Lord. 

And13  he  shal  turne  the  heart  of 
the  fathers  to  the  children,  & 
the  hearte  of  the  children  to 
their  fathers,  lestu  I  come  & 
smite  the  earth  with  cursing. 

Several  changes  to  the  better  were  made  in  the  Apocrypha. 
The  earlier  translations  rested  on  the  Latin  text,  but  in  the 
Genevan  the  Greek  was  rendered,  as  may  be  seen  in  the  three 
first  chapters  of  Tobit,  where  the  third  person  of  the  narrative 
is  changed  into  the  first.  The  Prayer  of  Manasses,  admitted 
by  Rogers  and  kept  in  the  Great  Bible,  is  excluded.  The 
Genevan  translators  of  these  books  had  a  favourite  guide  in 

1  Ciuis,  Vulgate. 

2  Tages    den    ich    machen   will, 

3  Pulvis,  Munster. 

4  Die  quo  ego  agam,  Leo  Judse. 

5  Befohlen,  Ziirich  and  Coverdale. 

6  Briich  und  recht,  Zurich. 

7  Demandavi,  Miinster. 

8  Prsecepta    et  judicia,   Vulgate  ; 
statuta  et  judicia,  Paguinus. 

9  Coverdale  after  the  Zurich. 

10  Vulgate,  Luther,  and  the  Latin 

11  Coverdale. 

12  Dass  ich  nicht  komme,    Luther. 

13  Et,  Vulgate  and  Latin  Versions, 
"  and "  omitted   in  Coverdale  after 

14  Ne  forte  veniam,  Vulgate,  Pag- 
ninus  and  Munster. 


rpHOUGH  the  English  style  of  the  Genevan  version  is  so 
terse  and  idiomatic,  there  are  occasionally  terms  with  a 
Latin  signification. 

Thus,  Psalm  Ixxvi,  4,  "more  bright  and  puissant  than "  ; 
cxxxvi,  23,  "our  base  estate";  "base"  in  the  simple  sense 
of  low;  cxli,  7,  "when  thou  art  beneficial  unto  me" — doest 
good  unto  me. 

Mark  v,  12,  "and  incontinently  Jesus  gave  them  leave" — 
immediately  or  straightway ;  viii,  31,  "  the  son  of  man  .  .  . 
shulde  be  reproved  of  the  elders" — reproved  in  the  Latin 
sense,  i.e.  rejected ;  xii,  42,  "  two  mites  which  make  a  quad- 
rin" — a  farthing  or  a  fourth  part;  xv,  26,  "the  title  of  his 
cause  was  written  " — the  process  of  law  against  him,  the  legal 
meaning  of  "  cause  "  being  still  preserved. 

Acts  xx,  24,  "  But  I  passe  not  at  all ; "  in  our  version, 
"none  of  these  things  move  me";  xxv,  18,  "they  brought  no 
crime  of  such  things  as  I  supposed  " — "  crime  "  for  "  accusa 
tion  " ;  crimen  in  its  legal  meaning  yet  seen  in  the  verb  to 

Rom.  xiv,  16,  "cause  not  your  commoditie  to  be  evil  spoken" 
—your  well-doing,  your  beneficence  to  others. 

2  Cor.  iv,  9,  "  he  hath  sparsed  abroad  " — the  compound  dis 
persed  being  now  used  instead  of  the  simple  verb. 

1  Thess.  iv,  15, "prevent,"  the  earlier  versions  having  "shall 
not  come  ere." 

James  v,  17,  "subject  to  like  passions." 

1  John  iii,  14,  "translated  from  death  unto  life." 

The  Genevan  introduced  "pastour,"  in  Eph.  iv,  11,  and  in 


some  sections  of  Jeremiah,  instead  of  "shepherds,"  the  Latin 
term  not  occurring  in  the  older  versions,  and  perhaps  sug 
gested  by  the  "  pasteur  "  of  the  French  translation.  To  the 
Genevan  we  are  indebted  for  "  synagogues,"  Ps.  Ixxiv,  8, 
where  the  term  signifies  the  building ;  "  houses  of  God " 
being  the  phrase  in  the  Great  Bible.  In  Luke  xii,  29, 
Tyndale,  after  the  Vulgate  and  Luther,  had  given  the  more 
literal  rendering  of  the  verb,  "neither  clyme  up  on  hye," 
and  it  is  kept  in  Coverdale  and  the  Great  Bible;  and  is 
vindicated  also  by  Meyer ;  but  the  Genevan  version  gave  the 
better  sense,  that  of  1557  having  "neither  let  your  myndes 
wander  about  these  speculations,"  and  that  of  1560  having 
"neither  stand  in  doute,"  after  Beza.  The  Genevan  version 
gave  the  correct  rendering  in  Acts  xxvii,  9,  "  because  also  the 
feast  was  now  passed,"  with  an  instructive  note  on  the  Hebrew 
Kalendar — the  earlier  versions  having  "  because  also  that  we 
had  overlong  fasted";  and  in  the  same  chapter,  13,  "loosed 
nearer  and  sailed  by  Candie " ;  the  Vulgate  had  regarded 
"Asson"  as  a  proper  name,  and  it  was  followed  by  Luther; 
while  Erasmus  took  it  as  the  accusative  of  direction.  The 
Genevan  often  preserves  the  article,  as  in  the  series  of  clauses 
James  ii,  14-24.  There  is  also  a  very  literal  rendering,  Acts  x, 
15,  "the  things  that  God  hath  purified,  pollute  thou  not." 

The  Genevan  gave  our  Authorized  Version  many  felicitous 
renderings — in  separate  terms,  and  in  the  position  of  words. 
It  brought  in  "  sacrilege,"  Rom.  ii,  22 ;  and  was  followed 
by  the  Rheims,  but  not  by  the  first  edition  of  the  Bishops'. 
Whitgift  made  what  he  reckoned  a  good  point  out  of  this 
Genevan  translation.  In  his  letter  to  the  queen,  written 
probably  when  he  was  Bishop  of  Worcester,  when  he  is  up 
holding  the  inviolable  nature  of  church  lands,  and  showing 
the  sin  and  danger  of  laymen  setting  profane  hands  on  them, 
he  affirms  "  that  there  is  such  a  sin  as  sacrilege,  for  if  there 
were  not  it  would  not  have  had  a  name  in  Holy  Writ,  especially 
in  the  New  Testament." 

There  are  many  old  Saxon  forms  and  words  in  the  Genevan 
translation,  as  "  hurly-burly "  in  the  marginal  note,  Acts 
xxii,  23. 

xxxiv.  OLDER   WORDS.  25 

There  are  such  strong  modes  of  the  preterite  as  "  stale  "  for 
stole,  2  Kings  xi,  2;  "swomme,"  Acts  xxvii,  42;  "wanne,"  past 
of  win,  1  Maccabees  i,  20  ;  "  holpe  "  for  helped,  xviii,  27 — he 
holpe  them  much;  "tabernacle  which  the  Lord  pight" — pitched, 
Heb.  viii,  2  ;  "stroke  himself  with  stones,"  Mark  v,  5;  and  such 
terms  as  "giltieship  came  on  all  men,"  Rom.  v,  18,  in  1557,  but 
in  1560,  "the  faute  came  on  all  men." 

Many  antique  words  and  senses  are  used,  as  "garde,"  for 
girdle,  Exod.  xxviii.  8  ;  "  backe,"  for  bat,  Lev.  xi,  19  ;  "profit," 
in  the  sense  of  thrive — "the  child  Samuel  profited  and  grewe," 
1  Sam.  ii,  2G ;  "frailes  of  raisins,"  a  basket,  2  Sam.  xxv,  18; 
"  disdain,"  in  the  sense  of  to  be  angry  with ;  "  want,"  in  the 
sense  of  is  wanting — "  if  he  be  lost  and  want,"  1  Kings  xx,  39  ; 
"plant" — "with  the  plant  of  my  feet,"  2  Kings  xix,  24; 
"  trade,"  meaning  path,  or  what  is  trodden ;  "  train  up  a  child 
in  the  trade  of  his  way,"  Prov.  xxii,  6;1  "chapmen,"  for 
merchants,  Isaiah  xxiii,  8,  "  whose  chapmen  are  the  noblest  of 
the  world";  "clout,"  Ezek.  xvi,  4,  "swadled  in  cloutes,"  used 
in  the  Great  Bible,  and  adopted  by  the  Bishops';  "term,"  in 
the  sense  of  end,  Ezek.  xxii,  4;  "Avoide,  Satan,  be  gone," 
Matt,  iv,  10 ;  "  scrippe,"  for  bag  or  wallet,  Matt,  x,  10 ; 
"  ought,"  as  the  past  of  owe,  Matt,  xvii,  28 — "  which  ought 
him  an  hundred  pence  "  ;  to  "disease,"  to  trouble,  Mark  v,  35; 
"  cratche  " — "  and  laid  him  in  a  cratche,"  Luke  ii,  7,  manger^ 
rack,  or  crib,  used  often  in  old  English  (la  saint  creche,  holy 
manger);  the  word  occurs  also  in  Wycliffe2;  "creeple,"  for 
cripple,  Acts  iii,  2  ;  "  fardels  " — "  trussed  up  our  fardels,"  Acts 
xxi,  15 — "made  up  our  baggage,"  the  verb  occurring  also  in 
the  note  to  Acts  ix,  14,  "  make  up  thy  bed,"  or  "  truss  up  thy 
couche  "  ;  "  grieces,"  for  steps — gressus,  a  grise  or  step,  Acts 
xxi,  35 ;  "  pill  "—2  Cor.  xii,  17,  "  did  I  pill  you  ?  "—plunder 
you ;  "  endeavoured  myself  with  that  which  is  before,"  Philip, 
iii,  13;  "fulfil,"  fill  to  the  full  — "My  God  shall  fulfil  all 

1  Foxe,  vol.  viii,  p.  12,  speaks  of  in  the  gap  and  trade  of  more  prefer- 

Cranmer's  "  behaviour  and  trade  of  nients." 

life  toward    God   and   toward    the  2  Other  examples  may  be  found  in 

world,"  and   the   phrase   occurs  in  a  useful  little  volume  —  "  English 

Shakespear's  Henry  VIIT,  "  stands  Eetracecl,"  &c.,  Cambridge,  1865. 


your  necessities,"  Philip,  iv,  19;  "to  fulfil  their  sins  always," 
1  Thess.  ii,  16 — fill  up  their  sins  to  the  full  measure;  "  enforced," 
in  the  sense  of  endeavoured — "  enforced  the  more  to  see  your 
faces,"  1  Thess.  ii,  7 ;  similarly  in  the  Bishops',  Horn,  xv,  20, 
"  I  enforced  myself  "  ;  "  improve,"  in  the  sense  of  reprove  or 
convince — "improve,  rebuke,  exhort,"  2  Tim.  iv,  2;  "harber- 
ous,"  for  hospitable,  Titus  i,  8. 

There  are  also  many  old  spellings,  as  brast,  for  burst ;  fet, 
for  fetch  ;  grenne,  for  gin ;  glain,  for  glean ;  roume,  for  room ; 
charet,  for  chariot;  carkess,  for  carcase;  sowre,  for  sour;  banket, 
for  banquet;  kowe, for  cow;  moe,  for  more;  somer, for  summer; 
perfite,  for  perfect ;  renowme,  for  renown ;  slouthful,  for  sloth 
ful  ;  gheste,  for  guest ;  then,  for  than ;  physition ;  but  it  did 
not  take  "surgione"  in  Exodus  xv,  26  from  Coverdale  and 
Matthew.  We  have  yere,  yeere,  yeer,  and  year ;  eie  and  eye ; 
anie  and  any ;  thei  and  they ;  twise  and  twice ;  mise  and  mice. 

The  genitive  formed  by  -'s  does  not  seem  to  be  used  at  all. 
The  word  is  simply  spelled — as  "  brothers  eye."  Yet  there  are 
some  terms  of  modern  aspect.  Ezra  vi,  1,  "  librarie  "  ;  Job  ix, 
33,  "  umpire,"  the  word  still  found  in  the  margin  of  the  Author 
ized  Version;  2  Chron.  xiv,  "regency" — "Asa  deposed  Maachah 
his  mother  from  her  regencie  "  (margin).  The  prayer  "  learn 
me  true  understanding  and  knowledge,"  Psalm  cxix,  66,  in  the 
Great  Bible,  becomes  in  the  Genevan  "teach  me,"  also  in  Psalm 
xxv,  8.  Such  forms  as  moe,  fet,  and  charet  are  found  in  the 
Authorized  Version  of  1611.  The  Genevan  version  sometimes 
does  more  than  translate — it  occasionally  ventures  to  interpret, 
as  in  James  i,  17,  "shadowing  by  turning";  ii,  6,  "oppress  you 
by  tyrannie  " ;  16,  warm  yourselves,  fill  your  bellies  ";  v,  11, 
"  what  end  the  Lord  made." 

Though  the  Genevan  version  be  so  decided  an  improvement 
on  the  Great  Bible,  it  has  not  wholly  escaped  some  of  the  faults 
of  that  edition — for,  like  it,  it  brings  in  unwarrantable  and 
supplementary  clauses,  not  into  the  text  indeed,  but  into  the 
"margent,"  and  prints  them  in  italics,  especially  in  the  Acts  of 
the  Apostles.  These  supplements  in  the  margin  are  preceded 
by  this  mark  || :  Acts  x,  6,  ||  he  shall  speake  words  unto  thee 
whereby  thou  shalt  be  saved  and  all  thine  house — taken  from 


xi,  14 ;  xi,  17,  "who  was  I  that  I  could  let  God  ?"  ||  Not  to 
give  them  the  Holy  Ghost ;  xiv,  7,  "  and  there  was  preaching 
the  gospel,"  j|  insomuch  that  all  the  people  were  moved  at  the 
doctrine ;  so  both  Paul  and  Barnabas  remained  at  Lystra ;  10, 
"  said  with  a  loud  voice,"  ||  I  say  to  thee  in  the  name  of  the 
Lord  Jesus  Christ.  These  additions  are  suggested  by  Beza,  in 
his  notes,  and  by  his  references  to  some  Greek  codices  and  to 
the  Complutensian  Polyglott.  One  is  taken  directly  from 
the  text  of  the  Great  Bible,  xiv,  18,  "scarce  refrained  they 
the  people  that  they  had  not  sacrificed  unto  them,"  || 
but  that  they  should  go  every  man  home,  and  while  they 
tarried  and  taught,  £c.,  again  suggested  by  Beza's  note 
referring  to  four  MSS.  and  Bede  ;  19,  "  which  when  they  had 
persuaded  the  people,"  ||  and  disputing  boldly  persuaded  the 
people  to  forsake  them,  for,  said  they,  they  say  nothing  true, 
but  lie  in  all  things — suggested  also  by  Beza's  note,  the 
reading  being  found  in  some  minuscules,  xv,  29,  "and  from 
fornication,"  ||  and  whatsoever  ye  would  not  that  men  should 
do  unto  you,  do  not  to  others — Beza's  reference  being  to  the 
Complutensian  and  his  own  MS.  D.  34,  "  Silas  thought  good 
to  abide  there  still,"  ||  and  only  Judas  went — from  the  Great 
Bible  and  the  Vulgate,  and  commended  by  Beza.  But  the 
whole  34th  verse  is  suspicious,  and  the  argument  against  its 
genuineness  preponderates.  37,  "And  Barnabas,"  ||  would  take 
John — after  the  better  Greek  reading;  35,  "and  when  it  was 
day,  the  governors,"  ||  the  governors  assembled  together  in  the 
market,  and  remembering  the  earthquake  that  was,  they  feared 
and  sent — found  in  Beza's  note  after  MS.  D. ;  xix,  disputing  daily 
in  the  school  of  one  Tyrannus,"  ||  from  five  o'clock  unto  ten — 
referred  to  by  Beza ;  xxx,  23,  "  bonds  and  afflictions  abide 
me,"  ||  in  Jerusalem — Beza's  Latin  vei'sion  after  D.  But  the 
Genevan  translators  follow  their  guide  into  positive  error — 
error  coined  in  support  of  coveted  harmony  with  the  other 
gospels — when  they  put  into  their  text,  Mark  xvi,  2,  "  when 
the  sunne  was  yet  rising,"  and  give  in  their  margin  "not  risen," 
Beza  having  a  lengthy  note  on  the  subject,  and  intimating  that 
"  not "  may  have  been  dropped  by  accident. 

The  famous  "marginal  notes"  are  very  numerous,  and  no 


little  time  and  pains  must  have  been  spent  in  the  composition  of 
them,  for  many  of  them  are  original,  while  others  are  selected 
from  Calvin  and  Beza.  We  believe,  with  George  Joye,  that  a 
translation  of  Scripture  is  better  without  them,  and,  with  Tyn- 
dale,  that  a  "  bare  text,"  without  commentary,  is  sufficient  to 
make  men  "  wise  unto  salvation  " ;  and  the  text  is  all  that  God 
gave  for  this  blessed  purpose.  But  if  notes  are  admissible, 
many  of  the  Genevan  notes  are  to  be  praised  for  their  fitness 
and  honesty.  They  have  been  often  depreciated  and  condemned 
on  account  of  their  theology.  That  theology  was,  however, 
the  favourite  creed  of  the  time,  and  a  mere  fraction  of  the 
notes  is  decidedly  Calvinistic.  The  notes  on  Acts  are  chiefly 
historical,  geographical,  and  inferential,  as  suggested  by  the 
narrative.  Such  notes  might  be  expected  especially  in  the 
margin  of  the  Epistle  to  the  Romans ;  but  while  there  are  over 
two  hundred  and  fifty  notes,  not  more  than  ten  of  them  are 
unmistakable  Calvinistic  utterances. 

The    longer  notes    on   the    sixth   chapter   of  Romans   are 
as  follows,  there  being  nothing  very  distinctive  about  them  : — 


2.  He  dyeth  to  sinne  in  whome  the  strength  of  sirme  is  broken  by 

the  vertue  of  Christ,  and  so  now  liveth  to  God. 

3.  Which  is,  that  growing  together  with  him,  we  might  receiue 

vertue  to  kill  sinne,  and  raise  vp  our  new  man. 

5.  The  Greke  worde  meaneth,  that  we  growe  vp  together  with 

Christ,  as  we  se  naosse,  yvie,  misteltowe,  or  suche  like  growe 
vp  by  a  tre,  and  are  nourished  with  the  juice  thereof. 
„  If  we  by  his  vertue  dye  to  sinne. 

6.  The  flesh  wherein  sinne  sticketh  fast. 

7.  Because  that  being  dead  we  can  not  sinne. 

11.  We  may  gather  that  we  are  dead  to  sinne,  when  sinne  beginneth 

to  dye  in  us  :  which  is  by  the  participation  of  Christ's  death, 
by  whome  also  being  quickened  we  Hue  to  God,  that  is  to 

12.  The  minde  first  ministreth  euil  motiues  whereby  man's  will  is 

enticed :  thence  burst  forthe  the  lustes,  by  them  the  bodie 
is  prouoked,  and  the  bodie  by  his  actions  doeth  solicite  the 
minde  :  therefore  we  commandeth  at  the  least  that  we  rule 
our  bodies. 

xxxiv.]  CALVINISM.  29 


16.  Shewing  that  none  can  be  just  which  doeth  not  obey  God. 

18.  It  is  a  most  vile  thing  for  him   that  is  deliuered  from  the 

slauerie  of  sinne  to  returne  again  to  the  same. 

19.  Leaning   to   speake   to  heavenlie   things,    according   to   your 

capacitie,  I  vse  these  similitudes  of  seruitude  and  fredome, 
that  ye  might  the  better  vnderstand. 

23.  Sinne  is  compared  to  a  tyrant  which  reigneth  by  force,  who 
giueth  death  as  an  allowance  to  them  that  were  preferred 
by  the  Lawe. 

But  the  following  note  has  a  snpralapsarian  flavour  about 
it,  Rom.  ix,  19  : — 

"  As  the  onelie  wil  and  purpose  of  God  is  the  chief  cause  of 
election  and  reprobacion  :  so  his  fre  mercie  in  Christ  is  an 
inferior  cause  of  saluacion  and  the  hardening  of  the  heart,  an 
inferior  cause  of  damnacion."  And  even  this  note  is  given  nearly 
word  for  word  in  the  Bishops'  with  a  change  indicative 
of  yet  higher  doctrine — for  it  says,  "  and  the  withdrawing  of 
his  mercy  is  the  cause  of  damnation." 

But  their  Calvinism  now  and  then  shows  itself  in  a  cowardly 
version,  as  in  the  note  to  the  last  clause  of  1  Cor.  ix,  27 — "  lest 
I  myself  should  be  reproved."  "Reproved"  might  be  allowed, 
for  it  then  often  meant  rejected,  but  the  note  explains  it  as 
"reproved  of  men."  Their  theology  bribed  them  to  shrink 
from  the  plain  meaning  of  final  rejection.  The  Bishops'  keeps 
the  note,  even  though  it  gives  the  strong  rendering,  "lest  I 
mee  self  shoulde  be  a  cast  away."  Sometimes  in  textual 
difficulties  the  knot  is  cut,  when  it  could  not  be  loosed,  as  at 
Acts  vii,  1C — the  note  is,  "  It  is  probable  that  some  writer 
through  negligence  put  in  Abraham  in  this  place  instead  of 
Jacob,  who  bought  this  field,  or  by  Abraham  he  meaneth  the 
posterity  of  Abraham."  The  word  Apocrypha  stands  alone  on 
the  top  of  the  right  hand  page  in  the  Apocryphal  books,  which 
are  not  thought  worthy  of  being  honoured  by  any  distinctive 
headings. 1  The  page  in  Mark  that  contains  the  story  of  the 

1  Other  notes  will  be  referred  to  in  the  account  of  the  Hampton  Court 


daughter  of  Herodias  has  for  its  heading,  "  The  inconvenience 
of  dancing." 

Referring  to  the  Genevan  version,  and  to  "show  the 
animus  of  the  men,"  Card  well  selects  the  note  to  Rev. 
ix,  3,  but  he  does  not  quote  it  fairly  or  fully.  It  says, 
"Locusts  are  false  teachers,  heretics,  and  worldly  subtle 
prelates,  with  monks,  friars,  cardinals,  &c.";  but  he  leaves 
out  the  words  "false  teachers"  in  the  first  clause,  and  sup 
presses  the  conclusion,  "which  forsake  Christ  to  maintain 
false  doctrine."  1  AMiat  is  remarkable,  and  not  to  be  over 
looked,  these  notes  were  so  highly  prized  by  the  revisers, 
whose  labours  were  meant  to  produce  a  rival  Bible,  that  they 
adopted  many  of  them  into  the  margin  of  their  new  Bishops' 
Bible.  Thus,  in  the  Epistle  to  the  Galatians,  the  marginal 
notes  in  the  Bishops',  with  the  exception  of  two  alternative 
renderings,  are  every  one  of  them  taken  from  the  Genevan; 
and  the  rendering  in  the  Genevan  text  of  the  clause  "  which 
things  are  an  allegory  "  becomes  the  note  in  the  Bishops'. 

The  Anglo-Genevan  Bible  is  much  more  correct  than  any  of 
its  predecessors,  and  ranks  in  value  next  to  that  in  common 
use.  It  was  also  the  great  intermediate  step  between  it  and 
Tyndale's ;  both  were  made  in  exile ;  and,  indeed,  Coverdale's 
of  1535,  and  Matthew's  of  1537  were  likewise  produced  abroad. 
It  was  the  self-imposed  work  of  noble-hearted  Englishmen, 
and  they  could  not  have  spent  their  enforced  leisure  to  better 
purpose.  Their  good  scholarship  and  idiomatic  English  are 
alike  apparent  in  many  felicitous  renderings  which  yet  survive. 
Beza  was  their  oracle,  and  he  well  merited  the  honour,  for  he 
was  a  masterly  Hellenist,  of  great  accomplishments  and  of 
refined  tastes.  His  exegetical  insight  was  clear  and  profound, 
unless  when  it  was  dimmed  by  the  oblique  lights  of  his 
theology.  The  English  style  of  this  version,  made  before  the 
birth  of  Shakespeare,  is  clear,  crisp,  and  vigorous — the  honest 
and  hearty  speech  of  men  who  felt  that  their  mother  tongue 
needed  not  to  be  helped  with  elaborate  combinations,  nor 
studded  with  foreign  terms,  for  its  power  lay  in  its  simplicity, 
and  its  grandeur  in  its  more  familiar  idioms.  Beza's  first 
1  Documentary  Annals,  vol.  II,  p.  12. 

xxxiv.]  THEIR  GREEK  TEXT.  31 

Greek  New  Testament  did  not  appear  till  1565  ;  but  they  had 
Stephens'  famous  folio  of  1550,  and  his  fourth  edition,  pub 
lished  in  the  city  of  their  adoption  in  1551,  and  distinguished 
by  the  division  of  verses.  These  editions  of  Stephen  were 
based  upon  the  fourth  edition  of  Erasmus  (1527),  which 
differs  from  his  third  chiefly  in  ninety  changes  or  emendations 
introduced  into  the  Apocalypse  from  the  Complutensian 
Polyglott.  The  Genevan  translators  had,  in  this  way,  as  good 
a  text  as  could  be  supplied  to  them  at  the  time.  Various 
editions  of  the  Hebrew  Bible  have  been  already  referred  to.1 

1  See  vol.  I,  p.  209. 


cost  of  the  first  edition  had  been  defrayed  by  the 
English  congregation  at  Geneva,  among  whom  was  John 
Bodleigh,  or  Bodley,  father  of  Sir  Thomas  Bodley,  who  founded 
the  great  library  at  Oxford  that  bears  his  name.  John 
Bodley,  on  his  return  to  England,  received  from  the  Queen  a 
patent  giving  him  the  sole  right,  "  and  his  assigns,  for  seven 
years,  to  print,  or  cause  to  be  imprinted,  the  English  Bible, 
with  annotations,  faithfully  translated  and  finished  in  this 
present  year  of  our  Lord  God,  a  thousand  five  hundred  and 
threescore,  and  dedicated  to  us."  All  other  printers  were  for 
bidden  to  print  the  volume;  and  any  offender  was  to  forfeit  "to 
our  use  forty  shillings  of  lawful  money  of  England  for  every 
such  Bible  at  any  time  so  printed."  This  license  was  granted 
even  though  Cawood  &  Jugge  had  been  already  appointed  her 
majesty's  printers,  and  though  she  had  issued  an  injunction 
that  no  one  should  print  any  book  without  license  by  herself  or 
six  of  her  Privy  Council,  and  the  Company  of  Stationers  are 
enjoined  to  be  obedient.1  Under  Bodley 's  care  a  folio  edition 
printed  at  Geneva  was  published,  with  date  10th  April,  1561, 
but  without  a  printer's  name.  A  New  Testament  having  no 
printer's  name  was  also  published  in  1560. 

Time  went  on,  and  Bodley,  wishing  to  publish  another 
impression,  applied  for  the  extension  of  his  patent.  Application 
was  made  to  Sir  William  Cecil,  but  as  the  Bishops'  Bible  was 
in  hand,  he  consulted  Archbishop  Parker  and  Grindal,  Bishop 

1  A  license  was  necessary  for  the  New  Testament  without  license,  and 
sale  of  a  book.  At  this  time  Har-  he  was  fined  eight  shillings.  Her- 
rison  printed  two  editions  of  the  bert's  Ames,  vol.  II,  p.  883. 

BOD  LEY'S  PA  TENT.  33 

of  London.  Parker  in  a  cautious  spirit  wrote  to  Secretary  Cecil 
praising  the  version ;  himself  and  the  Bishop  of  London  also 
wrote  on  9th  March,  1565,  wishing  that  Bodley  might  have 
twelve  years  longer  term  "on  consideration  of  the  charges  sus 
tained  by  him  and  his  associates  in  the  first  impression,"  admitting 
that  it  might  "do  much  good  to  have  diversity  of  translations;" 
ending,  however,  by  declaring  that,  though  the  license  might  so 
pass  well  enough,  the  Secretary  had  been  warned  that  "  no  im 
pression  should  pass  but  \yy  their  direction,  consent,  and  advice." 
Such  conditions,  if  annexed  to  the  grant,  would  have  seriously 
impeded  the  liberty  of  the  press,  and  they  had  not  been 
insisted  on  with  reference  to  other  Bibles  in  former  years. 
The  proposal  thus  miscarried,  and  Bodley 's  patent  is  heard 
of  no  more.  It  has  been  held  by  some  that  the  patent  was 
renewed  at  the  solicitation  of  the  primate  against  the  opinion  of 
the  queen  and  Cecil.  But  there  is  no  proof  on  the  point.  On 
the  other  hand,  if  Bodley  got  the  patent  he  certainly  did  not 
use  it ;  for  no  Genevan  Bible  was  printed  from  this  time  till 
after  Parker's  death.  Neal1  states  that  the  request  was  refused 
on  account  of  the  prefaces  and  notes. 

Three  other  impressions  in  1568,  1569,  1570,2  had  been 
printed  in  Geneva ;  but  after  the  last  of  these,  no  other  editions 
issued  from  this  foreign  press.  As  the  Bishops'  Bible  had  the 
favour  of  those  in  high  place,  though  Cranmer  had  shown 
no  such  partiality  to  his  own  edition,  the  Genevan  Bible  was  not 
printed  in  England  for  fifteen  years  after  its  first  publication, 
or  in  fact,  during  Archbishop  Parker's  lifetime.  When  com 
mending  to  the  royal  notice  his  own  revision  in  1568,  he  urges 
the  queen's  recognition  of  it,  "  not  only  as  many  churches 
want  their  books,  as  that  in  certain  places  be  publicly  used 
some  translations  which  have  not  been  laboured  in  this  realm," 
the  allusion  being  to  imported  Genevan  Bibles.  But  after  his 
death  complaints  of  the  scarcity  of  those  Bibles,  and  of  tar 
diness  in  the  publication  of  them  began  to  be  heard.  "If 
that  Bible  were  such  as  no  enemy  could  justly  find  fault  with 
them,  many  men  marvel,  that  such  a  work  being  so  profitable, 

1  History  of  the  Puritans,  p.  110,  vol.  I,  London,  1837. 

2  Printed  by  John  Crespin. 
VOL.  II.  C 


should  find  so  small  favour  as  not  to  be  printed  again." l  But  in 
1 575  the  Genevan  Bible  was  first  printed  in  England,  in  quarto 
and  octavo.  During  the  same  year  also,  two  editions  of  the 
New  Testament  of  1557  had  been  already  printed,  all  three 
books  by  Vautroullier  for  Christopher  Barkar.2 

In  1576  the  Genevan  New  Testament  was  edited  by 
Laurence  Tomson,  under-secretary  to  Sir  Francis  Walsing- 
ham.  The  title  was — 

"  The  New  Testament  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  trans 
lated  out  of  Greek  by  Theodore  Beza.  Whereunto  are 
adjoined  briefe  summaries  of  doctrine  upon  the  Evangelists 
and  Acts  of  the  Apostles,  together  with  the  method  of 
the  Epistles  of  the  Apostles,  by  the  said  Theodore  Beza. 
And  also  short  expositions  on  the  phrases  and  hard  places 
taken  out  of  large  annotations  of  the  foresaid  author,  and 
Joach.  Camerarius,  by  P.  Loseler  Villerius.3  Englished  by 
L.  Tomson.  Together  with  the  annotations  of  Fr.  Junius  upon 
the  Revelation  of  St.  John.  London.  Imprinted  by  Christopher 
Barkar  dwelling  in  Powles  Churchyeard,  at  the  sign  of  the 
Tygres  head." 

There  is  a  dedication  to  Walsingham  and  Hastings,  with  a 
vignette  containing  the  crest  of  the  former,  a  tiger's  head;4 
and  there  is  also  a  translation  into  English  of  Beza's  ad 
dress  to  Louis  of  Bourbon,  Prince  of  Conde.  There  are  not 
many  variations  in  the  text,  but  the  marginal  notes  are 
different,  certainly  not  so  pithy  and  compact  as  those  of  the 
original  Genevan,  yet  sometimes  so  numerous  as  to  form  a 
continuous  comment,  as  in  the  Apocalypse.  Tomson's  revision 
has  one  peculiarity  which  sometimes  apppears  in  the  Author 
ized  Version,  that  of  translating  the  article  in  connection 

1  History  of  the  Troubles  at  Frank-  Villers.    The  title-page  is  vague  and 
fort,  p.  cxcv.  misleading. 

2  Barker's  royal  patent    included  4  In  a  short  time  after  this  the  prin- 
the  printing  of  all  Bibles  and  Testa-  ter  changed  his  name  to  Barker,  or 
ments  whatsoever  in    the    English  about  the  period  that  he  bought  from 
language   of    any   translation,   with  Sir   Thomas    Wilkes   a    patent  for 
notes  or  without  notes.  printing  Bibles.   The  tiger's  head,  the 

3  Loseler  Villerius  is  the  Latinized  armorial  bearing  of  Walsingham  his 
name  of  M.  L'Oyseleur,  seigneur  de  patron,  was  set  over  his  shop. 

xxxv.]  TOMSON'S  REVISION.  35 

with  some  proper  names  or  epithets  by  the  demonstrative 
pronoun  "that."  Thus,  in  the  first  chapter  of  St.  John's 
Gospel,  1,  "In  the  beginning  was  that  word,  and  that 
word  was  with  God,  and  that  word  was  God";  4,  "and 
that  life  " ;  5,  "  that  light " ;  8,  twice  the  Authorized  Version 
follows  the  same  practice  ;  9,  "  that  true  light " ;  14, 
"  that  word  became  flesh "  ;  20,  "  I  am  not  that  Christ," 
followed  by  the  Bishops' ;  21,  "  art  thou  that  prophet  ? " 
repeated  in  the  Bishops'  and  in  the  Authorized;  25,  "that 
Christ,"  also  in  the  Bishops',  "  nor  that  prophet,"  similarly 
in  the  Authorized ;  29,  "  behold  that  Lamb  of  God  " ; 
32,  "I  beheld  that  Spirit";  33,  "that  Spirit";  34,  "that 
sonne  of  God  "  ;  36,  "  that  Lamb  of  God  " ;  41,  "  that  Messias  "; 
45,  "  Jesus  that  sonne  of  Joseph  " ;  49,  "  that  sonne  of  God, 
that  king  of  Israel " ;  51,  "  upon  that  sonne  of  man."  This 
New  Testament  was  very  often  reprinted  with  the  Genevan 
Bible,  and  it  appears  in  the  Scottish  edition  printed  by  Andrew 
Hart,  Edinburgh,  1610. 

During  1583,  the  first  year  of  Wliitgift's  primacy,  the  dedica 
tion  to  Elizabeth  prefixed  to  twelve  editions,  seven  of  them 
published  in  London,  was  withdrawn  in  the  twenty-fifth 
year  of  her  reign ;  but  the  withdrawal,  whatever  might  be 
its  motive,  did  not  hinder  the  sale.  The  original  and  catholic 
title  of  the  epistle  :  "  To  our  beloved  in  the  Lord,  the  brethren 
of  England,  Scotland,  and  Ireland,"  found  in  ten  editions,  or 
down  to  1582,  was  changed  first  into,  "  To  the  diligent 
and  Christian  reader,"  and  then  curtailed  into,  "  To  the 
Christian  reader " ;  but  such  disparaging  alterations  did  not 
mar  the  great  popularity  of  the  volume.  It  came  at  length 
to  enjoy  such  a  pre-eminence  as  to  be  read  in  churches, 
and  to  be  used  in  pulpits ;  preachers  took  their  texts  from  it, 
and  quoted  it  in  their  discourses.  It  grew  to  be  in  greater 
demand  than  the  Bishops'  or  Cranmer's.  Ninety  editions  of 
it  were  published  in  the  reign  of  Elizabeth,  as  against  forty 
of  all  the  other  versions.  Of  Bibles  as  distinct  from  New 
Testaments  there  were  twenty-five  editions  of  Cranmer's  and 
the  Bishops' ;  but  sixty  of  the  Genevan.  Yet  Whitgift  says  in 
1587:  "Divers,  as  well  parish  churches  as  chapels  of  ease, 


are  not  sufficiently  furnished  with  Bibles,  but  some  have 
either  none  at  all  or  such  as  be  torn  and  defaced,  and  yet  not 
of  the  translation  authorized  by  the  Synod  of  Bishops." 

The  influence  of  Archbishop  Grindal  on  his  translation  to- 
the  primacy  has  been  sometimes  supposed,  as  by  Cardwell,1 
to  have  suddenly  promoted  the  sale  and  use  of  Genevan  Bibles  ; 
but  the  primate  was  long  under  the  royal  frown,  and  lived  in 
privacy.  Nor  does  Cardwell  give  any  proof;  for  all  that  he 
says  is,  that  though  it  had  not  been  reprinted  for  several 
years  previously,  five  different  editions  made  their  appearance 
within  two  years  after  Grindal's  removal  from  York  to  Canter 
bury.  He  does  not  attempt  to  point  out  any  actual  connection 
of  cause  and  effect.  Parker,  indeed,  must  have  been  indifferent,, 
if  not  hostile,  to  a  translation  made  in  Geneva.  He  was 
so  profoundly  jealous  of  the  returned  exiles,  and  thought 
their  theories  so  dangerous  to  Church  and  State,  that  he 
did  all  in  his  power  to  repress  the  free  ventilation  of  their 
opinions.  Such  discussions  might  have  been  safe  and  healthy ; 
for  convictions  repressed  in  utterance  gather  strength  till 
they  culminate  in  a  perilous  explosion.  The  primate's  views 
were  so  well  known  that  nobody  ventured  to  print  the  Genevan 
Bible  in  his  latter  years.  Not  that  he  formally  inhibited  the 
publication  of  it;  but  his  power,  especially  as  bearing  on  the  press,, 
was  felt  to  be  a  force  not  to  be  tampered  with.  Grindal  had 
puritanical  proclivities,  and  suffered  for  his  refusal  to  obey  in 
all  things  the  self-willed  daughter  of  Henry  VIII — "  supreme 
governor  of  the  Church  of  England."  But  he  did  not  show 
any  undue  partiality  for  the  Genevan  version.  One  of  the 
questions  issued  by  him  to  the  ordinaries  was  whether  each 
church  had  a  copy  of  the  English  Bible  in  the  largest  volume  ;. 
and  he  bequeathed  to  the  church  of  his  native  parish  of  St. 
Bees  his  "  fairest  Bible  of  the  translation  appointed  to  be  read 
in  the  church."  Grindal's  successor,  Whitgift,  who  drew  up  the 
nine  Lambeth  articles,  could  have  no  objection  to  the  Calvinistic 
marginal  notes  of  the  Genevan  version.  Another  reason  for  its 
great  popularity  may  be  assigned  with  some  plausibility.  The 
queen  did  not  love  "  prophesying,"  or  even  "preaching";  "  it  was 
1  Documentary  Annals,  vol.  II,  p.  12. 

xxxv.]          POPULARITY  OF  THE  GENEVAN  VERSION.  37 

good,"  she  said,  to  have  "  few  preachers — three  or  four  might 
.suffice  for  a  county,  and  that  the  reading  of  the  homilies  to 
the  people  was  sufficient."  So  that  in  London  only  about  half 
the  churches  had  preaching  ministers.  The  people  were,  there 
fore,  obliged  to  read  the  Bible  for  themselves;  the  notes  of 
the  Genevan  version  became  doubly  precious  to  them,  and  the 
circulation  was  in  this  way  quickened  and  increased.  The 
Bishops'  Bible  was  not  issued  beyond  160G,  five  years  before 
the  date  of  the  publication  of  the  Authorized  Version,  though 
its  New  Testament  was  printed  in  1608, 1614, 1615, 1617, 1618. 
But  the  Genevan  Bible  continued  to  be  printed  after  1611. 
Nay,  in  that  very  year  it  was  issued  in  folio  by  Barker  him 
self,  the  king's  printer.  Besides  four  editions  of  the  New  Tes 
tament,  the  Bible  was  reprinted  in  quarto  in  1613  both  at 
London  and  Edinburgh,  again  at  London  in  1614 ;  with  two 
editions  in  1615,  and  a  last  issue  in  folio  in  1616 ;  it  appeared 
in  quarto,  Amsterdam,  in  1633,  in  folio  1640,  with  two  more 
editions  in  1644.  In  1649  the  Authorized  Version  was  printed  in 
quarto  with  the  Genevan  notes,1  as  if  to  promote  the  circulation. 
An  edition  of  this  nature  was  published  in  1679  in  folio,  and 
as  late  as  1708  2  and  1715  ;  but  the  one  of  1679  and  the  other 
two  tell  a  falsehood  on  their  title-page,  "  which  notes  have 
never  been  before  set  forth  with  this  new  translation."  3 

Thus  the  Genevan  version  continued  to  be  used  by  many 
preachers  and  authors,  even  after  the  Authorized  Translation 
was  issued  in  1611.  It  commended  itself  to  many  who,  from 
•education,  position,  and  circumstances,  might  have  cherished 
prejudices  against  it.  Not  only  men  of  position  and  learning, 
but  others  of  a  wholly  different  stamp,  were  fond  of  it.  Arch 
bishop  Abbot,  when  Master  of  University  College,  Oxford,  and 
Vice-Chancellor,  published  in  1600  "An  Exposition  upon  the 

1  London,  printed  by  the  Com-     1679  had  not  sold,  and  in  1708  it  was 
pany  of  Stationers,  with   the   title     simply  reissued. 

placed    in  the   usual  heart-shaped  3  In   1578   was  published  a  folio 

oval.  edition  with  a  double  version  of  the 

2  These  Bibles  of  1679  and  1708  Psalms,  the  Genevan  in  Roman  char- 
are  the   same  book  with  only   the  acter,  and  the  earlier  version  of  the 
alteration  of   date.     The  edition  in  prayer  book  in  black  letter. 


Book  of  Jonah,"  a  series  of  lectures  delivered  in  St.  Mary's 
Church, and  he  uses  throughout  the  Genevan  version,  and  not  the 
Bishops'.  Dr.  Walter  Balcan quail,  Dean  of  Rochester,  in  a  sermon 
preached  before  the  king,  and  published  by  his  majesty's  com 
mand,  in  1632,  uses  the  Genevan  Bible.  The  "  ever  memor 
able  "  John  Hales,  of  Eton,  often  quotes  the  same  version.  Dr. 
Skinner,  in  succession  bishop  of  Bristol,  Oxford,  and  Worcester, 
does  the  same  in  two  sermons  published  by  royal  command  in 
1634.  Dr.  Gervase  Babington,  a  pupil  of  Whitgift,  and  bishop 
in  turn  of  Llandaff,  Exeter,  and  Worcester,  one  of  the  members 
of  the  Hampton  Court  conference,  uses  the  Genevan  version  in 
his  sermons  preached  at  court  and  in  his  theological  works.  Dr. 
Richard  Montagu,  Bishop  of  Norwich,  and  a  great  favourite 
of  King  James,  often  quotes  from  the  same  version  in  his  "  Acts 
and  Monuments  of  the  Church,"  1642.  The  same  practice 
is  usually  followed  by  Bishop  Overall,  one  of  King  James' 
translators,  in  his  "  Convocation  Book,"  which  when  first 
printed  in  1689  carried  the  license  of  Sancroft,  Archbishop  of 
Canterbury.  Dillingham,  another  of  King  James'  translators, 
continued  to  quote  the  Genevan  after  1611. 

It  may  be  noted  in  passing  that  a  vernacular  Bible,  such  as 
the  Genevan,  was  ever  identified  with  Protestantism.  Esme 
Stuart,  Duke  of  Lennox,  one  of  the  "  vilest  men ''  that  had  ever 
been  "exalted"  in  Scotland,  hypocritically  professed,  when  an 
exile  in  Paris  in  1583,  to  be  turning  a  Huguenot,  and  he  asked 
Cobham,  as  a  proof  of  his  sincerity,  "to  bestow  a  Bible  on  him." 
And  the  feeling  was  similar  in  France — the  French  Bible  was 
also  associated  with  Protestantism.  When  the  Huguenot  town 
of  Orange  was  taken  by  Catholic  troops,  ladies  of  good  birth 
were  given  up  to  the  soldiery,  and  then  left  in  the  streets- 
without  clothing,  or  their  naked  bodies  were  pasted  over  with 
leaves  torn  from  "  their  Genevan  Bibles." 


Genevan  Bible  soon  after  its  publication  came  into 
general  use  in  Scotland.  Knox  follows  Tyndale's  version 
in  some  of  his  earliest  works,  but  after  1560  he  adopts 
the  Genevan,  and  so  do  the  other  divines  and  polemics,  as 
Bruce,  Rollock,  and  Ferguson — the  last  giving  the  words  a 
Scottish  form  and  spelling,  as  "quhilk"  for  which,  "gif'for 
if,  "  behauld  "  for  behold,  "  tiends  "  for  tithes.  Chapman  and 
Millar  were  established  as  printers  in  Edinburgh  about  1507 
in  the  reign  of  James  IV,  but  there  w  ere  then  no  English  Bible 
to  put  to  press.  Lekprevik  was  specially  appointed  king's 
printer,  and  was  licensed  to  print  Bibles  in  1564,  and  the 
Genevan  Bible  in  1568;  but  he  never  printed  a  copy  of  the 
Scriptures.  The  people,  however,  were  well  supplied  by  im 
portation  from  England  and  from  the  Continent.  Tyndale's 
translation  was  never  printed  in  Scotland,  though  it  was  ex 
tensively  used.  Lewis  indeed  says  that  a  quarto  edition  of 
Tyndale  was  "very  probably"  printed  in  Scotland  in  1536  ;x  but 
the  peculiar  spelling  of  the  edition  to  which  he  apparently 
refers  seems  to  have  led  him  to  the  baseless  conjecture.2  Some 
writers  apparently  translated  for  themselves,  as  Chaucer  had 
done,  and  he  is  in  this  respect  followed  by  Lyndsay  in  the 
"  Complaynt  of  Scotland,"  1548,  and  by  Balnavis,  one  of  the 
Lords  of  Session,  in  his  "  Confession  of  Faith,"  compiled  the 
tame  year  and  printed  in  1584. 

The   leading  reformers  or   Protestant    nobles    in   Scotland 
held    a   meeting  at    Stirling    in    March,   1557,   the   year   of 
the  publication  of  the  first  Genevan   Testament,  and  agreed 
1  History,  p.  85,  2nd  edition.  a  See  vol.  I,  page  234. 


to  send  a  letter  to  Knox,  who  was  then  in  Geneva. 
Another  consultation  was  held  in  Edinburgh,  and  a  "  common 
band  was  made"  on  the  3rd  of  December,  1557 — its  central 
point  being  "  with  all  diligence  continually  to  apply  our 
whole  power,  substance,  and  our  very  lives  to  maintain, 
set  forward,  and  establish  the  most  blessed  Word  of  God." 
They  agreed  also  on  two  heads  of  policy,  (1)  "  That  the  English 
Book  of  Common  Prayer  should  be  read  publicly  in  the  parish 
kirks  on  Sundays  and  other  festivals,  with  the  lessons  of  the 
New  and  Old  Testament ;  and  if  the  curates  of  the  parishes  be 
qualified,  to  cause  them  to  read  the  same,  and  if  they  be  not, 
or  if  they  refuse,  that  the  most  qualified  in  the  parish  use  and 
read  them.  (2)  That  doctrine,  preaching,  and  interpretation  of 
Scriptures  be  had  and  used  privately  in  quiet  houses,  without 
great  conventions  of  the  people  thereto,  till  afterward  God  shall 
move  the  prince  to  grant  public  preaching  by  faithful  and  true 
ministers."  The  Primate  of  St.  Andrews  longed  for  vengeance 
against  these  evangelical  agitators,  and  summoned  before  him 
Argyle's  preacher,  who,  secure  in  Inverary,  and  surrounded  by 
Highland  claymores  and  targets,  laughed  him  to  scorn.  So 
foiled,  he  then  fell  upon  a  frail  old  man  of  eighty-two  years  of 
age,  who  read  and  preached  his  Bible,  and  sentenced  him  on 
the  20th  April,  1558,  to  the  fire.  This  doom  pronounced 
on  Walter  Mill  so  stirred  the  city  of  St.  Andrews  that  not  a 
man  would  sell  or  lend  a  rope  to  bind  him,  or  a  tar-barrel  to 
burn  him.  His  martyrdom  made  such  an  impression  against  his 
prosecutors  that  he  was  the  last  victim  of  the  Popish  period. 
The  nation  was  roused,  images  were  torn  away,  and  the  great 
idol  of  St.  Giles  was  first  drowned  in  the  Nor'  Loch  and  then 

The  reformers,  well  aware  where  their  great  strength  lay,  pre 
sented  a  petition  to  the  Regent  in  1558,  and  asked  especially 
for  these  things — (1)  "  That  as  they  were  already  allowed  by 
law  to  read  the  Scriptures  in  their  common  tongue,  it  should 
also  be  made  lawful  to  them  to  convene  publicly  or  privately 
to  our  common  prayers  in  our  vulgar  tongue.  (2)  That  it  should 
be  lawful,  if  in  their  meetings  any  hard  place  of  Scripture 
should  be  read,  that  any  qualified  persons  in  knowledge,  being 


present,  should  interpret  and  open  up  the  said  hard  places,  to 
God's  glory  and  the  profit  of  the  auditory.  (3)  That  the  holy 
sacrament  of  baptism  should  be  used  in  the  vulgar  tongue, 
and  the  god-fathers  and  church  then  assembled  should  be 
instructed  in  their  duties.  (4)  That  the  holy  sacrament  of  the 
Lord's  Supper  should  likewise  be  ministered  in  the  vulgar 
tongue,  and  in  both  kinds."  The  Regent-Dowager  was  French, 
and  she  at  length  replied  in  broken  English,  "Me  will  remem 
ber,"  she  exclaimed,  "  what  is  protested,  and  me  will  put  good 
order  after  this  to  all  things  that  now  be  in  controversy."  1 
Such  an  answer  from  a  daughter  of  the  House  of  Guise  was 
only  a  pretext.2 

It  seems  surprising  at  first  sight  that  no  Scottish  scholars  or 
divines  of  that  time  or  the  period  succeeding  it  set  themselves 
to  the  work  of  Biblical  revision  or  translation.  There  were 
men  at  that  epoch  quite  qualified  for  the  work.  Knox  was  not 
without  erudition,  but  his  high  vocation  was  one  of  public 
activity  and  national  enterprise.  His  keen  spirit  was  kept  in  a 
state  of  perpetual  anxiety  and  excitement,  for  he  believed  his 
struggle  to  be  with  "  spiritual  wickedness  in  high  places,"  and 
he  was  denied  the  privacy  and  leisure,  without  which  the  higher 
regions  of  scholarship  cannot  be  reached.  Andrew  Melville 
was  declared  on  leaving  college  to  be  the  "  best  Grecian  of  any 
young  master  in  the  land,"  and  at  the  age  of  twenty-one  he 
was  appointed  regent  in  a  foreign  seminary.  He  was  wont  to 
travel  with  a  Hebrew  Bible  "slung  from  his  belt";  he  studied 
Syriac  at  Geneva;  and  rose  to  be  the  learned  reformer  and 
principal  of  two  native  universities.  It  is  matter  of  regret  that 
he  should  have  spent  his  varied  and  masculine  powers  in  com 
posing  Latin  verses 3  to  rival  those  of  Buchanan  and  Beza. 
George  Buchanan  translated  the  Psalms  into  Latin,  and  spent 

1  Lorimer's  Scottish  Reformation,     James  V  at  St.  Andrews  in  June, 
pp.  204,  &c.     Walter  Mill  had  been     1538. 

arrested  and'condemued  in  1538,  but  3   His    Carmen     Mosis    and    his 

escaped  to  Germany,  where  he  re-  Stephaniskion  are  well  known,  and 

mained  twenty  years.  of  the  second  of  these  poems  Scaliger 

2  She  was  the  widow  of  the  Duke  said  nos  talia  non  possumus. 
of  Lougueville,  and  was  married  to 


many  years  abroad  lingering  on  the  heights  of  Parnassus  rather 
than  on  the  hill  of  God.  There  were  others,  like  Ales,  Rollock, 
Gillespie,  and  Cameron,  who  delighted  in  Biblical  study,  but 
did  not  engage  in  the  production  of  a  vernacular  Bible.  In 
apology,  however,  it  may  be  said  that  the  pastorate  in  Scotland 
is  an  office  of  constant  labour  and  travel,  and  that  there  are 
no  rich  benefices,  prebendal  stalls,  or  colleges  with  wealthy 
clusters  of  fellowships ;  and  that  in  other  days  ministers  had 
often  to  seek  places  of  concealment,  "  rocks,  dens,  and  caves," 
which  were  more  in  request  than  library  or  study ;  and  that 
edicts  and  proclamations  concerned  them  more  than  Greek  or 
Hebrew  ;  for  the  hand  that  might  have  turned  over  with  busy 
care  the  pages  of  a  lexicon  or  grammar  had  sometimes  to  apply 
itself  to  pike  and  musket. 

During  the  reign  of  James  V,  and  the  minority  of  his 
daughter,  there  was  a  close  connection  between  Scotland  and 
France ;  and  many  Scotchmen,  both  Catholic  and  Protestant, 
studied  at  foreign  universities.  The  Swiss  States  came  also 
into  friendly  intercourse  with  Caledonian  divines  and  re 
formers,  and  the  name  and  fame  of  Calvin  and  his  compeers 
were  as  great  in  Scotland  as  in  his  own  country.  The  French 
tongue  was  familiarly  spoken  at  the  Scottish  court,  and  was  also 
well  known  by  the  better  classes  through  the  country.  There 
fore  a  Bible  prepared  and  published  at  Geneva  was  sure  to  find 
a  ready  welcome,  especially  north  of  the  Tweed,  and  the  re- 
publication  of  it  formed  an  epoch  in  Scottish  ecclesiastical 

The  Genevan  version  was  originally  published  in  the  very 
year  in  which  there  met  at  Edinburgh  the  first  Protestant 
General  Assembly  of  the  Kirk — in  1560.  As  it  was  the  first 

1  The   conversations  which    John  quiet  ;    aumrie,    cupboard  ;    braw, 

Kuox    had    with.  Queen    Mary  at  fine  ;   bein,  well-to-do  (bien)  ;  gou, 

Holyrood,  and   which  are   told   by  taste  ;   ashet,   meat-dish  ;  jigot,  leg 

him  in  his  history  in  broad  Scotch,  of  mutton  ;    grozets,  gooseberries  ; 

must  have  been  conducted  in  French,  caraffe,  a  crystal  water-jug ;  fashions, 

Indeed  many  French  terms  are  still  troublesome  ;  ghean,  a  wild  cherry; 

preserved  in  the  common  speech  of  and  haggis  (hachisj. 
Scotland,  as  dour,  obstinate  ;  douce, 


Bible  issued  in  Scotland,  the  interesting  story  of  the  printing 
of  it  in  the  "  antient  kingdom  "  may  be  allowed  to  occupy  a 
few  pages.  In  March,  1575,  Alexander  Arbuthnot,  merchant 
burgess  of  Edinburgh,  and  Thomas  Bassandyne,  printer,  pre 
sented  a  petition  to  the  General  Assembly,  containing  a  pro 
posal  to  print  the  English  Bible.  The  Assembly  at  once 
assented  to  the  request,  and  "  anent  this  godly  proposition  it  is 
agreed  betwixt  this  present  Assembly  and  the  said  Alexander 
and  Thomas,  that  every  Bible  which  they  shall  receive  advance 
ment  for  shall  be  sold  in  albes  (sheets)  for  £4  13s.  4  pennies 
Scottis,1  keeping  the  volume  and  character  of  the  said  proofs 
delivered  to  the  clerk  of  the  Assembly."  Application  was 
ordered  to  be  made  "  to  the  Lord  Regent's 2  grace  "  that  the 
necessary  ratification  for  printing  be  given,  and  that  a  reason 
able  "  gratitude  "  be  appointed  to  such  "  as  should  be  employed 
for  correcting  of  the  said  Bible,  at  the  cost  of  the  said  Alex 
ander  and  Thomas "  ;  "  the  Kirk  promesing  to  deliver  the 
authentick  copy,  which  they  shall  follow,  to  them,  betwixt  and 
the  last  day  of  April."  Cautioners  were  found  and  solemnly 
pledged  on  behalf  of  the  printers  that  the  work  should  be  "per 
fected  betwixt  and  the  last  day  of  March,  1576."  The  "  perfer- 
vidum  ingenium"  soon  displayed  itself,  bishops,  superintendents/5 
commissioners  are  "taken  bound"  at  once  to  "do  utter  and 
exact  diligence  to  raise  the  necessary  funds  at  the  hands  of  the 
lords,  barons,  and  gentlemen  of  every  parish  " ;  and  it  is  en 
joined,  "  that  every  person  that  is  provided  of  old,  as  well  as  of 
new,  be  compelled  to  buy  a  Bible  to  their  parish  kirk,  and  to 

1  The  old  Scottish   currency  was  was   only  a  matter  of  "  temporary 
only  the  twelfth  in  value  of  sterling  expedience"  to  fill  up  vacant  parishes, 
money,  a  pound   Scots  being  only  They   could   not   act   of   their   sole 
one    shilling     and     eightpence,    or  authority   in  admitting    ministers ; 
twelve   pounds    Scots   equal  to  one  and  if  they  fell  into  sin,  they  were 
pound  sterling.  liable  to  the  same  sentences  as  their 

2  James  Douglas,  Earl  of  Morton,  brethren.    They  were  admitted  them- 
was  elected  Eegent,  24th  November,  selves  as  other  ministers  were,  their 
1572,  on  the  death  of  the  Earl  of  jurisdiction  was  wholly  regulated  by 
Mar.  the  synods,  and  they  were  responsible 

3  The  superintendents  are  distin-  to  the  General  Assembly  for  all  parts 
guished  from  bishops,  as  their  office  of  their  conduct. 


advance  therefor  the  price  foresaid,  and  the  said  prices  to  be 
collected  and  inbrought  by  the  said  bishops,  superintendents, 
and  visitors  within  each  bounds  and  shire,  within  their  juris 
diction,  betwixt  and  the  last  day  of  June."  At  the  next 
Assembly,  in  August,  1575,  the  work  of  printing  and  correcting 
was  spoken  of,  the  printers'  statement  being,  "Anent  the 
supplication  given  in  to  the  General  Assembly  by  Alexander 
Arbuthnot,  making  mention  that  whereas  it  is  not  unknown  to 
your  wisdoms,  what  great  work  and  charge  I  have  enterprised, 
concerning  the  imprinting  of  the  Bible,  for  accomplishing 
whereof  your  wisdoms  understood  that  the  office  of  a  corrector, 
his  diligence  and  attendance  therein,  is  most  necessary :  and 
therefore  I  humbly  desire  your  wisdoms  to  request  my  Lord 
Abbot  of  Dunfermline  to  licentiate  Mr.  George  Young,  his 
servant,  whom  I  think  most  fit  to  attend  upon  the  said  work 
of  correctorie,  to  concur  and  assist  me  during  the  time  of  my 
travell,  to  the  effect  that  the  notable  work  begun  and  enter- 
prised  may  be  consummat  and  perfected  in  all  points.  The 
charges  and  expenses  of  his  travels  I  shall  reasonably  deburse 
conforme  to  your  wisdoms'  discretion,  so  that  the  work  may 
pass  forward  and  be  decent,  as  the  honesty  of  the  same  re- 
-quires."  Letters  of  privilege  or  a  license  from  the  Privy 
Council  were  obtained  June  30,  authorizing  Arbuthnot  and 
Bassandyne  "to  prent  or  cause  be  imprentit,  set  furth  and 
sauld  within  this  realm,  or  outwith  the  samen,  Bibles  in  the 
vulgar  Inglis  toung,  in  haill  or  in  partes,  with  ane  calendar  for 
ten  years,  and  discharging  all  his  hienes  lieges,  that  nane  of 
them  tak  upon  hand,  to  prent  or  cause  be  imprentit  in  ony 
carrecture  or  letter,  translation  or  volume  quhatsumever,  sell 
or  cause  be  sauld,  brocht  hame,  or  distribute  to  ony  person  or 
persones  (except  with  consent  of  the  said,  &c.),  providing  they 
sell  every  bibill  according  to  the  prices  appointed "  (viz., 
£4,  13s.  4d.)  Bassandyne1  had  died  before  the  publication;  and 
Arbuthnot,  whose  name  alone  appears  on  the  title-page  of  the 
Old  Testament,  got  power  to  print  during  his  lifetime  ordinary 
books,  but  special  license  to  print  and  sell  Bibles  "  in  the 

1  His  name  alone  stands  on   the  title-page   of  the   New    Testament 
•which  was  finished  in  1576. 

xxxvi.]  PRINTED  IN  EDINBURGH.  45 

vulgar  Inglis,  Scottes,  and  Latine  tounges."  Thus  the  publica 
tion  of  this  folio  Bible  was  wholly  an  enterprise  of  the  Church; 
for  though  the  Regent  Morton  who  issued  the  license,  advanced 
some  money  to  the  printers,  that  money  was  only  the  sums 
collected  in  the  various  parishes  according  to  the  agreement 
"  allowed  and  authorized  by  the  Regent's  grace." 

The  New  Testament  was  ready  in  1576,  and  the  whole  Bible 
in  1579 : 

"  The  Bible  &  Holy  Scriptures  conteined  in  the  Olde  & 
Newe  Testament,  translated  according  to  the  Ebru  &  Greeke, 
&  conferred  with  the  beste  translations  in  divers  languages. 

O          O 

With  moste  profitable  annotations  upon  all  the  hard  places  of 
the  Holy  Scriptures  &  other  things  of  great  importance,  mete 
for  the  godly  reader.  Printed  in  Edinburgh,  Be  Alexander 
Arbuthnot,  Printer  to  the  Kingis  Majestic,  dwelling  at  ye  Kirk 
of  Field,  1579.  Cum  gratia  &  privilegio  regise  majestatis." 

The  title-page  has  the  royal  arms  of  Scotland  in  the  centre. 
The  Bible  was  dedicated  to  the  "Richt  Excellent,  Richt  heich 
&  michtie  Prince  James  the  Saxt,  King  of  Scottis  .  .  .  &c.  ;  " 
"  From  Edinburgh  at  our  General  Assemblie,  the  tent  day  of 
Julie,  1579."  The  Dedication,  which  was  approved  by  the 
Assembly,  speaks  with  honest  plainness  to  the  king — who  was 
then  about  fourteen  years  of  age,  and  there  is  a  ring  of  glad 
ness  in  the  words  addressed  to  him  :  "  Certainlie  we  have  great 
occasion  baith  to  glorifie  the  gudenes  of  God  toward  this 
countrie,  &  also  heichlie  to  extol  your  heines  most  godlie 
purpose  &  enterprise.  O  quhat  difference  may  be  seen  between 
thir  dayes  of  light  when  almaist  in  every  private  house  the 
buike  of  God's  law  is  red  &  understand  in  our  vulgarie  lan 
guage,  &  that  age  of  darknes  when  skarcelie  in  ane  haill  citie 
(without  the  clostres  of  monks  &  freires)  culd  the  buke  of  God 
anes  be  founde,  &  that  in  ane  strange  tongue  of  Latin  not  gud, 
but  mixed  with  barbaritie,  used  &  red  be  fewe  &  almaist 
understand  or  exponit  be  nane  ;  &  quhen  the  false  namit  clergie 
of  this  realme,  abusing  the  gentle  nature  of  your  hienes  maist 
noble  gudshir l  of  worthie  memorie,  made  it  an  capital  crime  to 
be  punished  with  the  fyre  to  have  or  read  the  New  Testament 
1  Grandfather- 


in  the  vulgar  language;  &  to  make  them  to  all  men  more 
odious,  as  if  it  had  been  the  detestable  name  of  a  pernicious 
sect,  they  were  called  New  Testamenters."  The  impression  now 
published  was  intended  chiefly  "  to  the  end,  that  in  every 
paroch  kirk  there  suld  be  at  least  ane  thereof  kepit,  to  be 
called  the  common  buke  of  the  kirke,  as  a  maist  meet  orna 
ment  for  sik  a  place,  &  a  perpetual  register  of  the  Word  of 
God,  the  fountaine  of  all  true  doctrine,  to  be  made  patent  to  all 
the  people  of  everie  congregation  as  the  only  richt  rule  to 
direct  &  govern  them  in  matters  of  religion,  as  also  to  confirm 
thame  in  the  trueth  receavit,  &  to  reform  and  redress  corrup 
tions  whensoever  they  may  crepe  in."  Due  honour  is  also 
given  to  the  learned  and  laborious  translators. 

Matters  were  not  done  by  halves ;  for  an  Act  of  Parlia 
ment  was  passed  enacting  that  every  householder  worth 
300  merks  of  yearly  rent,  and  every  yeoman  or  burgess 
worth  £500  stock,  was  to  have  a  Bible  and  Psalm  Book 
in  the  vulgar  language,  under  the  penalty  of  ten  pounds. 
This  enactment  was  no  dead  letter,  for  "  searchers  "  were  ap 
pointed  to  visit  all  dwellings,  and  report  as  to  their  want  or  pos 
session  of  a  Bible.  In  1580  "  the  magistrates  and  town  council 
of  Edinburgh  issued  a  proclamation  commanding  all  the  house 
holders  to  have  Bibles,"  under  the  pains  contained  in  the  Act 
of  Parliament,  and  advertising  them  that  the  Bibles  are  to  be 
"sauld  in  the  merchant  buith  of  Andrew  Williamson,  on  the 
north  syde  of  this  burgh,  besyde  the  Meill  Mercatt."  On  the 
llth  of  November,  1580,  "Alexander  Clerk,  of  Balbery,  provost, 
&c.,  ordanis  the  haill  neighbours  of  this  burgh  to  be  callit  in 
before  the  bailies  by  their  quarters  for  not  keeping  of  the  said 
Act  to  be  adjugeit  in  the  unlaw  therein  contenit,  &  for 
eschewing  of  all  fraude,  ordanis  sic  as  sail  bring  their  bybills 
&  psalm  buiks  to  hafe  their  names  writtin  &  subscryvit  be  the 
clerk  :  &  therefter  the  buiks  deliverit  to  them."  On  the  16th 
of  November,  there  was  an  order  to  pursue  all  persons  "that 
lias  incurrit  the  payne  of  the  Act  for  not  having  ane  bybill  or 
psalme  buik."  The  printer  had  been  slow  in  delivering  copies, 
and  the  patience  of  the  General  Assembly  was  exhausted,  so 
that,  in  July,  1580,  they  "propone  to  his  majesty  &  council 

xxxvi.]  SOME  ACCOUNT  OF  IT.  ^j 

that  order  be  taken  with  Alexander  Arbuthnot  that  the 
Bibles  may  be  dely  vevit  according  to  his  receipt  of  money  from 
every  paroch,  &  to  that  effect  that  he  &;  his  severties  (sureties) 
may  be  commandit  be  letters  of  horning  for  delyverance 
thereof,  &  na  suspensioun  to  be  grantit  without  the  samyn  be 
dely  verit. " l 

The  Bible  thus  published  in  Scotland  with  all  this  array  of 
civil  and  ecclesiastical  prerogative,  is  the  Genevan  edition  of 
1561 ;  the  second  folio  edition  being  "  the  authentic  copy"  sup 
plied  by  the  General  Assembly.  The  Scottish  printer  had  not 
sufficient  Greek  types,2  and  under  Kev.  xii,  18,  he  notes,  "  These 
Greke  characters  chi,  xi,  st  [that  is,  x  £  r]  signifie  6G6."  Wod- 
row,  the  well  known  historian,  vaguely  and  doubtfully  says  of 
this  Bible  :  "  I  believe  the  Genevan  translation  was  what  they 
kept  nearest  to."  But  it  was  not  an  approximation  at  all — it 
was  an  exact  reprint  of  the  second  edition,  with  all  the  notes 
and  facsimiles  of  the  cuts  and  maps,  and  the  French  terms 
attached  to  them,  as  Aquilon,  midi,  orient,  Occident.  In  the 
first  edition  of  1560  the  supplementary  words  were  printed  in 
italics,  but  in  the  second  edition  they  were  put  within  brackets. 
This  plan  is  followed  in  the  Edinburgh  reprint,  but  the  printer 
had  not  apparently  procured  a  sufficient  number  of  bracket 
marks  in  time,  for  none  are  used  in  the  Gospels  ;  they  appeal- 
first  in  the  Acts  of  the  Apostles.  The  proper  names  are 
furnished  with  accents,  after  Pagninus,  as  Heuah,  laakob, 

1  "Letters  of  homing  "are,  in  Scot-  -  In     1524,     when    Wyukyu    de 

tish  law,  a  formal  charge  signed  with  AVorde    printed   a  small    book    by 

the  "  Signet,"  and    delivered  to   a  Wakefield,  on  the  study  of  Arabic 

debtor,   commanding    him    to    pay  and   Hebrew,   he    was    obliged    to 

within  a  limited  period  ;  and  if,  at  omit  the  third  part,  as  he  had  ex- 

the  expiry  of  such  a  term,  he  has  not  hausted  his  Hebrew  types.     Hebrew 

paid,  an  officer  goes  to  the  market  types  were  not  used  in  Scotland  till 

cross  of  the  burgh,  and  after  three  about  1599.     Lekprevik  the  printer, 

peals  of  a  "horn  "  or  trumpet,  pro-  in  a  book  published  by  him  in  1563, 

claims  him  a  rebel,  and  then  he  may  says  of  certain  Greek  words,  "I  had 

be  put  in  prison  not  formally  for  no  characters  to  express  them,"  and 

debt,  but  for  disloyalty.  The  process,  therefore  he  employed  some  "  scol- 

changed  by  1  and  2  Victoria,  c.  114,  lers"  to  write  them  with  a  pen  on 

is  not  wholly  obsolete.  the  sheets. 


Izhak,  Habel,  Kain,  as  in  the  first  edition.  The  calendar  and 
chronological  notes  were  prepared  and  subscribed  by  Robert 
Pont,  one  of  the  ministers  of  the  West  Kirk,  who  was  also  one 
of  the  Lords  of  Session.  One  serious  misprint  of  the  "copy"  was 
corrected — "  Blessed  are  the  place  makers  "  for  "  peace  makers," 
Matt,  v,  3.  There  was  also  another  error  of  the  press  in  the 
contents  of  Luke  xxi,  "  Christ  condemneth  the  poor  widow," 
for  "  commendeth." 

The  publication  of  the  Genevan  version  at  Edinburgh  without 
any  change  in  orthography,  or  any  assimilation  of  its  style  to 
Scottish  usage,  shows  that  at  this  period,  as  at  earlier  times, 
the  English  of  the  south  was  quite  intelligible  to  all  the 
educated  population  of  Scotland ;  and  the  fact  is  the  more 
remarkable  from  the  contrast  between  the  text  of  the  Bible 
and  the  distinctly  Scottish  dialect  and  spelling  of  the  dedica 
tion  to  the  young  king.  When  the  Earl  of  Murray  appeared 
before  Queen  Elizabeth,  in  1565,  he  spoke  in  Scottish,  which 
her  majesty  interpreted  to  the  French  ambassador.  No  other 
edition  of  the  Bible  was  published  in  Scotland  for  the  next 
thirty  years,  or  till  1610.  In  1589  John  Gibson  purchased 
from  Gilbert  Masterton  a  patent  which  had  been  held  by 
Archdeacon  Young,  of  St.  Andrews,  giving  liberty  for  printing 
within  the  realm,  or  causing  to  be  printed  within  or  without 
the  realm,  "the  Bible  in  our  own  vulgar  tongue,  with  the 
Psalm  book,  the  double  and  single  Catechise,  with  the  Prog 
nostications."  l  This  patentee  had  "  ane  new  psalme  buik  "  "  on 
his  awin  grit  charges,  and  be  his  privat  mean  and  devyse," 
printed  at  Middleburgh,  in  Flanders;  and  he  received  "free  and 
only  license  and  liberty  to  bring  hame  and  sell  the  said  im 
pression  at  convenient  prices,  for  seven  years."  Bibles  from 
abroad  were  by  enactment  at  this  time  freely  imported  into 

1  The  name  given  to  the  tongue  of  this  first  Edinburgh  reprint  a  Bible 

the   Island  was    English,   and   the  in  the  Scotch  language,  a  proof  that 

First  Book  of  Discipline,  1560,  says,  he  had  never  inspected  it.    Edwards 

under  the  Nynte  Heade,  "We  think  in  his  "Libraries/'  p.  438,  complains 

it  a  thing  most  expedient  and  neces-  of  Dibdin's  carelessness,  and  quotes  a 

sariethat  everyechurche  have  a  Bibill  similar  censure  by  Mr.  Panizzi,  lately 

in  Englische."  Yet  even  Dibdin  calls  of  the  British  Museum. 

xxxvi.]  PROPOSED  REVISION.  49 

Scotland,  and  were  not  to  "pay  the  ordinary  customs  charge." 
These  foreign  editions  were  prized  as  being  of  good  print  and 
paper.  In  1601,  through  Andro  Hart  and  his  partners,  an 
edition  was  printed  at  Dort ;  and  Hart  printed  in  folio  another 
Bible  at  Edinburgh  in  1610 — the  Genevan  version  of  the 
Old  Testament,  and  Laurence  Tomson's  edition  of  the  New. 
The  edition  of  Hart  was  highly  prized ;  and  other  and  subse 
quent  editions,  to  command  a  ready  sale,  inserted  in  their  title- 
page,  "Conform  to  the  edition  printed  by  Andro  Hart."  Two 
handsome  folios,  printed  at  Amsterdam  in  1640  and  in  1644, 
make  this  assertion — "According  to  the  copy  printed  in  Edin 
burgh  by  Mr.  Andrew  Hart,  in  1610." 

There  had  even  been  at  one  time  some  sort  of  overture  made 
for  a  revision  of  the  Genevan  version.  The  records  of  the  General 
Assembly  which  met  at  Burntisland,  in  May,  1601,  contain  the 
following  minute : — "  It  being  meinit  be  sundrie  of  the  breth 
ren,  that  thair  was  sundrie  errors  that  meritit  to  be  correctit 
in  the  vulgar  translation  of  the  Bible,  the  Assemblie  hes  con- 
cludit  as  follows :  first,  anent  the  translatione  of  the  Bible,  that 
every  ane  of  the  brethrene  quha  hes  best  knawledge  in  the 
languages,  employ  their  travells  in  sundrie  pairts  of  the  vulgar 
translatioune  of  the  Bible  that  neides  to  be  mendit,  and  to 
conferre  the  same  together  at  the  nixt  Assemblie."  But  the 
proposal  never  took  effect. 

VOL.  II.  1) 


Genevan  version  printed  in  England,  or  imported  from 
the  Continent,  was  the  favourite  volume  in  Scottish 
families,  and  kept  its  place  for  many  years  after  the  publica 
tion  of  the  Authorized  Version.  Its  very  name  endeared  it  to 
them,  for  the  divines  of  Geneva  ranked  next  to  the  "  Twelve," 
in  the  loyal  and  loving  esteem  of  Scottish  Protestants.  Knox 
had  ministered  in  that  city,  Calvin  and  Beza  had  taught  and 
preached  in  it.  It  was  only  natural  that,  as  late  as  1629, 
Zacharie  Boyd  should  use  the  Genevan  version  in  his  "Last 
Battle  of  the  Soul."  Even  those  who  were  willing  to  conform 
to  Episcopacy  at  the  king's  bidding,  and  to  vindicate  his 
high-handed  procedure,  were  not  disposed  to  accept  his  Bible  ; 
for  its  long  use  had  hallowed  the  Genevan  version  to  them. 
The  diocesan  synod  of  St.  Andrews  enacted,  in  1611,  the 
very  year  of  our  Authorized  Version,  "Forasmeikle  as  it  was 
thought  expedient  that  there  be  in  every  kirk  ane  commoune 
Bible,  it  was  concludit  that  every  brother  sail  urge  his 
parochiners  to  buy  ane  of  the  Bybles  laitlie  printed  be  Andro 
Hart ;  and  the  brother  failying  either  to  cause  buy  ane  of  the 
Bybles  as  said  is,  or  ellis  to  gif  in  his  exact  diligens,  sail  pay 
at  the  next  synod,  6  lib  money,"  i.  e.,  10s.  shillings  sterling. 
This  decision  is  the  more  remarkable,  as  at  this  very  period 
Episcopacy  was  established,  and  the  spiritual  supremacy  of 
the  king  was  acknowledged;  yet  the  older  translation  was 
formally  preferred,  when  it  must  have  been  known  that 
another  was  on  the  eve  of  publication,  under  royal  patronage, 
for  the  sister  community  in  England. 

Sir  James  Sempill,  of  Beltrees,  in  a  book  dedicated  to  the 


king,  significantly  called  "  Sacrilege  Sacredly  Handled,"  meant 
"for  the  Churches  of  North  Britaine,  1619,"  uses  the  Genevan 
version.  Dr.  Guild,  chaplain  to  Charles  I,  in  his  earliest  works, 
published  at  London  and  Aberdeen,  1615,  quotes  from  the 
Genevan  version.  Bishop  Lindsay,  of  Brechin,  inserts  into  the 
title-page  of  his  "True  Narration,"  published  in  1621,  as  its 
motto,  Prov.  xxiv,  31,  in  the  Genevan  translation;  and  this 
narration  is  an  apology  for  the  Assembly  which  met  at  Perth, 
in  1618,  and  enacted  the  notorious  "five  articles,"  contain 
ing  many  characteristic  elements  of  the  Episcopalian  ritual. 
Bishop  Cowper,  of  Galloway,  whose  collected  works  were 
printed  in  London,  1629,  uses  the  Genevan  version.  James 
Baillie,  A.M.,  preached  at  Westminster  a  sermon  on  "  Spiritual 
Marriage,"  and  dedicated  it  to  no  less  than  nine  Scottish  peers, 
and  seven  other  courtiers,  and  he  uses  the  Genevan  version.  So 
does  Struthers,  a  minister  of  Edinburgh,  and  one  noted  for  his 
servility,  in  treatises  published  by  him  in  1628.  Wischart,  of 
Restalrig,  in  his  "  Exposition  of  the  Lord's  Prayer,"  follows  the 
same  practice ;  as  also  does  Bishop  Abernethy,  of  Caithness,  in 
his  "Physike  for  the  Soule,"  London,  1638.1  It  is  scarcely 
to  be  wondered  at  that  the  Alexander  Henderson  who  pre 
sided  at  the  General  Assembly  which  met  at  Glasgow  in  1638, 
and,  by  a  sweeping  act,  declared  Episcopacy  overthrown  in 
Scotland,  should  have  used  the  Genevan  version.  So  late  as 
1640,  an  edition  of  the  Genevan  Prose  Psalms  was  printed  at 

The  vitality  of  the  Genevan  Bible  was  wonderful.  It  had 
commended  itself  to  general  acceptance,  for  it  had  been  made 
by  earnest  and  scholarly  men,  driven  by  persecution  out  of 
England ;  made  in  a  city  revered  as  the  home  and  metropolis 
of  the  popular  theology;  and  it  was  also  a  better  translation 
than  any  of  its  rivals.  It  did  not  die  under  episcopal  frown, 
nor  was  its  circulation  promoted  to  any  extent  by  episcopal 
patronage.  The  people  loved  it  for  itself  and  its  history.  It 
was  a  contemporary  of  the  Great  Bible  for  nine  years,  and 
outlived  it;  and  of  the  Bishops'  for  nigh  forty  years,  and 

1  Memorial  from  the  Bible  Societies  of  Scotland,  by  Principal  Lee,  p.  90. 
&c.     Edinburgh,  1824. 


outlived  it  too  for  more  than  a  quarter  of  a  century.  The 
Great  Bible  was  not  issued  beyond  1569,  nor  the  Bishops' 
after  1G06  ;  but  the  Genevan  survived  all  these  changes. 
Sometime  in  the  reign  of  Charles  I,  the  Genevan  version, 
of  which  about  one  hundred  and  sixty  editions  had  been 
published,  sank  gradually  into  disuse  throughout  the  whole 
country.  The  king's  printer  issued  impressions  only  of  the 
Authorized  Version  which  was  now  deservedly  growing  into 
favour,  and  Genevan  Bibles  had  to  be  imported.  Archbishop 
Laud,  who  had  from  his  youth  a  great  dislike  of  this  version,  and 
had  shown  it  strongly  when  president  of  St.  John  College,  for 
bad  the  importation  of  copies.  This  prohibition  was  one  of  the 
special  charges  brought  against  him  on  the  trial  which  ended 
in  his  execution.  His  reply  was  that  by  the  importation  of 
books  it  was  feared  that  "  printing  would  be  carried  out  of  the 
kingdom,  for  those  books  were  better  print,  better  bound, 
better  paper,  and  for  all  the  charges  of  bringing  sold  better 
cheap." l  Though  King  James  had  scornfully  depreciated  the 
Genevan  notes  at  the  Hampton  Court  Conference,  the  people 
relished  them  greatly,  and,  according  to  Fuller,  when  the  version 
was  disappearing,  they  complained  that  they  "could  not  see 
into  the  sense  of  Scripture  for  lack  of  the  spectacles  of  those 
Genevan  annotations."  The  Genevan  Bible  having  done  its 
work  at  length  passed  away,  making  room  for  another  version 
in  so  many  respects  its  superior. 

The  Genevan  version  was  attacked  about  the  year  1611  by  a 
Dr.  Howson  in  a  sermon  preached  at  St.  Mary's,  Oxford,  his 
charge  being  that  it  contained  misinterpretations  leading  to 
the  denial  of  the  Divinity  and  Messiahship  of  Jesus  Christ, 
and  thus  favouring  Arianism  and  Judaism.  The  accusation 
is  utterly  groundless,  and  must  have  been  the  result  of  strange 
misconception  and  prejudice.  Dr.  Abbot  suspended  the  preacher 
for  the  publication  of  such  a  libel.  During  the  trial  a  letter 
from  Thomas  Bodley  "  in  defence  and  praise  "  of  the  translators 
was  read  "from  St.  Marie's  pulpit."  This  most  popular  of  the 

1  The  phrase  occurs  in  the  Author-     after  the  Bishops',  the  Genevan,  the 
ized    Version,   2    Esdras   xvi,    21,    Great  Bible,  and  Coverdale. 
u  victuals    shall    be   good    cheape," 

xxxvir.]  GREGORY  MARTIN'S  ATTACK.  53 

older  versions  was  assaulted  by  Gregory  Martin,  in  his  "  Dis- 
coverie  of  the  Manifold  Corruptions  of  the  Holy  Scriptures 
by  heretickes  of  our  daies,  especially  the  English  sectaries, 
in  their  English  Bibles,  used  and  authorized  since  the  time 
of  the  Schism."  1  He  affirmed  that  it  was  professedly  trans 
lated  from  Beza,  and  thus  gave  the  lie  to  its  title-page, 
which  has  "translated  according  to  the  Ebrue  and  Greke." 
His  own  admission  that  in  many  places  they  dare  not  fol 
low  Beza  is  a  proof  that  his  charge  cannot  be  sustained, 
for  it  is,  as  Fulke  calls  it,  "an  impudent  slander."  He 
asserts  of  the  English  heretics  that  Beza  is  their  "chief  trans 
lator  and  a  captain  among  them,  whom  they  profess  to  follow 
in  the  title  of  their  New  Testament,  anno  1580,  and  by  the 
very  name  of  their  Geneva  Bibles." 2  The  accusation  is  base 
less,  for  the  English  refugees  revised  Tyndale  and  the  Great 
Bible  with  all  the  helps  in  their  power,  and  all  the  assistance 
which  they  could  procure  by  consultation  and  correspondence. 
Again,  this  Bible  is  accused  by  Martin  of  concealing  the 
truth  when  it  says  only  "  The  Epistle  to  the  Hebrews,"  omitting 
the  name  of  Paul ;  but  the  prefatory  note  gives  the  reason,  the 
want  of  uniform  evidence,  both  of  Greek  writers  and  Latin, 
that  Paul  was  the  writer ;  and  they  are  bold  and  learned  enough 
to  say  that  if  it  be  Paul's,  "  it  is  not  like  " — "  yea,  seeing  the 
Spirit  of  God  is  the  author  thereof,  it  diminisheth  nothing  of 
the  autorite,  although  we  know  not  with  what  penne  he  wrote 
it."  The  opinion  of  Geddes  is  similar  to  that  of  Martin,  and  he 
adds  "  that  it  was  accompanied  with  notes  by  Beza,  and  hence 
obtained  his  name."  But  who  ever  heard  of  the  Genevan 
being  called  Beza's  Bible  ?  though  certainly  Gregory  Martin 
again  and  again  stigmatizes  the  English  Protestants  by  the 
name  of  Bezites.3  The  opinion  of  Father  Simon 4  need  scarcely 

1  Rhemes,  1582.  printed     twice,    and     many    times 

"  The    allusion    is    to    Tomson's  afterwards. 

revision    of     1576,    the    title-page  3  Prospectus.     Mason  Good's  Me- 

of  which  somewhat   strangely   an-  moirs  of  Dr.  Geddes,  p.  125,  London, 

nounces     that     it     is     "  translated  1803. 

out    of    Greeke   by   Theod.   Beza."  4  Critical  Enquiries  (English  trana- 

In     1580,     Tomson's     version     was  lation),  p.  231,  London,  1684. 


be  noticed,  that  the  Genevan  is  the  French  Bible  printed  at 
Geneva,  "  the  which  was  made  English."  The  influence  of  Oli- 
vetan's  version  is  now  and  then  apparent,  but  it  is  not  specially 
frequent  or  prominent. 

Lastly,  a  peculiar  criticism  on  the  Genevan  translation  came 
from  a  very  unexpected  quarter,  the  author  being  John  Hamil 
ton,  a  relation  or  close  friend  of  him  of  Bothwellhaugh,  who,  after 
being  formally  pardoned  by  the  Begent  Murray  on  the  field  of 
Langside,  killed  him  within  a  brief  period  by  a  cowardly  shot 
from  a  window  in  Linlithgow,  the  house  being  owned  by  one 
Hamilton,  the  Archbishop  of  St.  Andrews,1  and  the  musket 
borrowed  from  another,  the  Abbot  of  Arbroath.  Mary  Stewart, 
the  royal  sister  of  the  murdered  man,  conferred  a  pension  on 
the  assassin.2  Hamilton  was  a  secular  priest,  and  from  his  per 
petual  wanderings,  intrigues,  and  conspiracies,  he  got  the  name 
of  the  "  Skirmisher."  He  was  one  of  the  familiars  of  the  Duke 
of  Alva  in  his  deeds  of  treachery  and  blood.  He  had  been  em 
ployed  in  the  murder  of  Coligny  ;  and  Philip  II  for  some  time 
thought  of  him  as  one  quite  fitted  in  temperament  and  expe 
rience  to  "  look  after  "  the  Prince  of  Orange  ;  but  his  character 
was  so  notorious  that  his  presence  would  have  aroused  sus 
picions.  As  the  cure  of  St.  Cosme  in  Paris,  he  was  a  pro 
minent  member  of  the  League,  and  was  heart  and  hand.,  too, 
in  the  sudden  and  illegal  arrest  of  the  president  and  jurist 
Barnabe  Brisson,  and  his  two  fellow-judges  Larcher  and  Tardif ; 
in  their  execution,  in  the  Petit  Chatelet,  two  hours  after  their 
seizure ;  and  in  the  exposure,  after  the  tragedy,  of  their  dead 
bodies  in  the  Place  de  Greve.  He  became  rector  of  the  Uni 
versity  of  Paris  in  1584,  and  published  several  treatises  in 
defence  of  "  halie  kirk,"  in  which  are  found  some  superstitions 
of  the  lowest  and  most  ludicrous  kind  about  the  arts  and  wiles 
and  common  disguises  of  the  Evil  One.  Bothwellhaugh,  three 
years  after,  was  willing  to  undertake  the  assassination  of  the 

1!John  Hamilton,  archbishop,  sup-  Stirling,  April,  1571.     "Assassina- 

posed  to  have  planned  the  assassina-  tion,"  as  Mr.  Froude  says,  "was  au 

tion  of  Darnley  and  of  the  Eegent  accomplishment  in  the  family." 

Murray,  was  seized  at  the  capture  of  2  Labanoff,  vol.  Ill,  p.  341. 
Dumbarton  Castle,  and  hanged  at 

xxxvii.]  PRIEST  HAMILTON'S  ATTACK.  55 

Prince  of  Orange,,  and  he  suggested  two  persons  for  the  purpose. 
If  there  be  no  mistake  about  the  name,  the  Skirmisher,  when 
he  felt  the  cause  of  Mary  to  be  failing,  sunk  so  low  at  length, 
that  he  sent  from  Brussels  to  the  Eegent  Morton,  "  offering  to 
do  service  either  there  with  the  Duke  of  Alva  or  with  the 
Queen  of  Scots." l  He  had  managed  for  some  years  the  secret 
correspondence  between  Mary  Stewart  and  Alva.  A  little 
volume  of  his  compositions  was  published  at  Louvain  in  1600, 
and  a  copy  is  in  the  Advocate's  Library  in  Edinburgh.2  Among 
them  are  some  remarkably  beautiful  prayers,  and  some  hymns 
above  mediocrity.  In  the  same  volume,  the  work  of  one  of 
the  most  daring  of  "  bloody  and  deceitful  men,"  is  a  series  of 
remarks  on  the  Genevan  version,  suggested  by  its  popularity 
in  his  Protestant  fatherland.  His  censure  is  headed,  "Cor 
ruption  of  twenty-three  passages  of  the  Scriptures  be  the 
ministers'  adulterous  translations  thereof  in  their  Scottis  Bible, 
and  the  causes  why  they  have  corruptit  ye  same."  The  places 
objected  to  are  either  in  translations  or  notes  connected  with 
Popish  dogma  or  ritual;  the  notes  "obscuring  or  denying 
Christ's  pretious  bodie  and  bluid ;  maintaining  heresie  agains 
prayers  for  the  daid  and  purgatorie;  denying  tradition,  and 
affirming  that  Christ  teacheth  by  his  verie  voce  al  thing-is 
necessaires  for  treu  religion."  The  critic  has  special  objection 
to  the  Genevan  note  on  Luke  i,  28  and  42,  for  it  defames  the 
immaculat  mother  of  God  "  whom  they  blaspheme  as  a  sinner 
lyk  uther  wemen,  and  denies  that  the  halie  virgin e  Marie  was 
blissit  in  hir  self,  and  be  the  halines  of  hir  a  win  godlie  lyf." 
Notes  against  virginity,  the  sacrament  of  marriage,  and  the 
power  of  the  priesthood,  are  also  keenly  reprobated,  as  also 
the  rendering  of  "elders"  for  priests  in  James  v,  14,  "secret" 
for  sacrament  in  Ephesians  v,  32.  Zechariah  ix,  11,  12  is 
selected  for  strong  censure,  because  neither  in  translation  nor 

1  Fronde's  History,  vol.  IX,  p.  577,  Verteu,  and   Effects  of  the   Sacra- 
fee,  ments:  togidder  with  certain  Prayers 

2  "  A  Facile  Treatise,  conteuand,  of  Devotion,  &c.,  dedicat  to  his  Sove- 
rirst,   ane  infalible  rule  to   discern  rain  Prince  King  James  the  Saxt. 
Treu  from  False  Religion  :  nixt,  a  Louvain,  1600." 

Declaration  of  the  Nature,  Number, 


notes  is  the  old  idea  of  Jerome  and  Cyril  brought  out,  that  the 
pit  or  lake  is  the  lirtibus  patrum,  or,  as  Hamilton  puts  it,  "it  is 
meant  to  hyd  the  deliuerance  of  the  patriarchies  and  uthers,  just 
men  in  the  auld  law,  out  of  the  lymbe  of  the  fathers,  callit  in 
the  Euangile  Abraham's  bosume,  be  Christ's  descension  into 
hel."  The  same  objection  is  made  to  Acts  ii,  27.  Exodus  v,  1 
is  selected  for  blame,  because  the  translation  "  offer  a  sacrifice  " 
has  not  been  adopted  "for  God  chienie  requires  sacrifice  of  his 
treu  worschipers."  The  note  on  Isaiah  xix,  19.  in  reference  to 
the  altar  of  the  Lord  in  the  land  of  Egypt,  is  condemned  as 
hiding  the  "external  sacrifice  of  the  Messe,  whilk  thay  cal 
ane  idole."  Acts  xiii,  23  is  said  to  be  corrupted  "be  their  fals 
marginal  note  " — referring  to  popular  election  of  ministers ;  as 
also  the  note  to  Malachi  i,  11,  where  incense  is  explained  by 
spiritual  service.  The  "  Skirmisher" x  chose  an  unfamiliar  beat 
when  he  laid  aside  cord,  dagger,  and  disguise,  and  resorted  to 
criticism,  for  it  is  utterly  irrelevant ;  and  he  should  have  shown 
not  the  Protestant  prepossessions,  but  the  unscholarly  failures 
of  the  Genevan  versionists.  He  concludes  his  diatribe  with  a 
fierce  warning :  "  Therefore,  I  beseek  you,  dissaivet  people,  to 
burn  your  corrupt  Scots  Bible  in  the  fire,  that  your  sauls  be 
not  tormentit  with  the  intolerable  pains  of  the  fires  of  hell. 
This  was  the  only  cause  why  our  Catholic  bishops  forbade  the 
reading  of  the  English  Bible,  that  the  corruptions  thereof 
should  not  infect  their  sauls  to  eternal  perdition." 2  It  may  be 
added  that  Hamilton  returned  to  Scotland,  and  after  finding 
"  lurking  holes  "  for  some  time,  he  was,  in  1G09,  seized,  and 
sent  up  to  the  Tower  in  London,  where  he  died. 

1    Bannatyne,    Knox's    secretary,  2  Burton's   History  of    Scotland, 

notes  in  his  "Memorials,"  p.  51,  "In  vol.   V,  p.   267;    vol.   VI,    p.  271. 

the  meantime  there  came  from  Flan-  Life  of  John  Hamilton,  a  secular 

ders  a  little  pink,  and  in  it  two  gen-  priest,  by  Dalrymple,  Lord  Hailee. 

tlemen,  with  Mr.  John  Hamilton,  Annals  of  Scotland,  vol.  Ill,  p.  447- 

called    the    Skirmisher,    fra    Duke  Edinburgh,  1819. 


"  LORD,  Thy  word  abideth, 
And  our  footsteps  guideth  ; 
"Who  its  truth  believeth 
Light  and  joy  receiveth. 

"  When  our  foes  are  near  us, 
Then  thy  word  doth  cheer  us, 
Word  of  consolation, 
Message  of  salvation. 

"  When  the  storms  are  o'er  us, 
And  dark  clouds  before  us, 
Then  its  light  directeth, 
And  our  way  protecteth. 

"  Who  can  tell  the  pleasure, 
Who  recount  the  treasure, 
By  Thy  word  imparted 
To  the  simple-hearted  ? 

"  Word  of  mercy,  giving 
Succour  to  the  living ; 
Word  of  life,  supplying 
Comfort  to  the  dying  ! 

"  Oh  that  we,  discerning 
Its  most  holy  learning, 
Lord,  may  love  and  fear  Thee, 
Evermore  be  near  Thee  ! " 


QUEEN  MARY  died  on  the  17th  of  November,  1558,  and 
was  succeeded  by  her  sister  Elizabeth.  The  earlier  part 
of  Elizabeth's  reign  was  beset  with  many  difficulties.  Old 
things  were  passing  away,  and  it  required  delicate  handling  to 
settle  the  new  order  amidst  doubts  and  distractions,  deepened 
by  political  complications  between  Spain  and  France.  The 
population  was  divided  at  the  same  time  into  hostile  forces ; 
excesses  of  conservatism  arrayed  in  self-defence  on  the  one 
hand,  and  excesses  of  innovation  battling  to  realize  themselves 
on  the  other.  The  re-organization  of  the  Church  had  been 
wondrously  helped  by  the  unusual  number  of  vacancies  on  the 
episcopal  bench.  Only  five  of  Edward's  bishops,  English  and 
Irish,  had  survived  the  dark  and  disastrous  reign  of  his  sister ; 
and  Cardinal  Pole,  who  died  on  the  same  day  with  his  royal 
mistress  arid  kinswoman,  had  left  several  sees  unfilled,  so 
that  at  the  opening  of  Elizabeth's  first  parliament  only  ten 
spiritual  peers  were  present.  There  were  a  dozen  dioceses 
without  mitred  heads,  and  according  to  De  Feria,  the  Spanish 
ambassador,  the  Queen  set  over  them  ministros  de  Lucifer. 
Canterbury  was  filled  by  the  consecration,  at  Lambeth,  on  the 
17th  December,  of  Matthew  Parker,  who  had  been  one  of 
Queen  Anne  Boleyn's  chaplains  and  Dean  of  Lincoln,  and  he 
quietly  succeeded  Cardinal  Pole,  as  if  nothing  had  happened 
out  of  the  usual  course.  His  opinions  on  ecclesiastical  matters 
suited  Elizabeth  and  Cecil,  and  though  he  was  a  married  dig 
nitary,  he  had  been  so  colourless  a  reformer  that  he  easily 
escaped  under  the  reign  of  Mary.  When  he  was  Master  of 
Corpus  Christi  College,  Cambridge,  he  enacted  that  all  students 


taking  the  benefit  of  "  Billingford's  hutch  "  should  offer  prayer 
for  the  benefit  of  Billingford's  soul ;  and  he  provided  that  the 
Duchess  of  Norfolk  should  be  similarly  remembered.  He 
became,  in  course  of  time,  as  bitter  against  the  "prophesy ings"1 
as  his  royal  mistress.  He  was  a  calm  and  erudite  man  of 
moderate  opinions,  and  he  regulated  with  no  little  skill  the 
affairs  of  the  church  of  which  he  was  the  ecclesiastical  head ; 
his  motto  being,  "  I  take  some  heed  not  to  extend  my  sleeve 
beyond  mine  arm."  The  choice  of  Parker  was  not  only  what 
is  called  a  safe  one,  but  it  was  also  one  of  necessity;  for 
among  the  able  men  around  the  throne,  Jewel  had  in  a  moment 
of  weakness  abjured,  Sandys  had  espoused  the  cause  of  Lady 
Jane  Grey,  Grindal  was  deficient  in  tact  and  firmness  in  the 
management  of  men  and  measures,  Nowell  was  disliked  by 
the  queen,  Lever,  her  favourite  preacher,  was  a  pronounced 
puritan,  and  Cox  had  been  identified  with  the  "Troubles" 
at  Frankfort.2 

The  English  Bible  had  slipped  out  of  public  view  in  the 
time  of  Mary,  and  though  in  her  reign  no  edition  of  it  was 
printed,  many  copies  must  have  been  secreted,  for  spies  were 
prowling  about,  and  the  open  possession  and  study  of  it  in 
volved  individuals  and  households  in  immediate  suspicion  and 
jeopardy.3  The  people  were  forbidden  to  read  in  their  mother 
tongue  the  book  which  opened  up  salvation  to  them,  and  re 
vealed  those  promises  and  hopes  on  which  they  rested  their 
eternal  well-being.  Such  things  they  might  hear  from  the  lips 
of  a  priest,  but  they  were  not  to  read  for  themselves  the  words 
of  Evangelists  or  Apostles.  They  might  listen  to  the  sermon, 
but  they  durst  not  gaze  upon  the  text.  They  might  kneel 
before  the  crucifix,  but  were  on  no  account  to  pause  and  pray 
over  the  story  of  the  Gospels,  and  be  in  this  way  brought  into 
living  sympathy  with  Him  that  died  for  them.  Sir  Thomas 
More  had  admitted  that  "four-tenths  of  the  people  could 
never  read  English,"  yet  though  many  persons  had  no  educa- 

1  Yet  Lord  Bacon  highly  eulogizes  2  See  page  4. 

the  prophesyings,  and  describes  their  3  Thus  a  Bible  of  1550  has  on  the 

nature    and    benefit.      Works,  vol.  fly-leaf,  "  Found  in  the  hay-loft  at 

VII,  p.  86,  ed.  B.  Montague.  Canterbury,  October  10th,  1718." 

xxxviii.]  AGNES  PREST  AND  JOAN  WASTE.  (jl 

tion  at  all,  not  a  few  of  the  uneducated  class  were  well  in 
structed  in  the  truths  of  Scripture.  It  is  told  of  Sir  Walter 
Raleigh's  mother,  that  in  the  perilous  reign  of  Mary  she 
went  to  visit  a  poor  woman,  named  Agnes  Prest,  lying  in 
Exeter  jail,  and  soon  to  be  martyred  at  Southernhay,  and 
that  the  prisoner  spoke  to  her  so  touchingly  and  ably  against 
transubstantiation  that  she  was  confounded,  saying,  in  her 
own  record  of  the  interview,  "  I  was  not  able  to  answer  her — 
I  who  can  read,  and  she  cannot."  According  to  report,  also 
though  the  woman  was  "of  such  simplicity,  and  without  learn 
ing,  you  could  declare  no  place  of  Scripture  but  she  could  tell 
you  the  chapter."1  Want  of  common  schooling  kept  this 
woman  from  reading  Scripture  ;  but  Foxe 2  tells  of  another 
woman  who,  in  the  midst  of  poverty  and  darkness,  felt  the 
light,  life,  and  riches  of  the  divine  Word.  Joan  Waste  had 
been  born  blind,  but  had  learned  to  support  herself  by  knit 
ting  "  hosen  and  sleeves,"  and  occasionally  helping  her  father 
to  "twine  ropes."  Having  gathered  a  little  money,  and  bought 
a  Bible,  she  got  some  friends  to  read  it  to  her,  and  at  various 
times  she  gave  a  penny  to  others  to  induce  them  to  gratify 
her.  Her  great  knowledge  of  Scripture  became  at  length  so 
notorious  that  she  was  "  convented  "  before  the  bishop,  and 
on  being  examined  at  length,  she  was  condemned,  and  burned 
at  Derby  in  1556,  being  about  twenty-two  years  of  age. 

But  on  the  elevation  of  Elizabeth  to  the  throne,  the  book 
which  had  been  under  ban  for  five  years  and  four  months 
started  again  into  prominence.  As  the  Princess  Elizabeth,  and 
when  she  was  a  virtual  prisoner  at  Woodstock,  in  danger  of 
her  life,  she  was  a  pious  student  of  the  blessed  book.  Her 
own  peculiar  words,  inscribed  by  herself  on  a  MS.  copy  of  the 
Epistles  used  by  her  are  given  thus :  "  August.  I  walke  many 
times  into  the  pleasant  fieldes  of  the  Holy  Scriptures,  where  I 
plucke  up  the  goodliesome  herbes  of  sentences  by  pruning : 
eate  them  by  reading :  chawe  them  by  musing :  and  laie  them 
up  at  length  in  the  hie  seate  of  memorie  by  gathering  them 
together :  that  so  having  tasted  theire  sweeteness  I  may  the 

1  Life  of  Sir  Walter  Ealeigh,  by  Edward  Edwards,  vol.  I,  p.  19. 
London,  1868.  2  Foxe,  vol.  VIII,  p.  247. 


lesse  perceave  the  bitterness  of  this  miserable  life."  In  the 
sixteenth  year  of  her  reign  we  find,  too,  she  was  in  possession 
of  "  Gone  Gospell  booke  covered  with  tissue,  and  garnished  on 
th'  onside  with  the  crucifix,  and  the  queene's  badges  of  silver 
guilt,  poiz  with  wodde,  leaves,  and  all,  cxii.  oz." x 

At  length,  when  her  sister  had  died,  and  she  was  leaving 
the  Tower,  on  the  day  before  her  coronation,  she  looked  up  to 
heaven,  and  offered  the  following  thanksgiving :  "  Oh  Lord, 
Almighty  and  Everlasting  God,  I  give  thee  most  humble 
thanks  that  thou  hast  been  so  merciful  unto  me  as  to  spare  me 
to  behold  this  joyful  day ;  and  I  acknowledge  that  thou  hast 
dealt  wonderfully  and  mercifully  with  me.  As  thou  didst 
with  thy  servant  Daniel  the  prophet,  whom  thou  deliveredst 
out  of  the  den,  from  the  cruelty  of  the  raging  lions,  even  so 
was  I  overwhelmed,  and  only  by  Thee  delivered.  To  Thee, 
therefore,  only  be  thanks,  honour,  and  praise  for  ever.  Amen." 

According  to  traditional  story,  when,  after  offering  this 
prayer,  she  went  through  London  in  procession,  and  was  pass 
ing  the  "  Little  Conduit  in  Cheape,"  a  pageant  was  prepared 
to  salute  her,  for  "  Time  "  was  placed  there,  and  "  Truth,  the 
daughter  of  Time,"  holding  in  her  hand  the  verbum  veritatis — 
an  English  Bible — which  she  delivered  to  the  Queen.  Her 
Majesty  received  the  gift  with  royal  graciousness  and  kissed  it. 
Then  "  thanking  the  city  for  their  goodly  gift,"  and  pressing  it 
to  her  bosom,  she  said  that  she  would  "diligently  read  therein." 
A  person  in  the  crowd,  as  if  suddenly  recollecting  who  it  was 
that  first  gave  the  English  Bible  to  the  nation,  lustily  cried 
out,  "  Remember  old  King  Harry  the  Eighth  ! "  and  "  a  gleam 
of  light  passed  over  Elizabeth's  face  "  at  the  mention  of  her 
father's  name  in  this  connection.  Lord  Bacon  also  records 
that  hints  were  given  to  her  to  release  certain  prisoners, 
as  the  four  Evangelists  and  the  Apostle  Paul,  long  shut  up, 
and  that  she  "  answered  very  gravely,  that  it  was  best  first  to 
inquire  of  themselves  whether  they  would  be  released  or  no." 
In  a  short  time,  however,  she  issued  a  proclamation  containing 
these  injunctions :  "  To  provide,  within  three  months  after 
this  visitation,  at  the  charges  of  the  parish,  one  book  of  the 
1  Archoeologia,  vol.  XIII,  p.  221. 


whole  Bible  of  the  largest  volume  in  English,  and  within 
one  twelve  months  the  paraphrases  of  Erasmus,  also  in  Eng 
lish;  and  the  same  to  be  set  up  in  some  convenient  place 
within  the  said  church,  where  the  parishioners  may  most  con 
veniently  resort  and  read  the  same.  All  persons  under  the 
degree  of  A.M.  shall  buy  for  their  own  use  the  New  Testament 
in  Latin  and  English,  with  paraphrases,  within  three  months. 
Inquiry  was  to  be  made  whether  any  parsons,  vicars,  or 
curates,  did  discourage  any  person  from  reading  any  part  of 
the  Bible,  either  in  Latin  or  English." 

She  took  the  Great  Seal  from  Heath,  but  retained  him  in 
her  Privy  Council,  along  with  twelve  others  who  had  served 
her  sister,  and  to  them  she  added  eight  new  members,  her 
Lord  Keeper  being  Sir  Nicholas  Bacon.  Her  sister's  bishops 
had  resolved  not  to  crown  her;  but  Oglethorpe,  of  Carlisle, 
broke  the  compact,  and  went  through  the  ceremony  of  corona 
tion  and  anointing,  other  bishops  being  also  present,  to  one  of 
whom  Bonner  had  lent  his  episcopal  robes. 

Though  no  direct  encouragement  might  thus  be  drawn  by 
non-catholics  from  the  queen's  demeanour,  the  more  intelligent 
and  enterprising  of  her  subjects  hoped  for  an  open  and  uncon 
trolled  circulation  of  the  Scriptures,  and  they  were  not  dis 
appointed.  Elizabeth's  conduct,  however,  must  have  greatly 
perplexed  many  observers,  for  in  religion  she  was,  and  continued 
to  be,  somewhat  of  an  enigma ;  and  what  her  relation  to  the 
English  Bible  might  ultimately  be  was  vailed  in  uncertainty. 
There  were  omens  both  of  promise  and  of  discouragement.  On 
Wotton's  refusal,  the  chair  of  Canterbury  was  said,  at  the  time, 
to  have  been  offered  to  Feckenham,  Abbot  of  Westminster,  who 
had  been  chaplain  to  Bishop  Bonner.  Mass  was  sung  by  the 
queen's  desire,  not  only  at  the  funeral  of  her  sister  and  that  of 
Cardinal  Pole,  but  Convocation  was  opened  with  high  mass, 
in  1559,  and  it  was  said  in  the  churches  from  November,  1558, 
to  June,  1559.  Negotiations  for  an  alliance  between  her  and 
Rome  were  in  progress,  but  they  were  frowned  upon  by  Pope 
Paul  IV,  who  formally  excommunicated  her  in  April,  1570. 
She  attended  mass  herself,  but  forbade  the  elevation  of  the 
host.  She  would  not  admit  a  papal  nuncio,  for  she  detested 


the  Romish  domination,  though  she  had  little  or  no  sympathy 
with  the  theology  of  Protestantism.  In  the  royal  chapel  a 
crucifix  stood  for  a  considerable  period  on  the  altar,  with  lights 
burning  before  it.1  Jewel  denounced  "  the  idol,"  and  Parkhurst 
sent  to  Bullinger  the  good  news  of  its  demolition.  Her  father 
had  taken  the  title  of  Supreme  Head  of  the  Church,  but  she 
was  content  with  that  of  Supreme  Governor.  In  1560  she 
assured  De  Quadra  that  she  was  as  good  a  catholic  as  he  was, 
and  that  she  had  been  compelled  to  do  as  she  did ;  and  yet,  dur 
ing  the  course  of  the  same  year,  she  resolved  to  take  Scotland 
under  her  protection,  as  "a  Christian  realm  in  the  profession 
of  Christ's  true  religion."  She  talked  to  Mendoza  of  reconsider 
ing  her  ecclesiastical  position ;  but  she  still  held  on  her  way, 
and  took  no  penitent  step  toward  reconciliation  with  the  Holy 
Father.  While  she  was  coquetting  with  Spain  and  France,  she 
enjoined  on  Randolph  to  certify  to  the  Lords  of  the  Congrega 
tion  north  of  the  Tweed,  that,  in  her  view,  "  no  basis  of  amity 
between  nations  is  so  sure  as  that  grounded  on  unity  and 
consent  in  religion,"  though  she  had  been  greatly  displeased 
with  the  Scottish  Confession  on  its  first  publication  in  1560. 
Professing  at  one  time  a  desire  to  settle  the  succession  to  the 
crown  of  England  in  favour  of  the  Queen  of  Scots,  she  made 
it  a  condition  that  Mary  must  accept  the  Reformation,  and  yet 
the  ritual  which  she  admired  herself  was  more  than  semi- 
catholic,  while  she  was  using  every  effort  to  bind  her  own 
clergy  to  celibacy.2  Her  eagerness  for  uniformity  led  to  its 
enforcement  in  London,  and  to  the  exclusion,  in  consequence, 
of  thirty-seven  of  its  ministers.  Other  recusants  were  cruelly 
punished,  and  men  like  Penry,  Thacker,  Greenwood,  and  Bar 
row  were  executed.  When  Catholic  Europe  combined  against 

1  Jewel  was  so  displeased  that  he  thanking  the  primate,  turned  round 
said,  "As  Christ  was  (in  Mary's  time)  to  his  wife — the  wife  of  the  first  peer 
thrown  out  by  his  enemies,  so  he  is  of  the  realm — and  said,  "  And  you 
now  kept  out  by  his  friends."  — madam  I  may  not  call  you,  and 

2  The  story  was  current    at  the  mistress  I  am  ashamed  to  call  you 
time  that,  after  being  sumptuously  —but  yet  do  I  thank  you." — Har- 
entertained  by  Archbishop  Parker,  riugton,  Nugse  Antiquse,  vol.  ii,  p. 
the  queen,  at  her  departure,  after  16. 

xxxvni.]  HER  REGARD  FOR  SCRIPTURE.  65 

her  she  rose  to  the  occasion,  as  when  the  Armada  filled  the 
Channel  in  1588;  but  when  Protestants  stood  sadly  in  need  of 
men  and  money,  she  sternly  refused  them.  She  treated  her 
clergy  with  queenly  scorn,  silenced  one  bishop,  and  threatened  to 
unfrock  another.  She  haughtily  interrupted  Dean  Nowell's 
discourse  in  St.  Paul's,  for  she  disliked  his  iconoclasm,  and  she 
detested  the  pulpit  from  her  inability  to  control  its  utterances. 
But  in  spite  of  her  Laodicean  position  toward  the  church  of 
Cranmer  which  had  been  founded  under  her  father,  and  under 
him  had  experienced  many  oscillations,  she  never  imitated  Henry 
in  his  treatment  of  the  English  Bible.  The  various  versions  in 
use  were  neither  impeded  nor  patronized  by  her.  She  thought 
that  the  nation  might  flourish  with  few  sermons  and  fewer 
presses;  but  she  never  attempted  to  limit  the  supply  of  Bibles ; 
nay,  she  commanded  by  proclamation  the  reading  of  the  Gos 
pel,  the  Epistle  for  the  day,  and  the  Ten  Commandments  in  the 
vulgar  tongue.  Though  she  kept  several  of  the  sees  long  vacant, 
and  appropriated  the  revenues,  she  never  meddled  with  the 
circulation  and  reading  of  the  Divine  volume  in  any  diocese. 
The  Court  of  High  Commission  and  the  Star  Chamber  were 
crowded  with  ecclesiastical  causes,  but  the  printers  and  pub 
lishers  of  the  Scriptures  were  in  no  way  molested.  Imperious 
enactments  were  issued,  mulcting  those  who  would  not  attend 
church;  but  no  such  commands  were  twined  round  the  English 
Bible.  She  often  interfered  with  debates  in  Parliament,  and 
used  uncourteous  language  in  her  rebukes;  and  her  royal 
assent  was  refused  in  one  year  to  no  less  than  forty-eight 
bills  which  had  passed  both  houses ;  but  she  kept  aloof  from 
the  Bibles  in  circulation,  and,  in  her  own  words,  spoken  on 
another  point,  she  would  not  consent  that  they  should  be 
either  "  abled  or  disabled." 

Grafton  reprinted  a  tract,  first  published  on  the  accession  of 
Edward  in  1547,  "A  Godly  Invective  in  the  defence  of  the 
gospel  against  such  as  murmur  and  do  what  they  can  that  the 
Bible  should  not  have  free  passage  ;  very  necessary  to  be  read 
of  every  faithful  Christian.  By  Philip  Gerrard,  yeoman  of  King 
Edward's  Chamber."  Such  a  publication  must  have  stirred  up 
not  a  few  to  covet  copies  of  the  English  Scriptures,  and  to  be 

VOL.  II.  E 


thankful  for  them  if  already  they  possessed  them.  The  queen's 
proclamation  had  restored  the  Great  Bible  to  its.  rank  of  the 
authorized  version.  Tyndale's,  Coverdale's,  the  Great  Bible, 
and  the  Genevan  were  also  in  circulation,  and  if  we  reason 
from  the  number  of  impressions,  Tyndale  and  the  Genevan 
were  by  far  the  most  popular.  The  Cranmer  folio  was  first 
published  in  her  majesty's  reign  in  1562,  by  Harrison;  a 
quarto  edition,  printed  by  Cawood,  having  come  out  during 
the  previous  year.  Jugge  had  also  sent  abroad  two  editions 
of  the  New  Testament.  "  A  very  fine  and  pompous  "  edition 
of  the  Great  Bible  was  also  printed  by  Hamillon,  at  Rouen, 
in  1566,  "at  the  cost  and  charges  of  Richard  Carmarden,  of  the 
Customs."  Grafton,  who  had  been  engaged  in  printing  the 
Scriptures  for  nigh  thirty  years,  issued  an  edition  in  one 
volume  octavo — the  first  of  that  handy  size. l  These  editions 
supplied  the  nation  for  six  or  seven  years,  so  that  there  was 
little  lack  of  choice ;  but  the  Great  Bible  and  the  Genevan  were 
brought  into  direct  competition. 

These  translations  differed  on  many  minor  points,  but  they 
contained  the  same  disclosure  of  essential  truths ;  and  they  had 
all  a  close  genetic  relationship,  the  one  arising  out  of  the  other, 
the  version  of  Tyndale  being  the  primal  source,  especially  recog 
nizable  after  several  revisions.  Bishop  Hooper,  writing  in  1554, 
from  his  prison,  an  "  Appellatio  ad  Parliamentum,"  asserts  the 
desirableness  of  a  revision,  and  that  he  had  discussed  and  urged 
the  matter  with  pious  and  learned  brethren,  affirming,  however, 
his  ability  to  prove  that  the  English  Bible  is  nearer  the  Hebrew 
than  the  translation  usually  ascribed  to  Jerome.2  It  was 
natural  in  such  circumstances  that  there  should  be  a  desire  for 
another  version,  which  from  its  superiority  might  supersede  all 
rivals.  Parker  had  at  the  same  time  a  passion  for  uniformity, 
and  insisted  on  it  without  reserve  or  modification,  being,  as 
Fuller  calls  him,  "  a  Parker  indeed,  careful  to  keep  the  fences." 

1  The  greater  portion  of  this  edi-  that  not  a  single  copy  is  known  to 

tion,  to  the  extent  of  7,000  copies,  is  be  in  existence, 

said  to  have  been  sent  over  to  Ire-  2  Later  "Writings,  p.  393,  Parker 

land,  and  such  was  the  good  or  bad  Soc.  ed. 
usage  that  these  books  met  with, 

xxxvin.]  ARCHBISHOP  PARKER.  67 

He  did  not  like  men  that  were  not,  to  use  his  own  epithet, 
"  disciplinable  "  men.  But  it  was  both  right  and  natural  in 
him  to  try  and  publish  a  Bible  which  might  be  accepted  as 
the  one  Bible  of  the  English  people.  The  bishops  and  clergy 
could  not  but  feel,  if  they  were  at  all  interested  in  critical  study, 
that  the  Great  Bible  needed  revision,  and  they  could  scarcely 
be  expected  to  acquiesce  in  the  Genevan  version,  though  it 
had  been  made  by  Englishmen ;  for  in  its  origin  they  had  no 
hand,  and  over  its  renderings  and  notes  they  had  possessed  no 
control.  It  was  also  becoming  identified  more  and  more  with 
the  freer  and  bolder  party  in  the  Church,  who  were  not  only 
Calvinists  in  theology,  but  were  struggling  against  rigid  and 
universal  conformity.  In  fact,  the  Genevan  was  greatly  the 
better  translation  of  the  two  in  use,  and  Cranmer's  must  have 
suffered  from  the  contrast. 

The  originator  of  the  proposal  for  another  revision  or  trans 
lation  is  not  mentioned — probably  there  had  been  various 
suggestions  growing  in  number  and  importunity.  Matthew 
Parker,  seventieth  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  was  himself  an 
excellent  scholar,  far  in  advance  of  his  episcopal  compeers  and 
fond  of  Biblical  studies.  Born  at  Norwich  in  1504,  he  was 
educated  at  Corpus  Christi  College,  Cambridge,  of  which  he 
was  elected  a  fellow,  and  then  master  in  1543;  becoming  vice- 
chancellor  two  years  afterwards.  He  had  declined  a  place  in 
Wolsey's  new  college  at  Oxford,  and  was  made  Dean  of  Lincoln 
in  1552.  He  spent  many  academical  years  of  earnest  study,  so 
that  he  possessed  no  small  portion  of  patristic  and  antiquarian 
learning,  as  may  foe  seen  in  many  of  his  works.  The  primate 
must  have  been  well  aware  of  the  inferiority  of  the  Great 
Bible,  for  it  had  been  a  work  of  haste,  though  it  was  the  result 
of  two  revisions  by  one  editor.  Sandys,  Bishop  of  Worcester, 
was  also  fully  alive  to  the  importance  of  the  measure,  and  quite 
competent  to  advise  upon  it.  In  a  letter  to  the  Archbishop  he 
declares,  "Your  grace  should  much  benefit  the  Church  in  hasten 
ing  forward  the  Bible  which  you  have  in  hand :  those  that  we 
have  be  not  only  false  printed,  but  also  give  great  offence  to 
many  by  reason  of  the  depravity  in  reading."  But  neither 
the  queen,  nor  Convocation,  nor  Parliament  uttered  a  voice  in 


the  matter.  The  Queen  had  so  little  to  do  with  the  enterprise 
that  the  Archbishop  was  in  some  hesitation  about  writing  her 
as  to  the  completion  of  the  Bible ;  and  having  composed  a 
letter  to  her,  he  sent  it  to  Cecil,  and  asked  him  to  use  his 
"opportunity  of  delivery."  About  1563,  the  primate  set 
about  the  new  enterprise.  Strype  describes  his  method  of 
procedure : l 

"Among  the  noble  designs  of  this  archbishop  must  be  reckoned 
his  resolution  to  have  the  Holy  Bible  set  forth,  well  translated 
into  the  vulgar  tongue  for  private  use  as  well  as  for  the  use  of 
churches  ;  and  to  perform  that  which  his  predecessor,  Arch 
bishop  Cranmer,  endeavoured  so  much  to  bring  to  pass,  but 
could  not  (the  bishops  in  his  days  being  most  of  them  utterly 
averse  to  any  such  thing),  that  is,  that  the  bishops  should  join 
together  and  take  their  parts  and  portions  in  reviewing, 
amending,  and  setting  forth  the  English  translation  of  those 
holy  books.  This  our  present  archbishop's  thoughts  ran  much 
upon.  And  he  had  about  this  time  distributed  the  Bible, 
divided  into  parts,  to  divers  learned  fellow-bishops,  and  to 
some  other  divines  that  were  about  him,  who  cheerfully 
undertook  the  work.  As  for  the  Bible  commonly  used,  it  was 
not  only  very  ill  printed,  but  the  translation  in  many  places 
bad,  and  such  as  gave  offence ;  and  the  translator  had  followed 
Munster,  who  was  very  negligent,  and  mistook  sometimes  the 
Hebrew,  as  Bishop  Sandys  observed.  The  archbishop  took 
upon  him  the  labour  to  contrive  and  set  the  whole  work 
a-going  in  a  proper  method,  by  sorting  out  the  whole  Bible  into 
parcels  to  able  bishops  and  other  learned  men  to  peruse,  and 
collate  each  the  book  or  books  allotted  them.  Sending  withal 
his  instructions  for  the  method  they  should  observe ;  and  they 
to  add  some  short  marginal  notes  for  the  illustration  or  cor 
rection  of  the  text.  And  all  these  portions  of  the  Bible  being 
finished  and  sent  back  to  the  archbishop,  he  was  to  add  the 
last  hand  to  them,  and  so  to  take  care  for  printing  and  pub 
lishing  the  whole."  2 

1  Strype's  Life  of  Parker,  p.  208,  London,  1711. 

2  Life  of  Parker,  p.  207. 

xxxvin.]  HIS  COADJUTORS.  (59 

The   coadjutors    of  the   archbishop    were   not   all   equally 
competent,  for  Guest  (Gheast),  the  Bishop  of  Rochester,  con 
fesses  to  some   very  peculiar  convictions,  which,  if  acted  on, 
would  have  marred  the  integrity  of  the  version.     In  reference 
to  the  Psalms,  he  says  :  l  "  I  have  not  altered  the  translation, 
but  where   it   gave    occasion  of   an    error.      As   at  the  first 
Psalrn  at  the  beginning  I  turn  the  prseter-perfect  tense  into 
the  present  tense,  because  the  sense  is  too  harsh  in  the  prseter- 
perfect  tense.     Where  in  the  New  Testament  one  piece  of  a 
Psalm  is  reported,  I  translate  it  in  the  Psalms  according  to  the 
translation  thereof  in  the  New  Testament,  for  the  avoiding  of 
the  offence  that  may  rise  to  the  people  upon  divers  translations." 
Sandys,  in  another  letter,  Feb.  6th,  writes  more  precisely:  "Ac 
cording  to  your  grace's  letter  of  instruction,  I  have  perused  the 
book  you  sent  me,  and  with  good  diligence ;  having  also  in 
conference  with  some  other,  considered   of  the  same  in  such 
sort,  I  trust,  as  your  grace  will  not  mislike  of.     ...     I  have 
sent    it  up  with  my  clerk,  whose  hand   I  used   in   writing 
forth  the   corrections   and   marginal    notes.      When   it   shall 
please  your  grace  to  set  over  the  book  to  be  reviewed  by  some 
one  of  your  chaplains,  my  clerk  shall  attend  a  day  or  two,  to 
make  it  plain  unto  him  how  my  notes  are  to  be  placed.     In 
mine  opinion  your  grace  shall  do  well  to  make  the  whole  Bible 
to  be  diligently  surveyed  by  some  well  learned  before  it  be 
put  to  print,  and  also  to  have  skilful  and  diligent  correctors  at 
the  printing  of  it,     ...     which  thing  will  require  a  time. 
Sed  sat  cito  si  sat  bene."     Bishop  Cox,  of  Ely,  who  had  no 
love  for  the  men  that  made  the  Genevan  version,  expresses 
his  deep  interest  in  the  project  in  a  letter  of  May  3,  1566  : 
"  I  trust  your  grace  is  well  forward  with  the  Bible  by  this 
time.     I  perceive  the  greatest  burden  will  lie  upon  your  neck, 
touching  care   and   travail.      I  would  wish  that  such  usual 
words  as  we  English  people  be  acquainted  with  might  still 
remain  in  their  form  and  sound,  so  far  forth  as  the  Hebrew 
will  well  bear  ;  ink-horn  terms  to  be  avoided.     The  translation 
of  the  verbs  in  the  Psalms  to  be  used  uniformly  in  one  tense." 

1  Life  of  Parker,  p.  208. 


The  meaning  of  this  last  clause  is  not  easily  comprehended. 
Bishop  Parkhurst,  of  Norwich,  pledged  himself  "  to  travel 
therein  with  such  diligence  and  expedition  as  he  might." 
Davis,  Bishop  of  St.  David's,  promised  "  to  finish  his  part  with 
as  much  speed  as  he  could,  bestowing  upon  the  performance 
of  the  same  all  such  time  as  he  could  spare."  l  On  the  26th 
November,  Parker  also  intimated  the  design  to  Cecil 
in  the  following  terms :  "  I  have  distributed  the  Bible 
to  divers  men.  I  am  desirous,  if  you  could  spare  so 
much  leisure  either  in  morning  or  evening,  we  had  one 
Epistle  of  St.  Paul,  St.  Peter,  or  St.  James  perused  by  you, 
that  ye  may  be  one  of  the  builders  of  this  good  work  in 
Christ's  Church."  Another  letter  of  the  primate  to  Cecil,  of 
date  October  5th,  1568,  encloses  the  short  rules  which  the 
archbishop  had  laid  down  for  the  revisers — or,  as  he  phrases  it, 
"Observations  respected  of  the  translators."  £  "  First,  to  follow 
the  common  English  translation  used  in  the  churches,  and  not 
to  recede  from  it,  but  where  it  varieth  manifestly  from  the 
Hebrew  or  Greek  original."  "  Item — To  use  sections  and 
divisions  in  the  text  as  Pagnine  in  his  translation  useth,  and 
for  the  verity  of  the  Hebrew  to  follow  the  said  Pagnine  and 
Miinster  specially,  and  generally  others  learned  in  the  tongues." 
"  Item — To  make  no  bitter  notes  upon  any  text,  or  yet  to  set 
down  any  determination  in  places  of  controversy."  "  Item — 
To  note  such  chapters  and  places  as  contain  matter  of 
genealogies,  or  other  such  places  not  edifying  with  some  strike 
or  note,  that  the  reader  may  eschew  them  in  his  public 
reading."  "  Item — That  all  such  words  as  sound  in  the  old 
translation,  to  any  offence  of  lightness  or  obscenity,  be  ex 
pressed  with  more  convenient  terms  and  phrases."  Of  the 
primate's  coadjutors  many  were  bishops,  and  this  circum 
stance  first  gave  its  familiar  name  to  the  revision  —  the 
Bishops'  Bible. 

The  actual  workers  cannot  now  be  definitely  named.     The 
following  is  the  list  of  the  revisers  of  the  several  books  inclosed 


1  Strype's  Life  of  Parker,  p.  208. 

2  Correspondence  of  Matthew  Parker,  D.D.,  p.  336,  Parker  Soc.  ed. 

xxxviii.]  THE  VARIOUS  TRANSLATORS.  71 

in  a  letter  to  Cecil,  of  5th  October,  1568,  and  still  remaining 
with  it  in  the  State  Paper  office : — 

The  sum  of  the  Scripture  .  N 

The  Tables  of  Christ's  line    .     .     .      .  / 

The  Argument  of  the  Scriptures          .  x       M.  Cant.  [Archbishop 

The  first  Preface  into  the  whole  Bible '  Parker.] 

The  Preface  into  the  Psalter 

The  Preface  into  the  New  Testament 

-p      ,        >  M.  Cant.  [Archbishop  Parker.] 

i,  1,  2.) 

Leviticus    1  Cantuarise.   [Andrew  Pierson,  prebend  of  Canter- 

Numerus    j  bury  T\ 

Deuteronomium  \  W.  Exon.    [Bishop  Alley.] 

Josuse  .  .  \ 

Judicum    .       •   (  -n     TIT  I-T->-   i          T^       •       -i 

>R.  Meneven.     Bishop  Davies. 
Ruth  ' 


Regum,  3,  4.  ") 

•n      v  10     r  Ed.  Wigorn.   [Bishop  Sandys.] 

Parahpomenon,  1,  2.  J  J 

Job      .     .  "i  Cantuarise.  [Andrew  Pierson,  prebend  of  Canter- 

Proverbia    f  bury  1] 

Ecclesiastes  )  Cantabrigia?.    [Andrew  Perne,  Master  of  Peter- 

Cantica       .  J  House,  and  Dean  of  Ely.] 

Ecclesiasticus  \ 

Susanna    .        (  T     T        .       r 

•  VJ.  JNorwic.     Bishop  Parkhurst. 
Baruc  ...  I 

Maccabeorum  ' 
Esdras  .     .  \ 

}-~W.  Cicestren.    [Bishop  Barlow.] 
Tobias  .     .  | 

Sapientia   .  ' 

Esaias  .     .      .  ~\ 

Hieremias  .     .    >  R.  Winton.    [Bishop  Home.] 

Lamentationes  3 

>  J.  Lich.  and  Covent.    [Bishop  Bentham.] 
Daniel     J 

Propheta?  )  -TIT 

f  Ed.  London.    [Bishop  Grindal. 
minores  J 


Matthseus  ) 

Marcus      J         Cant 

Johannes  }  Ed>  Peterb'    CBish°P  Scambler-] 

Acta  Apostolorum ")        . 

A  i  -r»  /-  Jti.  Eliensis.     Bishop  Cox.] 

Ad  Romanos  .     .    J 

1  Epistola  Corin. }  D.  Westmon.   [Dr.  Gabriel  Goodman.] 

2  Epistola    Corin.  -, 
Ad  Galatas     . 

Ad  Ephesios  . 
Ad  Phillippenses 

Ad  Collossenses  . 
i  T  mi         ,  }-  M.  Cant.    [Archbishop  Parker.] 

Ad  Timotheum    . 
Ad  Tituin       .     . 
Ad  Philemon . 
Ad  Hebrseos  . 

Epistolse  Canonize  )  XT   T  •       n      rT>.  -,        -&  1V     •,        -, 
I  N.  Lincoln.  [Bishop  Bullmgham.] 

Apocalipsis  j 

But  these  names  do  not  agree  with  the  initials  put  at  the  end 
of  some  of  the  books,  this  notation  being  a  suggestion  of  the 
archbishop,  that  the  several  revisers  "  might  be  the  more 
diligent  as  answerable  for  their  doings."  But  Lawrence,  if 
he  was  a  formal  reviser,  has  no  place  marked  by  his  initials, 
and  the  same  initials  stand  at  the  end  of  Job  and  at  the 
end  of  Proverbs.  Still,  as  the  archbishop  suggested,  "the 
letters  of  their  names  be  partly  affixed  to  their  books." 
Some  of  the  revisers  may  be  made  out  by  their  initials  as 
follows  : — 

The  Pentateuch  has  W.  E.  (William  Exoniensis),  William 
Alley,  Bishop  of  Exeter. 

The  next  portion,  up  to  the  second  book  of  Samuel,  has  R. 
M.  (Ricardus  Menevensis),  Richard  Davis,  Bishop  of  St. 

The  third  part,  as  far  as  second  book  of  Chronicles,  has  E. 
W.  (Edwin  Wigornensis),  Edwin  Sandys. 

The  fourth  portion,  ending  with  Job,  has  A.  P.  C.,  Andrew 
Peerson,  Prebendary  of  Canterbury. 


The  Psalms  have  T.  B.,  probably  Thomas  Becon.  This 
portion  was  first  sent  to  Guest,  Bishop  of  Rochester. 

The  Book  of  Proverbs  is  signed  again  A.  P.  C.,  supposed  to 
be  Andrew  Peerson,  Prebendary  of  Canterbury,  the  translator 
of  the  fourth  portion. 

The  seventh  portion,  containing  Ecclesiastes  and  Canticles, 
has  A.  P.  E.,  Andrew  Perne,  Prebendary  of  Ely. 

The  eighth  portion,  ending  with  Lamentations,  has  R.  W., 
Robert  Home,  Bishop  of  Winchester. 

The  ninth  part,  Ezekiel  and  Daniel,  has  T.  C.  L.,  Thomas 
Cole,  Bishop  of  Lichfield  and  Coventry. 

The  tenth  part,  or  minor  prophets,  has  E.  L.,  Edmund  Grin- 
dal,  Bishop  of  London. 

The  Apocrypha,  or  eleventh  portion,  has  J.  N.,  John  Park- 
hurst,  Bishop  of  Norwich. 

The  Gospels  and  Acts  have  R.  E.,  Richard  Cox,  Bishop  of 

The  Epistle  to  the  Romans  has  R.  E.,  which,  according 
to  Strype,  should  be  E.  R.,  Edmund  Guest,  Bishop  of 

The  First  Epistle  to  the  Corinthians  has  G.  G.,  Gabriel  Good 
man,  Dean  of  Westminster. 

The  remaining  books  of  the  New  Testament  have  no  ap 
pended  initials.1 

After  a  period  of  preparation  extending  to  about  four  years, 
the  archbishop,  on  5th  October,  tells  Cecil  that  the  Bible  is 
finished,  and  that  he  had  thought  of  offering  in  person  to  the 
queen's  highness  "the  first  fruits  of  our  labours  in  the  re 
cognizing  the  Bible,"  but,  as  his  health  would  not  allow  him  to 
"  adventure,"  he  asked  the  Secretary  to  present  a  copy  to  the 
queen,  "bound  as  ye  see."  In  a  letter  to  her  majesty  of  the 
same  date  his  grace  says  —  "Pleaseth  it  your  highness  to 
accept  in  good  part  the  endeavour  and  diligence  of  some  of  us 
your  chaplains,  my  brethren  the  bishops,  with  other  certain 
learned  men,  in  this  new  edition  of  the  Bible.  I  trust  by  com 
parison  of  divers  translations  put  forth  in  your  realm,  will 

1  Parker  Correspondence,  Parker  Soc.  ed.,  p.  334. 


appear  as  well  the  workmanship  of  the  printer,  as  the  circum 
spection  of  all  such  as  have  travailed  in  the  recognition. 
Among  divers  observations  which  have  been  regarded  in 
this  recognition,  one  was,  not  to  make  it  vary  much  from 
that  translation  which  was  commonly  used  by  public  order, 
except  where  either  the  verity  of  the  Hebrew  and  Greek 
moved  alteration,  or  where  the  text  was,  by  some  negligence, 
mutilated  from  the  original.  So  that  I  trust  your  loving  sub 
jects  shall  see  good  cause  in  your  majesty's  days  to  thank  God 
and  to  rejoice,  to  see  this  high  treasure  of  His  holy  word  so  set 
out  as  may  be  proved  (so  far  forth  as  man's  mortal  knowledge 
can  attain  to,  or  as  far  forth  as  God  hath  hitherto  revealed)  to 
be  faithfully  handled  in  the  vulgar  tongue;  beseeching  your 
highness  that  it  may  have  your  gracious  favour,  licence,  and 
protection,  to  be  communicated  abroad,  as  well  for  that  in 
many  churches  they  want  their  books,  and  have  long  time 
looked  for  this,  as  for  that  in  certain  places  be  publicly  used 
some  translations  which  have  not  been  laboured  in  your  realm, 
having  inspersed  diverse  prejudicial  notes,  which  might  have 
been  also  well  spared.  I  have  been  bold  in  the  furniture 
with  few  words  to  express  the  incomparable  value  of  this 

The  Bible  so  disparaged  is  the  Genevan  version  and  its 
famous  notes ;  and  the  queen  is  earnestly  appealed  to  that 
she  might  authorize  the  revision.  In  the  same  letter  to  Cecil, 
already  referred  to,  the  primate  speaks  on  some  technical 
points  and  matters  of  business : — 

"It  may  be  that  in  so  long  a  work  things  have  scaped, 
which  may  be  lawful  to  every  man,  cum  bona  venia,  to  amend 
when  they  find  them;  non  omnia  possumus  omnes.  The 
printer  hath  honestly  done  his  diligence;  if  your  honour 
would  obtain  of  the  Queen's  Highness  that  this  edition 
might  be  licensed  and  only  commended  in  public  reading  in 
churches,  to  draw  to  one  uniformity,  it  were  no  great  cost 
to  the  most  parishes,  and  a  relief  to  him  for  his  great 
charges  sustained.1  The  psalters  might  remain  in  quires,  as 

1  In  a  "note"  he  adds,  "  The  printer  hath  bestowed  his  thickest  paper 
on  the  New  Testament,  because  it  shall  be  most  occupied." 

xxxviri.]         PARKER  EDITOR  AND  JUGGE  PRINTER.  75 

they  be  much  multiplied,  but  where  of  their  own  accord 
they  would  use  this  translation.  Sir,  I  pray  your  honour 
be  a  mean  that  Jugge  only  may  have  the  preferment  of 
this  edition ;  for  if  any  other  should  lurch  him  to  steal  from 
him  these  copies,  he  were  a  great  loser  in  this  first  thing. 
And,  sir,  without  doubt  he  hath  well  deserved  to  be  pre 
ferred  ;  a  man  would  not  think  that  he  had  devoured  so 
much  pain  as  he  hath  sustained." 

It  is  pleasant  to  note  that  Parker  was  to  his  death  on 
affectionate  terms  with  his  fellow-workers,  and  that  he  re 
membered  some  of  them  in  his  will.  He  bequeathed  to 
Edmund  Grindal,  Archbishop  of  York,  a  gold  ring  with  a 
round  sapphire ;  to  Edwin  Sandys,  Bishop  of  London,  his 
staff  of  Indian  cane,  with  silver  gilt  at  the  end;  to  Robert 
Home,  Bishop  of  Winchester,  a  gold  ring  with  a  turquoise ; 
to  Richard  Cox,  Bishop  of  Ely,  his  staff  of  Indian  cane,  with  a 
horologe  on  the  top ;  to  Nicholas  Bullingham,  Bishop  of 
Worcester,  his  white  horse,  called  Hackengton,  with  the  saddle, 
and  bridle,  and  a  new  footcloth  of  velvet ;  to  Andrew  Pearson, 
B.D.,  a  silver  cup  with  a  cover  gilt,  given  to  him  by  the  queen 
on  the  feast  of  the  circumcision.1 

1  Coopers'  Athense  Cantabrigieu-  January,  1561-2,  proposed  a  new 
ses,  vol.  I,  p.  332.  In  the  same  translation  of  the  Bible,  and  re- 
volume  it  is  stated  that  Bishop  Cox,  peated  the  proposal  in  another 
in  writing  to  Cecil  on  the  10th  of  letterof  3rd  May,  1564.  Do.,  p.  440. 


Bible  was    published   in  folio  with  the  simple  title : 
"  The  Holie  Bible,  containing  the  Old  Testament  and  the 
New:  The  New  Testament  of  our  Saviour  Jesus  Christ.    1568. 
Richard  Jugge.     Cum  Privilegio  Regiee  Majestatis." 

Jugge  presents  his  "  mark  " — the  pelican  feeding  her  young 
with  her  own  blood,  with  a  Latin  couplet  explaining  the  symbol. 
The  archbishop's  own  copy  is  in  the  Library  of  Corpus  Christi 
College,  Cambridge.  On  the  title-page,  in  an  oval,  is  a  half- 
length  portrait  of  the  queen,  with  the  ball  and  sceptre  in  her 
hand;  above  her  the  arms  of  France  and  England  quartered 
within  the  garter,  and  over  them  the  helmet  and  crest.  On  the 
one  side  is  the  symbol  of  Ireland,  and  on  the  other  that  of  Wales, 
while  Charity  and  Faith  are  delineated  on  the  margin  of  the 
picture.  At  the  bottom  of  the  page,  on  a  scroll  guarded  by  the 
lion  and  dragon,  are  the  words,  "Non  me  pudet  Evangelii 
Christi.  Virtus  enim  Dei  est  ad  salutem  omni  credenti.  Rom.  i." 
At  the  beginning  of  Joshua  is  an  engraving,  in  an  oval,  of 
the  Earl  of  Leicester  in  armour,  and  his  coat  of  arms  is  in  the 
initial  A  of  the  word  "  AFTER."  On  the  front  of  the  Psalms  is 
a  plate  of  Lord  Burleigh,  holding  in  his  left  hand  an  open 
Hebrew  book;  and  the  initial  D  (David)  of  the  Preface  has  in 
it  his  coat  of  arms,  and  also  the  B  of  the  word  "  Blessed  "  in 
the  first  psalm.  Parker's  preface  is  in  Roman,  and  Cranmer's 
prologue  is  in  Gothic  letters,  the  initial  letter  C  of  his  name 
containing  his  coat  of  arms.  There  is  also  at  Leviticus  xviii 
-a  double  table  of  degrees  of  "  kinred,  affinitie,  or  aliaunce 
which  let  matrimonise."  The  archbishop's  paternal  arms  are 
found  impaled  with  those  of  Christ  Church  Canterbury,  in  a 


large  initial  T  at  the  genealogical  table  in  the  Old  Testament 
and  at  the  preface  to  the  New.  There  are  many  engravings. 
Otherwise  the  volume  is  marked  by  a  severe  simplicity,  and 
there  is  no  dedication.1  Parker's  preface  inculcates  the  duty 
and  privilege  of  reading  the  Scriptures,  which  are  meant  for 
all.  The  need  of  the  present  revision  is  also  dwelt  on.  "  And 
for  that  the  copies  thereof  be  so  wasted,  that  very  many 
churches  do  want  their  convenient  Bybles,  it  was  thought 
good  to  some  well-disposed  men,  to  recognize  2  the  same  Byble 
againe  into  this  fourme  as  it  is  no  we  come  out,  with  some 
further  diligence  in  the  printing,  and  with  more  light  added, 
partly  in  the  translation,  and  partly  in  the  order  of  the  text ; 
not  as  condemning  the  former  translation,  whiche  was  folowed 
mostly  of  any  other  translation,  excepting  the  original!  text, 
from  whiche  as  litle  variaunce  was  made  as  was  thought  meete 
to  such  as  take  paynes  therin :  desiring  thee,  good  reader,  if 
ought  be  escaped,  eyther  by  such  as  had  the  expending  of  the 
bookes,  or  by  the  oversight  of  the  printer,  to  correct  the  same 
in  the  spirite  of  Charitie,  calling  to  remembrance  what  diver- 
sitie  hath  been  scene  in  men's  judgementes  in  the  translation 
of  these  bookes  before  these  dayes,  though  all  directed  their 
labours  to  the  glory  of  God,  to  the  edification  of  the  Church,  to 
the  comfort  of  their  Christian  brethren,  and  always  as  God  dyd 
further  open  unto  them,  so  ever  more  desirous  they  were  to 
refourme  their  former  humane  oversightes,  rather  then  in  a 
stubborne  wylfuhiesse  to  resist  the  gyft  of  the  holy  Ghost,  who 
from  tyme  to  tyme  is  resident  as  that  heavenly  teacher  and 
leader  into  all  truth,  by  whose  direction  the  Church  is  ruled 
and  governed."  The  misinterpretations  of  some  Catholic 
writers  are  exposed,  especially  one  which,  in  Rom.  vi,  13, 
changed  "  sanctification  "  into  "  satisfaction."  The  saying  of 
St.  Augustine  is  quoted,  "  that  divers  translations  many  times 
have  made  the  harder  and  darker  sentences  the  more  open  and 
plain ;"  and  Fisher,  "once  Bishop  of  Rochester,"  is  also  adduced 
as  affirming  that  "many  things  have  been  more  diligently 

1  Jewel  wrote  to  Bullinger,  "The  which  I  certainly  am  not  displeased." 
queen  will  not  endure  the  title  of  2  It  was  the  usual  term  then  for 
Head  of  the  Church  of  England,  at  "  revise." 


discussed,  and  more  clearly  understanded  by  the  writers  of 
these  latter  days  than  in  old  times  they  were." 

The  division  of  verses  adopted  in  the  Genevan  version  is 
followed ;  and,  after  its  example  too,  some  care  was  taken  of 
the  spelling  of  proper  names.  But  there  is  really  no  proof  of 
Offer's1  statement,  that  the  New  Testament  of  the  Bishops' 
Bible  is  taken  from  a  revision  of  Cheke's  New  Testament, 
published  by  Jugge  in  1561.  The  Testament  referred  to  by 
him  is  apparently  an  edition  of  Tyndale.2 

One  cannot  surmise  why  the  Queen  should  not  have  publicly 
acknowledged  the  appeal  made  to  her  by  the  Primate — why  she 
should  not  have  acted  as  her  father  had  done  to  three  transla 
tions,  and  given  the  version  special  recognition  and  sanction. 
Not  even  Parker's  name  graces  the  title-page,  as  Cranmer's 
had  done  in  his  Bible  of  1540.  Perhaps  she  had  some  regard 
for  the  Bible  so  often  printed  in  her  father's  and  brother's 
time,  and  for  the  memory  of  the  primate  who  had  at  length 
died  at  the  stake.  At  all  events,  no  royal  confirmation  was 
given  to  the  volume,  and  no  license  was  issued,  like  that  to 
John  Bodleigh  for  the  Genevan  version.  An  edition  of  Cran 
mer's  Bible  was  printed  the  same  year  as  the  first  edition  of 
the  Bishops',  and  it  bore  upon  it  as  usual,  "  according  to  the 
translation  appointed  to  be  read  in  churches";  but  Parker's 
Bible  never  carried  such  a  mandate  during  his  lifetime.  In 
the  royal  patents  for  printing  the  Bible,  no  version  was  singled 
out  for  preference,  even  though  such  patents  were  sanctioned 
by  Archbishop  Whitgift.  Not  till  1577  was  an  edition 
printed  "  set  forth  by  authoritie " — that  is,  not  royal,  only 
episcopal  authority ;  but,  as  if  to  offer  a  counterpoise,  a  copy 
of  the  Genevan  of  the  same  year  was  presented  to  the  "throned 
vestal,"  and  the  covers  were  embroidered  by  her  own  hand. 

But  Convocation  naturally  made  special  enactments  in  favour 
of  the  Bishops'  version.  In  the  "  Constitutions  and  Canons  "  of 
1571,  it  was  ordered  "that  every  archbishop  and  bishop  should 
have  at  his  house  a  copy  of  the  Holy  Bible  of  the  largest  volume, 
as  lately  printed  in  London,  and  that  it  should  be  placed  in  the 

1  Offor  MSS.,  II,  British  Museum,     in  his  own  collection,  pp.   185-187. 

2  Lea  "Wilson's  Catalogue  of  Bibles    Cotton's  Editions,  &c.,  p.  32. 


hall  or  large  dining  room,  that  it  might  be  useful  to  their  ser 
vants  or  to  strangers" — the  order  applying  also  to  each  cathedral, 
and  "  so  far  as  could  be  conveniently  done,  to  all  the  churches." 
The  English  service  was  still  very  unwelcome  to  many  of 
the  conservative  clergy  and  nobility,  who  regarded  it  as  the 
life  of  the  religious  revolution  by  which  so  many  intolerable 
changes  were  wrought  round  about  them.  The  rebellion  of 
the  northern  Earls  in  15G9  had,  according  to  their  proclamation, 
for  its  object  "to  restore  all  ancient  customs  and  liberties  to 
God  and  this  noble  realm."  The  insurgents,  filled  with  this 
spirit,  entered  Durham  Cathedral  with  the  old  banner  of  the 
Pilgrimage  borne  before  them,  blazoned  with  the  cross,  the 
streamers,  and  the  five  wounds,  and  at  once  destroyed  "the 
English  Bibles," l — copies,  in  all  probability,  of  the  Great  Bible. 

In  the  Old  Testament  the  Great  Bible  was  chiefly  followed ; 
many  chapters  exhibit  few  important  variations,  and  numerous 
better  renderings  introduced  by  the  Genevan  version  are  ig 
nored,  though  not  a  few  emendations  are  at  the  same  time 
adopted  from  it.  Canon  Westcott  says,  "  It  is  possible  that  I 
may  have  been  unfortunate  in  the  parts  which  I  have  exam 
ined  (of  the  Old  Testament),  for  what  I  saw  did  not  encourage 
me  to  compare  very  much  of  the  Bishops'  text  with  the  other 
versions."  2  Editions  of  the  Aversion  appeared  in  1569,  1570, 
and  1571. 

Strype  has  preserved  some  critical  remarks  on  twenty-nine 
places  of  the  New  Testament  of  the  Bishops'  Bible,  by  Law 
rence — "  a  man,  in  those  days,  of  great  fame  for  his  knowledge 
of  the  Greek,"  and  probably  one  of  the  revisers  of  the  Bishops' 
version,  or  suggesters  of  the  second  edition.3  Lawrence  was 
probably  the  head-master  of  Shrewsbury  School,  and  the  in 
structor  in  Greek  of  Lady  Cecil,  who  became  a  wonderful  pro 
ficient  in  that  language.  The  criticisms  are  certainly  made  on 
eome  places  in  the  New  Testament  of  the  first  edition  of  the 
Bishops'  Bible,  for  it  alone  of  all  the  versions  contains  several 
of  the  clauses  on  which  critical  comments  are  given,  though 
the  majority  of  them  are  found  also  in  the  Great  Bible,  on 

1  Froude's  History,  vol.  IX,  p.  315.         3  Life  of  Parker.     Appendix,  No. 

2  History,  p.  247,  2nd  ed.  Ixxxv,  p.  139. 


which  the  Bishops'  was  principally  based.  In  some  instances 
the  rendering  of  the  Great  Bible  is  simply  restored.  The 
verses  selected  for  emendation  are,  with  one  exception,  taken 
from  the  Synoptical  Gospels,  and  his  corrections  were  accepted 
in  the  revised  edition  of  the  Bishops',  published  in  1572 ;  pro 
bably,  therefore,  the  work  of  Lawrence  was  done  with  a  view 
to  this  edition,  and  was  intended  to  present  a  brief  specimen 
of  the  necessity  and  nature  of  a  good  revision. 

Lawrence's  first  section  is  headed  "Wordes  not  aptlye  trans 
lated  in  the  New  Testament."  His  proposed  emendations  are 
— Matt,  xvii,  27,  instead  of  "of  the  children,"  B.  1,  "their 
children,"  G.  B.,  "  of  their  own  children,"  adopted  in  the  B.  2 
and  A. ; 2  but  the  best  Greek  reading  will  not  warrant  it.  27, 
instead  of  "  cast  an  angle,"  G.  B.,  B  1,  "  cast  an  hook,"  adopted 
in  B  2.  and  A.  xxi,  33,  instead  of  "  made  a  vineyard,"  B.  1  and 
G.  B.,  "  planted  a  vineyard,"  "  amended "  in  the  Genevan, 
adopted  in  B.  2  and  A.  38,  instead  of  "  let  us  enjoy  it,"  B  1, 
G.  B.,  "  let  us  take  possession  or  seizyn,"  adopted  virtually  in 
B.  2  and  A. ;  "  keep,"  however,  would  be  more  literal,  xxii,  7, 
instead  of  "  sente  foorth  his  men  of  war,"  B.  1,  G.  B.,  "  sent 
forth  his  armies,"  adopted  in  B.  2  and  A.  xxv,  20,  instead  of 
"five  talents  more,"  B.  1,  G.  B.,  "five  talents  besides,"  B.  2  and 
A.  xxvi,  38,  instead  of  "  is  heavy,"  B.  1,  G.  B.,  "  is  exceedinge 
heavie,"  adopted  in  B.  2  and  A,  as  the  adjective  is  a  strong 
compound ;  the  Genevan  having  "  very  heavie."  42,  instead 
of  "  he  went  awaie  once  again,"  B.  1,  G.  B.,  "  he  went  away 
the  second  time,"  noting  that  "  this  is  amended  in  the  Genevan 
Bible,"  adopted  in  B.  2  and  A.  xxvii,  14,  instead  of  "  harm 
less,"  B.  1,  G.  B.,  "careless";  "this  is  not  considered  in  the 
Genevan  Bible " ;  adopted  in  B.  2  and  A.  as  "  secure  you," 
make  you  secure — that  is,  free  from  care,  if  judicial  investiga 
tion  should  take  place. 

Mark  i,  24,  "  let  us  alone,"  the  clause  not  being  in  B.  1  and 
G.  B.,  adopted  in  B.  2  and  A. ;  but  the  Greek  reading  that  would 
warrant  such  a  translation  can  scarcely  be  sustained.  45, 
instead  of  "  to  tell  many  things,"  B.  1,  G.  B.  "  openly  to  declare," 

2  B.  1,  Bishops'  first  edition ;  B.  2,  Bishops'  revised  edition  of  1572  ;  G.  B., 
Great  Bible  ;  A.,  Authorized. 


virtually  B.  2  and  A. ;  but  it  is  "  not  considered  in  the  Genevan 
Bible."  x,  19,  instead  of  "  thou  shalte  not  kyll,"  B.  1,  "  kyll 
not,"  G.  B.,  "  doe  not  kyll,"  B.  2  and  A.,  Beza  being  correct  in 
those  places,  but  the  Genevan  wrong;  and  the  "Vulgate"  being 
right  in  this  verse,  but  wrong  in  rendering  the  same  language 
in  Luke  xviii,  20.  xii,  15,  instead  of  "seeing,"  B.  1,  "having 
understood  their  dissimulation,"  G.  B.,  "  he  knowinge  theire 

7  3  O 

hypocrisie,"  B.  2,  but  not  A. 

In  Luke  i,  3,  4,  the  translation  of  the  Great  Bible  is  really 
better  than  that  which  Lawrence  suggests,  and  which  is  found 
in  the  Bishops',  and  virtually  in  the  Authorized,  "  having  per 
fect  understanding  of  all  things  from  the  beginning,"  the  Great 
Bible  having  "as  soon  as  I  had  searched  out  diligently  all 
things  "-  —  the  correct  rendering  being  "  having  traced  the 
course  of  all  things  accurately  from  the  first " ;  Lawrence  is 
right  in  the  last  clause,  "  whereof  thou  hast  been  taught  by 
mouth,"  adopted  in  the  B.  2,  but  refused  in  A.  vi,  44,  in 
stead  of  "  nor  of  bushes,"  B.  1,  G.  B.,  "  nor  of  a  bramble-bush," 
B.  2  and  A.  All  those  corrections  suggested  by  Lawrence  have 
been  adopted  in  the  Bishops',  and,  with  one  exception,  are 
found  also  in  the  Authorized. 

Lawrence's  second  section  is  headed  "  Worcles  and  pieces  of 
sentences  omytted."  Some  of  the  instances  imply  a  different 
Greek  reading,  and  in  others  the  omission  is  the  fault  of 
the  translator.  He  notices  "  yet "  omitted  in  Matt,  xv,  16, 
B.  1  and  G.  B.,  amended  in  the  Genevan,  found  in  B.  2  and  A. 
xxii,  13,  "take  him  up"  "take"  omitted  in  B.  1,  not  in  G.  B., 
but  inserted  in  B.  2  and  A.  xxvi,  13,  "  whole,"  in  the  phrase 
"  whole  world,"  omitted  in  G.  B.,  B  1  having  "  al  the  world," 
but  given  in  B.  2  and  A. 

Mark  xv,  3,  "  but  he  answered  nothing,"  B.  1,  G.  B. ;  the 
omission  also  in  Beza,  and  therefore  in  the  Genevan ;  but  in 
serted  in  B.  2  and  A.  after  the  margin  of  Stephens.  The  clause, 
however,  has  no  authority,  being  taken  from  Matt,  xxvii,  12, 
or  Luke  xxiii,  9. 

Luke  viii,  23,  "  of  wind,"  in  G.  B.,not  B.  1;  inserted  in  B.  2  and  A. 
In  x,  22,  Lawrence  commends  the  insertion  of  "  and  turning 
to  his  disciples  he  said,"  G.  B.,  not  B.  1,  but  the  clause  was  not 

VOL.  II.  F 


adopted  by  B.  2 ;  the  Genevan  admitted  it,  though  it  is  not  in 
the  text  of  Beza ;  but  Stephens  had  adopted  it.  It  had  been 
rejected  by  Erasmus ;  Tyndale  and  Coverdale  also  omit  it ;  and 
it  is  placed  in  the  margin  of  the  Authorized  Version,  with  a 
note,  xxii,  12,  "great"  is  omitted,  B.  1,  the  clause  ought  to  be 
"  a  great  upper  chamber,"  the  reading  of  Stephens  and  Beza, 
and  the  Genevan  accepted  in  B.  2  and  A.  "  A  great  parlour 
paved  "  is  the  rendering  of  Tyndale  and  Coverdale,  and  of  the 
Great  Bible  of  1539  and  1540;  the  Genevan  having  "a  great 
hie  chamber  trimmed."  The  last  example  is  xxiv,  27,  "he 
interpreted  to  them  in  all  the  Scriptures  which  were  written 
of  him/'  B.  1,  G.  B.,  the  rendering  being  liable  to  misinterpreta 
tion,  and  the  sense  being  he  "interpreted  to  them  in  all  the 
Scriptures  those  things  which  were  written  of  him,"  "well 
amended  in  the  Genevan  translation  " ;  accepted  by  B.  2,  but 
more  compact  in  A. — "  he  expounded  unto  them  in  all  the 
Scriptures  the  things  concerning  himself." 

Lawrence's  third  head  is  "Wordes  superfluous,"  and  his 
examples  are,  Mark  xiii,  16,  "Let  hym  that  is  in  the  fielde 
not  turne  backe  againe  unto  the  thinges  whiche  he  lefte 
behinde  him,"  B.  1,  G.  B.,  the  proper  rendering  being  briefer, 
"  let  him  not  turne  backe,"  adopted  by  B.  2  and  A.  Luke  xii, 
24,  "feathered  fowles,"  B.  1,  G.  B.  within  brackets.  Law 
rence  asks  "  what  needethe  feathered  ? "  the  epithet  perhaps 
suggested  by  the  "volucribus"  of  Erasmus;  omitted  in  B.  2 
and  A. 

The  fourth  section  refers  to  "  Sentences  changed  and  error 
in  doctrine."  Luke  ix,  45,  "it  was  hidde  from  them,  that  they 
understoode  it  not,"  B.  1,  G.  B.,  should  be  "  it  was  hidde  from 
them  that  they  should  not  understand  it,"  rightly  adopted  in 
B.  2,  but  vailed  in  A.,  and  it  had  been  refused  by  the  Genevan, 
though  it  quadrated  with  Genevan  theology.  Colos.  ii,  13, 
"dead  to  synne,  and  to  the  uncircumcision  of  your  flesh,"  B.  1, 
G.  B.  having  "  through  .  .  .  through  " ;  it  should  be  "  dead  in 
synne  " ;  the  necessary  change  was  adopted  in  the  subsequent 

The  last  section  is  "  Modes  and  tenses  changed,  and  places 
not  well  considered  by  Theodoras  Beza  and  Erasmus,  as  I 

xxxi x.]  ERRORS  IN  THE  GREAT  BIBLE.  83 

thynke."  Matt,  xxi,  3,  "say  ye,"  B.  1,  G.  B.,  should  be  "ye 
shall  say," — Beza  having  "dicite,"  but  Ipen-e  is  never  of  the 
imperative  mood  and  Beza  has  "dicetis"  in  other  places;  the 
correction  is  adopted  by  B.  2  and  A.  Luke  xvii,  8,  for  "  eate 
thou  and  drynke  thou,"  B.  1,  G.  B.,  "thou  shalt  eate  and 
drynke,"  "for  the  sense  it  maketh  no  great  matter,  but  in 
grammar  it  is  an  evident  error."  The  future  is  in  Coverdale's 
own  version,  but  the  imperative  "  eat  thou  "  was  put  into  the 
Great  Bible  after  Tyndale,  and  it  was  taken  also  by  the  Gene 
van.  This  correction  is  followed  by  a  long  grammatical  argu 
ment  against  Erasmus  and  Beza,  who,  misled  by  the  form  of 
the  verbs,  took  them  for  first  aorist  imperatives.  B.  2  and  A. 
rightly  adopt  the  future,  though  Beza  had  edito  tu  et  bibito. 
These  remarks  are  not  all  of  primary  importance,  but  they 
indicate  scholarship,  and  have  influenced  our  present  Bibles. 
The  modest  critic  adds:  "It  is  more  lyke  that  I  should  be 
deceived  than  either  Erasmus  or  Beza.  I  wolde  gladlye  they 
were  defended  that  I  might  see  rnyhe  own  error.  I  take  them 
to  be  decey  ved,  because  I  see  reason  and  aucthoritie  for  me,  and 
as  yet  none  for  them,  but  because  they  saye  so,  and  yet  brynge 
no  proofe  for  them."  Had  Lawrence  extended  his  remarks 
to  the  Great  Bible,  he  might  have  corrected  many  blunders ; 
for  in  the  Great  Bible  sometimes  the  translation  does  not 
bring  out  the  full  meaning  of  the  original,  sometimes  it 
goes  beyond  it,  and  occasionally  it  is  erroneous :  as  Luke 
ii,  13,  "a  multitude  of  heavenly  soudyers";  xvi,  8,  the  word 
lord  is  spelled  "  Lord "  with  an  initial  capital,  as  if  it  re 
ferred  to  Jesus,  and  the  clause  were  his  eulogy  of  dishonesty; 
and  "  in  their  nation  "  of  the  same  verse  is  a  misrendering,  as 
is  xix,  23,  "with  vauntage";  John  i,  1,  "and  God  was  the 
Word";  3,  "all  things  were  made  by  it";  Acts  viii,  23,  "full 
of  bitter  gall";  26,  "which  is  in  the  desert";  xxvii,  9,  "because 
also  that  they  had  overlong  fasted";  13,  "loosed  into  Asson," 
making  the  adverb  a  proper  name ;  Bom.  ix,  5,  "  which  is  God 
in  all  things  to  be  praised";  xii,  11,  "apply  yourselves  to  the 
time."  Many  of  those  instances  occur  also  in  the  earlier  ver 

1  See  vol.  I,  pp.  142,  381,  &c. 


The  special  edition  of  1572  was  revised  in  the  New  Tes 
tament,  and  in  many  places  corrected  and  improved.  It  is 
printed  on  thick  paper,  and  is  a  heavy  and  handsome  folio. 
Of  titles,  portraits,  and  maps,  it  has  only  thirty  engravings,  and 
the  initial  letter  of  Jeremiah  has  in  it  a  coat  of  arms.  But  it 
was  disfigured  by  several  peculiar  ornaments,  or  ornamental 
initial  letters,  taken  from  Ovid's  "Metamorphoses,"  such  as  Leda 
and  the  Swan  at  the  Epistle  to  the  Hebrews,  with  many  others 
of  a  similar  incongruous  character.  It  has  a  double  copy  of  the 
Psalms — one  column  in  the  page  preserves  the  version  of  the 
Great  Bible  in  black  letter,  and  the  other,  or  parallel  column, 
the  new  version  in  Roman  letter.  The  nature  of  the  revision 
in  the  New  Testament  may  be  seen  in  the  following  collation 
of  the  Epistle  to  the  Galatians.  The  revision  is  careful,  and 
shows  a  decided  desire  and  effort  towards  an  exacter  and 
more  literal  version.  The  New  Testament  of  Tyndale  is 
imbedded  in  the  Great  Bible,  and  shows  itself  in  the  first 
edition  of  the  Bishops' ;  but  the  revised  edition  of  the 
Bishops',  in  its  independent  course,  occasionally  differs  from 
it.  Expletive  words  are  placed  in  brackets;  and  honest 
scholarship  is  everywhere  apparent. 



1  raised  him  up  from  death  ;  Great     from  the  dead ;  Genevan. 

Bible,  Tyndale. 
9  than  that  ye  have  received.  [that  ye  have]. 

10  If     I     should    yet    please     men ;     If  I  yet  pleased  men. 


11  was  not  after  men  ;  Genevan.  is  not  after  men. 
13  howe  that ;  Genevan,  Tyndale.             [how]  that. 

15  called  me.  called  [me]. 

17  neither  returned  ;  Tyudale.  went  I  up. 
which  were  apostles.  which  [were]. 

18  I  returned  to  Jerusalem.  I  went  up. 
23  in  time  past ;  Genevan,  Great  Bible,    in  times  past. 







2  I  went  up  also  ;  Great  Bible.  I  went  up  ;  Genevan. 

which  were  the  chiefe  ;  Genevan.  which  were  esteemed  the  chief. 

6  in   time  passed  ;    Genevan,  Great  in  times  past. 

Bible,  Tyndale. 

9  then  James  ;  Great  Bible,  Tyndale.  [then]  James. 

12  which  were.  [which  were]. 

14  why  causest  thou  ?    Great  Bible,  why  compellest  thou  ? 


16  and  we  have  believed  ;  Great  Bible,  we  have  believed. 

21  comme  of  the  law ;    Great   Bible,  [come]. 


1  described  before   the  eyes ;  Great  was  before   described  before  the 

Bible,  Tyndale.  eyes. 

19  till  the  seed  came  ;  Great  Bible.  should  come. 


12  be  ye  as  I  [am].  for  I  [am]  as  ye  are. 

25  which  is  nowe  [called]  Jerusalem.        which  [is]  now  [called]. 
30  shall    not  be  heir  ;    Great    Bible,     shall  in  no  wise  be  heyre. 


8  not  the  perfection  of  hym  that  called    this  persuasion  cometh  not  of  him 


9  a  little  leaven  doth  leaven. 

14  which    is    this ;    Genevan,    Great 

20  zeal. 

21  that  they. 

24  they  truly  that  are  ;  Great  Bible. 

25  let  us  walk  ;  Great  Bible,  Tyndale. 

that  called  you. 
[which  is  this]. 

emulations ;  Genevan, 
that  [even]  Christes. 
that  [are]  have. 

let  us  also    walk   in  the  Spirit  ; 

1  be  taken  in  any  fault ;  Great  Bible,     be  prevented  in  any  fault. 

considering  thyself,  lest. 
3  in  his  own  faiisie. 
8  into  his  flesh. 

13  rejoice    in    your   flesh ;    Genevan, 

Great  Bible,  Tyndale. 

14  should  rejoice,  but  in  ;  Great  Bible, 

Genevan,  Tyndale. 

considering  thee  selfe,  lest. 

in  his  own  fantasy. 

in  his  fleashe;  Great Bible;Tyndale. 

glory  in  your  flesh. 

should  glory,  but  in  the  cross. 




The  Historical  Books  of  the  Old  Testament  are  not  much 
changed,  the  revision  is  slight  and  superficial,  and  the  words 
and  phrases  of  the  Great  Bible  are  so  continuously  employed  as 
almost  to  take  independent  character  from  the  version.  Thus 
in  the  first  twenty  verses  of  Genesis  xxxvii,  there  are  some 
twelve  changes,  none  of  any  great  importance,  but  nearly  all 
of  them  bringing  the  English  into  closer  uniformity  with  the 
Hebrew.  The  revisers  were  enjoined  to  follow  Pagninus  and 
Munster,*  though  the  last  was  depreciated  unjustly  by  Sandys, 
and  they  obeyed  the  injunction. 

2  an  euyll  sayiuge  of  them. 

7  and  youres  stode. 

8  be  our  kynge  in  dede. 

10  come  to  fall  on  the  gronude  before 


1 1  hated  him.5 

1 2  kepe  their  fathers  shepe.7 

14  he  went  to. 
19  this  dreamer.10 

20  a  wycked  beast. 


their  evil  report.1 

and  behold*  your  sheaves. 

a  king  indeed  on  us*  (over  us,  1 572). 

indeed  come  to  bow  to  thee.* 

envied6  him,  Genevan. 

his  fathers  cattel;8  and  so  in  verses 

14  and  16. 
came  to.9 
this  notable   dreamer  ;    marginal 

note  —  Hebrew,      maister     of 

some  naughtie  beast e.11 

1  Malam  famam  eorum,  Pagninus, 
Munster,  Leo  Judte. 

2  Et  ecce,  Pagniuus. 

3  Super  nos,    Paguinus,  Munster, 
Leo  Judas. 

4  Und  dich  anbeten,  Luther. 

5  Virtually  Leo  Judas. 

6  Invidebant,  Vulgate. 

7  Coverdale  ("their  fathers"  of  the 
Great   Bible    being   correct) ;   oves, 

8  Grex,     Leo     Judse  ;     pecudes, 

9  Veuit,  Paguinus. 

10  Somuiator  ille,  Pagniuus. 
31  Bestia  mala,  Munster. 

*  It  is  one  of  the  signs  of  those  published      in       1527     a     Hebrew 

changing      times     that     Sebastian  Dictionary,   to    which    he   prefixed 

Minister,  whose  Latin    translation  an  elaborate  dedication    to    Fisher,, 

is    so     cordially  recommended    by  Bishop  of    Eochester,   whom  King 

Archbishop  Parker  to  his  coadjutors,  Henry  VIII  beheaded  in  1535. 



Or  take  the  Great  Bible,  the  Genevan,  and  the  Bishops'  :  — 


1  The     hand     of     the 
Lord  came1  vpon  me,  and 
caried    me    out    in    the 
sprete  of  the  Lorde,  and 
let  me2  downe  in  a  playne 
field    that,    lay    fall    of 
bones. 3 

2  And     he      led     me 
rounde    about  by  them, 

and    beholde7    the    botiess 


The  hand  of  the  Lord 
was  4  vpon  me,  and  caried 
me  out  in  the  Spirit  of 
the  Lord,  and  set  me 
downe  in  the  middess  of 
a  fielde  which  was  ful  of 

And  he  led  me  round 
about  by  them,  and  be 
holde  there  were  very 

that  lay  vpon  the  fielde  manie  in  the  open 10  field, 

were     very    many,    and  and,  lo,  they  were  verie 

maruelous  9  drye  also.  drye. 

3  Then12  sayde  he  vnto  And 16  he  said  vnto  me, 

me:  Thou™  sonneof  man: 
thinkestu  thou  that  these 
bones  may  Hue  again, 13  I 
answered,  0  Lord  God, 
thou  knowest. 

4  And  he  sayd  vnto 
me:  Propheciethou  vpon19 
these  bones  :  and  speake 
vnto  them.  Ye  drye 
bones,  heare  the  worde  of 
the  Lorde. 

Sonne  of  man,  can  these 
bones  liue  ?  And17  I 
answered,  0  Lord  God, 
thou  knowest. 

Again  he  said  vnto  me, 
Prophecie  vpon "°  these 
bones,  and  say  vnto  them, 
0  ye  drye  bones,  hear  the 
worde  of  the  Lorde. 


The  hande  of  the 
Lorde  was  vpon  me,  and 
caried  nie  out  in  the 
spirite  of  the  Lorde,  and 
set  me  downe  in  the 
midst  of  as  plaine  Jielde 
that  was  full  of  bones. 

And  he  led  me  rounde 
about  by  them,  and  be 
holde,  there  were  very 
many  in  the  open  fielde, 
and  lo  u  (they  were)  very 

Then18  saide  he  vnto 
me  :  Thou  sonne  of  man, 
thinkest  thou  these 
bones  may  liue  againe  : 
I  answered,  0  Lorde 
God,  thou  knowest. 

And  he  said  vnto  me, 
Prophecie  thou  vpon 
these  bones,  and  speake 
vnto  them :  Ye  drye 
bones,  heare  the  worde 
of  the  Lorde. 2l 

1  Kam,  Luther,  Ziirich. 

2  Liess,  Zurich. 

3  Das  lag  vollergebeins, 

4  Fuit,  Pagninus. 

s  In  medio,  Vulgate. 

6  In    medio    planiciei, 

7  Sehe,  Luther. 

8  Des  gebeynes,  Ziirich. 

9  Vast  diirr,  Zurich. 

10  In     superficie    agri, 

11  Ecce,          Pagninus, 
Minister.       This      inter 
jection    is   expressed    in 
the  Hebrew  twice. 

12  Do,  rendered  then  by 

13  Du,  Luther. 
14Putasne,  Vulgate. 
15Wieder,  Ziirich. 

16  Et,      Vulgate     and 
Latin  versions. 

17  Et,    Munster,    Pag 

18  Turn,    Leo  Judte — 
the    verse     corresponds 
with  the  Great  Bible. 

1!)  liber,  Ziirich,  Cov 

20  Super,  Pagninus  and 
Miinster,  after  the  Heb 

21  After      the     Great 





5  Thus  sayth  the  Lord 
God    vnto    these  bones, 
Behold  1  will  put  breath 
into  you,    that1  ye  may 

6  I  will  geue  you  sin- 
owes,  4  and  make  fleshe  to 
growevponyou,5  andcouer 
you   ouer  with   skynne  ; 
and  so  geue  you  breath, 
that 6  ye  may  lyue,   and 
knowe  that  I  am  the  Lord 

7.  So 10 1  prophecied,  as 
lie  commanded11  me,  and  as 
I  was  prophecying  ther 
came  a  noyse  and  a  great 
mocion  so  that  the  bones 
came  euerye  one  to  an 
other.  12 

8  Now  when  I  had 
loked,  behold19  they  had 
sinowes,  and  fleshe  grewe 
vpon  theym :  and  aboue 20 
they  were  couered  with 
skynne,  but  there  was  no 
breath  in  theym. 


Thus  saith  the  Lord 
God  vnto  these  bones, 
Beholde  /  wil  cause 2 
breath  to  entre  into  you 
and  ye  shal  Hue. 

And  I  wil  lay  sinewes 
vpon7  you,  and  make  flesh 
growe  vpon  you,  and 
couer  you  with  skin,  and 
put  breath  in  you,  that 
ye  may  liue,  and  ye  shal 8 
knowe  that  I  am  the 

So  I  prophecied  as  I 
was 13  commanded:  and  as 
I  prophecied,  there  was  a 
noise 14  and  beholde  there 
was15  a  shaking  and  the 
bones  came 16  together, 
bone  to  his  bone.17 

And  when  I  behelde, 
lo,  the  sinewes,  and  the 
fleshe  grewe  vpon  them, 
and  aboue  the  skin  couered 
them,  but  there  was  no 
breath  in  them. 


Thus  saith  the  Lorde 
God  vnto  these  bones  : 
Beholde,  I  wyll  cause 
breath  to  enter  into  you 
that  ye  may  lyue.  3 

I  wyll  geue  you  si 
nowes,  and  make  fleshe 
growe  vpon  you,  and 
couer  you  ouer  with 
skinne,  and  so  geue  you 
breath,  that  ye  may  liue, 
and  knowe  that  I  am 
the  Lorde. 9 

So  I  prophecied  as  J 
was18  commanded:  and 
as  I  was  prophecying 
there  was  a  noyse,  and 
also  a  great  motion  so 
that  the  bones  came 
neare  together,  bone  to 
his  bone. 

Now  when  I  had  loked, 
behold  they  had  sinowes, 
and  fleshe  grewe  vpon 
them,  and  above  they 
were  couered  with  skin, 
but  there  was  no  breath 
in  them. 21 

1  Das,  Luther,  Zurich, 

2  Introire   facio — Pag- 
ninus  ;  the  Hebrew  verb 
being  in  the  Hiphil  con 

3  After  the  Great  Bible 
and  the  Genevan. 

4  Nervos,  Vulgate. 

5  Increscere  faciam  car- 
nes,  Vulgate. 

6  Das,  Luther  and  Zu 

7  Super   vos,    Vulgate, 

8  Und    sollt    erfahren, 

9  After      the        Great 

10  Do,  Zurich. 

11  Sicutprseceperatmihi, 

12  Zu  dem  andern,  Zil- 

13  Jussus  fui,  Pagninus, 
M  iinster, 

14  Sonus,  Leo  Judse. 

15  Et    ecce    strepitus, 
Miinster  ;    et  ecce  com- 
motio,  Pagninus. 

16  Accesserunt. 

17  Os     scilicet    ad    os 
suum,  Miinster. 

18  After  the  Genevan. 

19  Ecce,  Pagninus. 

20  Desuper,  do. 

21  After      the     Great 





9  Then  sayd  hee  vnto 
mee,  Thou  sonne  of  man, 
prophesye  thus  towarde  i 
the    wynde :     prophesye 
and  speake  to  the  wynde : 
Thus  saith  the  Lord  God, 
Come  (0  thou  ayre)  from 
the    foure    wyudes,   and 
blowe  vpon  these  slayne 
that  they  may  be  restored 
to  lyfe.'2 

10  So  I  prophecied  as 
he  had  commaunded  me: 
then6    came    the    breth 
vnto    theym,    and    they 
receaued  lyfe,  and  stode 
op  vpon  their  fete,  a  mar- 
udous  great7  sorte. 


Then  said  he  vnto  me, 
Prophecie  vnto  the  winde : 
prophecie,  sonne  of  man, 
and  say  to  the  winde, 
Thus  saith  the  Lord  God,  3 
Come  from  the  foure 
windes,  O  breath,  and 
breathe  vpon  these  slaine, 
that 4  they  may  liue. 

So  I  pgophecied  as  he 
had  commanded  me  :  and 
the  breath  came  into  them, 
and  they  liued,  and  stode 
op  vpon  their  fete,  an 
exccding  8  great  armie. 


Then  said  he  vnto  me : 
Thou  sonne  of  man,  pro 
phecie  thou  towarde  the 
winde,  prophecie  and 
speake  to  the  winde, 
thus  saith  the  Lord  God : 
Come,  0  thou  ayre,5  from 
the  foure  windes,  and 
blowe  vpon  these  slaine 
that  they  may  lyue. 

So  I  prophecied  as  he 
had  commaunded  me  : 
then  came  the  breath 
into  them  ;  and  they  re 
ceaued  lyfe,  and  stoode 
vp  vpon  their  feete,  a 
marueilous  great  armie. 9 

The  Apocrypha  is  scarcely  revised  at  all,  and  neglecting  the 
Genevan,  it  reverts  mainly  to  the  Great  Bible  which  is  usually 
followed,  and  which  rests  on  the  Latin  text.  The  prayer  of 
Manasses  is  restored  to  the  place  which  it  occupied  between  the 
story  of  Bel  and  the  Dragon  and  the  First  Book  of  Maccabees. 

1.  In  those  dayes  came 
John  ye  Baptist,  preach 
ing  10  in  the  wilderness  of 
Jewrie,  saying,11 


A  HcZ12  in  those  dayes  John 
the  Baptiste  came  and 
2)reached13  in  the  wilder 
ness  of  Judea. 


In  those  dayes  came 14 
John  the  Baptist  preach 
ing  in  the  wyldernesse 
of  Jurie. 

1  Gegen,  Ziirich,  Cover- 

2  Reviviscant,  Vulgate; 
wieder  lebendig,  Luther, 

3  Order  as  in  the  Vul 

4  Das,      Luther  ;      ut, 
Minister  and  Leo  Judas. 

5  Lufft,     Luther,    and 

6  Do,  Ziirich. 

7  Traffentliche     grosse 
Menge,  Ziirich. 

8  Exercitus  grandis 
valde    valde — Pagninus  ; 
an  attempt  to  reproduce 
the   Hebrew   duplication 
of  the  adverb. 

9  After        the      Great 

10  Predicans,  Vulgate. 

11  Dicens,  Vulgate  and 

12  Autem,        Vulgate, 

13  Tyndale,  Coverdale; 
und     predigte,     Luther 
and  the  Zurich. 

14  All  the  versions  mis- 
render      the    present — 
"  came "      instead      of 
"  cometh." 






2  Repent  of  the   life1 
that  is  past,  for  the  king- 
dome  of    Heaven    is    at 

3  For    this    is    he    of 
whom4  the  prophet  Esaie 
spake,  which  saith,5  The 
voice  of  a  cryer6  in  the 
wilderness,     prepare     ye 
the  waye  of  the  Lorde  : 
and     make     his     patlies 

4  This11  John   had  his 
raiment       of       cammels 
hetire.     And  a  girdell  of 
a  skinne  about  hys  loynes. 
His  meate  was  locustes 
and  wilde  hony. 


And  said,  Repent?  for 
the  kingdome  of  heaven 
is  at  hand. 

For7  this  is  he  of  whome 
it  is  spoken 8  by  the  Pro 
phet  Esaias,  saying,9  The 
voyce  of  him  that  cryeth 
in  the  wilderness,  Prepare 
ye  the  way  of  the  Lord  : 
make  his  paths  straight. 

And12  this  John  had  his 
garment  of  camels  heere, 
and  a  girdle  of  a  skin 
about  hys  loynes  :  his 
meat  was  also 13  locustes 
and  wilde  home. 


And  saying,  Eepent 
ye,3  for  the  kingdome  of 
heaven  is  at  hand. 

For  this  is  he  that  was 
spoken of  by the  prophete 
Esaias,  saying,  the  voyce 
of  one  crying  in  the  wyl- 
dernesse,  Prepare  ye  the 
way  of  the  Lorde,  make 
ye  his  patlies  straight.  10 

This  John  had  his  ray- 
ment  of  camels  heare, 
and  a  letherne  girdle1* 
about  his  loines,15  his 
meate  was  locustes  and 
wild  honey. 

5  Then    went    out    to  Then  went  out  to  him  Then  went  out  to  him 
him    Jerusalem    and    all  Jerusalem  and  allJudea,  17  Hierusalem,      and      all 
Jewrie,  and  all  the  region  and  all  the  region  rouude  Jurie,  and  al  the  region 
rounde  about  Jordan. 1(J  about  Jordan.  rounde  about  Jordane. 

6  And   were    baptized  And  they  were  baptized  And  were   baptised  of 
of  him  in  Jordane,  con-  of  him  in  Jordan,  confess-  him    in    Jordane,     con 
fessing  their  shines.18  ing  their  sinnes.  fessing  their  sinnes. 

7  But19  when  he  saw 
many  of  the  Pharises  and 
Saduces  come  to  his  bap- 

No  w  when  he  sawe  many 
of  the  Pharises  and  of  the 
Sadduces  come  to  his  bap- 

But  when  he  sawe 
many  of  the  Pharisees 
and  Saducees  comme  to 

1  Vitse  prioris,  Erasmus. 

2  Resipiscite,  Beza. 

3  The   pronoun    "  ye  " 
not  in  the  two  previous 
versions,      but     inserted 
in  the    Authorized  Ver 

4  De  quo    dixit,    Eras 

5  Qui  ait,  Erasmus. 

6  Tyndale,  Coverdale. 

7  Nam,  Beza. 

8  De  quo  dictum,  Beza, 
Leo  Judse. 
»  Dicentem,  Vulgate. 

10  Repeated  verbatim  in 
the  Authorized   Version 
— the  variation  from  the 
previous     versions  being 
an  improvement. 

11  Ipse  vero,  Erasmus. 
12Ipse  vero,  Beza. 

is  Alimentum         autem 
ejus,  Beza. 

14  Luther  and  Zurich; 
kept  in  the  Authorized 

15  All    these    versions 
omit  the  connecting  par 
ticle  "  and  "  (Si). 

16  Tyndale  throughout. 

17  Tota  Judaea,  Beza. 

18  Tyndale. 

19  Autem,  Vulgate;  als 
nun,     Luther   and    Zu 




tisme,  hee  said  unto  them. 
O  generacion  of  vipers, 
who  hath  taught1  you  to 
flee  from  the  vengeance 
to  come. 

8  Bring    forthe   there 
fore  the  fruites  that  be 
long  to  repentance. 

9  And  be  7  not  of  such 
minde  that  ye  would  say 
within  your  selves  :    we 
have    Abraham    to     our 
father.      For  I  say  unto 
you  that  God  is   able   to 
bring3   to  passe,  that   of 
these  stones  there  shall 9 
rise    up     children    unto 

10  Even 13  now  is  the  axe 
also  put  unto  the  roote 
of  the  trees:  so  that14  every 
tre   which    bringeth    not 
forth  good  fruit,  is  hewen 
downe  and  cast  into  the 

11  I  baptize  you  with 
water  unto   repentance  : 


tisme,  he  said  unto  them, 
0  generations 2  of  vipers, 
who  hathe  foreivarned3 
you  to  flee  from  the  angre 
to  come. 

Bring  forthe  therefore 
fruites  worthy  amend 
ment4  of  life.5 

And10  thinke  not  to  say 
ivith11  your  selves,  We 
have  Abraham  to  our 
father  :  for  I  say  unto 
you  that  God  is  able  of 
these  stones  to  raise  up 
children  unto  Abraham. 

And  now  also15  is  the 
axe  put  to  the  roote  of  the 
trees:  therefore15  everie  tre 
which  bringeth  not  forthe 
goodfruite  is  hewen  downe 
and  cast  into  the  fyre. 

Indeede 17 1  baptize  you 
with  water  to  amendment 


his  baptisme,  he  said 
unto  them,  0  generation 
of  vipers,  who  hath 
warned  you  to  flee  from 
the  anger  to  comrue. 

Bring  foorth  therefore 
fruites  meete6  for  repent 

And  be  not  of  such 
minde,  that  ye  would 
say  within  your  selves, 
We  have  Abraham  to 
(our) 12  father;  For  I  say 
unto  you,  that  God  is 
able  of  these  stones  to 
rayse  up  children  unto 

Even  now  is  the  axe 
also  put  into  the  roote 
of  the  trees:  Wherefore, 
every  tree  which  bring 
eth  not  foorth  good 
fruite  is  hewen  downe 
and  cast  into  the  fire. 

I  baptize  you  in18  water 
unto  repentance  :  but  he 

1  Werhateuchgewiesen, 

2  Plural  in  both  German 

3  Prsemonstravit,  Beza. 

4  Dignum   iis   qui  resi- 
pueriiit,  Beza. 

5  This    rendering     sug 
gested  the  marginal  note 
in  the  Authorized  Version, 
' '  answerable    to    amend 
ment  of  life." 

6  Qui     deceant     poeni- 
tentiam,  Erasmus. 

7  Virtually  after  Lu 
ther  ;  ne  sitis  hac  mente, 
Erasmus,  kept  in  the 

s  Quod  possit  Deus  fa- 
cere,  Erasmus. 

9  Ut  filii  surgant,  Eras 

10  Ne  putetis,  Beza. 

11  Apud,  Beza,  kept  in 
the  Authorized  Version. 

12  "Our"  is  really  car 
ried      by      the       idiom, 
though  printed  in  italics 

in  the  Authorized  Ver 

13  Jam     vero,      Eras 

14  Darumb,  Zurich. 

15  Correct      rendering 
of  the   Greek,  and  pre 
served  in  the  Authorized 

16Igitur,  Beza. 

17  Quidem,  Beza. 

18  Tyndale;  but  he  does 
not  preserve  uniformity 
in  the  last  clauses. 





but  hee  that  shalU  come 
after  mee,  is  mightier 
than  I,  whose  shooes  I 
am  not  worthye  to  beare. 
Hee  shall  baptize  you 
with  the  holye  ghost  and 
with  2  fyre. 

12  Whose  fan  is  in  his 
hande,  and  he  will  purge 
hys  floore,  and  gather^ 
hise  wheate  into  the  barne, 
but  will  burne  the  chaffe 
wyth  unquencheable  fire. 


of  life,  but  he  that  cometh3 
after  me  is  mightier  then 
T,  whose  shoes  I  am  not 
worthie  to  beare  :  he  will 
baptize  you  with  the  holie 
Gost  and  with  fyre. 

Which  hathe  his  fanne 
in  his  hand,  and  wil  make 
cleane  his  floore,!  and 
gather  his  wheat  into  his 
garner,  but  wil  burn  up  8 
the  chaffe  with  unquenche- 
able  fire. 


that  cometh  after  me  is 
mightier  then  I,  whose 
shoes  I  am  not  woorthy 
to  beare,  he  shall  bap 
tize  you  with  the  holye 
ghost  and  tvlth  4  fyre. 

Whose  fanne  is  in 
his  hand,  and  he  wril 
throuijhly 9  purge  his 
floore,  and  gather  his 
wheate  into  (his)  garner: 
but  wil  burne  up  the 
chaffe  with  unquenche- 
able  fire. 

In  the  8th  chapter  of  Romans,  the  Bishops'  has,  in  verse 
3,  "  through  the  flesh,"  the  Great  Bible  and  the  Genevan  hav 
ing  "because  of  the  flesh,"  but  it  gives  us  "joint-heirs"  and 
"  earnest  expectation " ;  while  the  Great  Bible  interpolates  a 
verb  in  verse  3,  "that  performed  God";  and  the  Genevan  inserts 
"  to  death  "  in  32.  But  the  Genevan  gives  us  "  more  than  con 
querors,"  the  other  two  having  only  "  overcome " ;  and  the 
Genevan  also  brought  in  "  the  redemption  of  our  body."  To 
the  Bishops'  we  owe  the  expressive  and  familiar  phrases  in 
Ephesians  ii,  14,  "middle  wall";  19,  "fellow-citizens";  and  iii, 
8,  "  less  than  the  least." 

Though  the  Bishops'  was  thus  professedly  a  revision  of  the 
Great  Bible,  the  marginal  notes  in  the  New  Testament  are  often 
from  the  Genevan,  though  Parker,  in  his  letter  to  the  queen, 

1  Venturas    est,    Eras 
mus,  Vulgate. 

2  "  Mit  "    repeated    in 
Luther,    Zurich,    Cover- 
dale,  Tyndale. 

3  Qui  venit,  Beza. 

4  Authorized      Version 
prints     second     "  with " 

in  italics,    but  it   should 
be  omitted. 

s  Sammeln,  Luther. 
6  Triticum  suum,  Eras 

7Aream     suam,    Eras 
mus,  Beza. 
8  Exuret,  Erasmus,  Beza. 

9  Perpurgabit,  Beza. 
The  second  "  his  " 
bracketed,  though  the 
clause  with  the  article 
distinctly  bears  it,  but 
it  is  omitted  in  the 
Authorized  Version. 

xxxix.]  NOTES  OF  BISHOPS'  BIBLE.  93 

had  disparaged  them  as  "  prejudicial,  and  that  might  have 
well  been  spared."  Could  they  be  inserted  without  his  know 
ledge  ?  Was  not  he  the  last  or  editorial  reviser  ? l  Yet  in  the 
Epistle  to  the  Philippians,  all  the  annotations  but  one  are  from 
the  Genevan ;  and  of  more  than  fifty  notes  on  1  Corinthians 
there  are  only  seven  not  reprinted  from  the  same  version. 
The  original  marginal  notes,  which  are  unevenly  distributed,  are 
not  nearly  so  numerous  as  those  of  the  Genevan  version.  They 
are  often  trite  inferences,  as  at  Genesis  i,  7,  "  It  is  the  power 
of  God  that  holdeth  up  the  clouds  " ;  14,  "  These  lights  were 
not  made  to  serve  astronomers'  phantasies";  ii,  19,  "Man 
showed  himself  lord  of  the  beasts  by  giving  them  names." 
Sometimes  the  notes  are  doctrinal,  as  Gen.  i,  26,  "  One  God 
and  three  persons";  Deut.  vii,  12,  "This  covenant  is  grounded 
on  his  free  grace ;  therefore  in  recompensing  their  obedience 
he  hath  respect  unto  his  mercy,  and  not  to  their  merits." 
Other  notes,  beginning  with  "  that  is,"  turn  attention  to  the 
statement  of  the  text.  Some  are  hortatory  and  practical,  as 
Luke  xvi,  31,  "We  must  seek  for  truth  in  God's  Word,  and 
not  of  the  dead,"  and  state  in  a  clause  what  the  contents  of 
the  paragraph  are.  Some,  beginning  with  "  or,"  or  "  some 
read,"  give  alternative  renderings ;  others  are  explanatory, 
as  Luke  i,  73,  "  the  oath  which  he  sware,"  which  is  "  that 
he  would  give  himself  to  us."  Many  are  historical  and 
geographical,  and  occasionally  the  original  term  is  explained 
or  handled,  as  twice  in  Rom.  viii,  and  in  both  verses,  15 
and  18,  the  rendering  and  sense  of  the  Genevan  are  directly 
opposed ;  Luke  iv,  29,  "  Top  of  the  hill  (Greek  readeth  '  brow 
of  the  hill')."  Lastly,  some  notes  are  explanatory  of  words 
in  the  text,  as  in  Isaiah,  "  Burden — that  is  prophecy " ;  in 
Ephesians,  "mystery  is  that  secret  hidden  purpose  of  salva- 
ation";  Acts  xxviii,  11,  "Castor  and  Pollux  —  these  the 
Paynims  feigned  to  be  Jupiter's  chyldren,  gods  of  the  sea." 

Archaic  terms  occur :  Gen.  xxxii,  25,  "  He  smote  him  upon 

the    hucklebone   of  his   thigh."      Isaiah    Ixvi,    3,    "He    that 

killeth   a   sheep   for  me  knetcheth  a   dog   (margin,  that    is, 

cutteth   off  a  dogge's  necke),"  Coverdale  having  "choketh  a 

1  See  page  29  for  other  examples. 


dog."  They  describe  "concision"  in  the  margin,  Philip,  iii,  2, 
as  "they  who  craked  thereof,"  "dogges"  of  v.  2  being  explained 
as  they  that  "bark  against  the  true  doctrine."  The  Ballet 
of  Ballets  of  Solomon  is  accompanied  by  a  Messianic 
exegesis,  and  so  are  the  Prophets. 

Burleigh's  portrait  stands,  as  we  have  said,  at  the  beginning 
of  the  Psalter,  and  the  story  goes  that,  in  rebuking  the  Earl 
of  Essex  for  some  of  his  turbulent  schemes,  he  pointed  him 
directly  and  solemnly  to  Psalm  Iv,  23,  24,  "  The  bloodthirstie 
and  deceiptfull  men  shall  not  live  out  halfe  their  dayes." 

The  Bible  of  1575 — the  year  of  Archbishop  Parker's  death — 
bears  on  the  separate  issues  of  the  same  edition  the  names  of 
various  publishers — as  Kele,  "VVally,  Judson,  Norton,  Harrison ; 
and  to  these  names,  given  by  Anderson,  may  be  added  Coldock. 
Two  of  these  men  had  already  borne  a  part  in  the  joint- 
publication  of  Matthew's  Bible  of  1551.  Mr.  Anderson,  who 
had  a  more  than  healthy  detestation  of  monopolists,  appears 
rather  glad  to  suspect  that  Jugge  was  really  unable  to  bear 
more  than  a  share  in  this  large  enterprise.1 

We  learn  incidentally  the  price  of  this  Bible  from  an  old 
account  book  of  St.  John's  College,  Cambridge,  which  has  the 
following  entry: — "1571,  For  a  new  Bible  in  English,  the  last 
translation,  27s.  Sd" 2 

1  Annals,  vol.  II,  p.  333  ;  Cotton,  p.  39.  2  Cotton,  Editions,  p.  33. 


Bishops'  version  has  co-existing  in  it  two  peculiarities 
directly  opposed  to  each  other.  It  strives  often  to  give 
the  translation  with  a  quaint  literality,  and  yet  it  does  not 
scruple  to  interject  numerous  explanatory  words  and  clauses. 
The  following  are  a  few  specimens  of  the  literal  transla 
tions  :  — 

"Young  child/'  in  the  second  chapter  of  Matthew;  ix,  38, 
"that  he  will  thrust  forth  labourers";  xi,  11,  "he  that  is  lesse 
in  the  kingdom";  xv,  26,  27,  "little  dogges";  xxi,  19,  "one 
fygge  tree  "  ;  xxv,  41,  "  the  everlasting  fire." 

Mark  vii,  27,  "  cast  it  vnto  the  little  dogges " ;  xv,  21, 
"coming  out  of  the  field";  40,  "James  the  Little";  xvi,  2, 
"when  the  sun  was  risen." 

Luke  ii,  15,  "the  men,  the  shepherds,"  though  it  renders  a 
similar  phrase  again  and  again,  "  men  and  brethren,"  without 
printing  "and"  as  a  supplement;  xv,  12,  "the  portion  of  the 
substance  " ;  20,  "  and  al  to  kissed  him  " — an  effort  to  express 
the  full  meaning  of  the  compound  verb ;  23,  "that  fatted  calf" 
— an  attempt  to  express  the  force  of  the  repeated  article"; 
30,  "for  his  pleasure" — expressing  the  dativus  commodi. 

Johnxiv,  2,  "In  my  father's  house  are  many  dwelling  places." 

Acts  v,  41,  "departed  from  the  face  of  the  counsel";  xiii,  34, 
"  the  holy  thynges  of  David  which  are  faythful." 

Rom.  ii,  6,  "  keep  the  ordinances  of  the  law  "  ;  v,  4,  "  Patience 
proofe,  proofe  hope";  vi,  12,  "should  thereunto  obey  by  the 
lustes  of  it " ;  xii,  2,  "  be  changed  in  your  shape  " ;  xiv,  1,  "  not 
to  doubtfulnesse  of  disputations  " ;  xvi,  7,  "  Salute  Andronicus 
and  Junia  my  cousins  " — a  translation  too  definite,  as  in  the 


Authorized  Version,  Luke  i,  36,  after  the  Genevan,  the  Great 
Bible,  and  Tyndale. 

1  Cor.  iv,  5,  "  who  wyl  lighten  the  hidden  thinges  of  dark- 
nesse  " ;  7,  "  For  who  separateth  thee  ? "  xiii,  3,  "  though  I  geue 
my  body  that  I  shoulde  be  burned  " ;  xii,  7,  "  a  pricke  to  the 

Gal.  vi,  1,  "  Yf  a  man  be  preuented  in  any  fault." 

Eph.  iv,  9,  "  the  lower  parts  " ;  11,  "  and  he  gave  some  apos 
tles";  12, "into  the  work, — into  the  edifying";  13,  "measure  of 
the  age  of  the  fulness  " ;  14,  "  to  the  laying  waite  to  deceive  "  ; 
22,  24,  "  to  lay  down,"  "  to  put  on  holinesse  of  trueth." 

1  Thess.  iii,  10,  "repayre  the  wantings  of  your  faith"; 
iv,  15,  17,  "we  whiche  liue,  whiche  remayne." 

1  Tim.  iii,  6,  "  not  a  young  scoller." 

Titus  ii,  11,  "healthful  to  al  men." 

Heb.  i,  1,  "  in  the  prophetes  ...  in  the  Sonne  "  ;  3,  "  the 
brightnesse  of  the  glory  " ;  14,  "  sent  foorth  into  ministerie  for 
their  sakes  " ;  ii,  4,  "  with  signes  and  wonders  also,  and  with 
diuers  powers";  16,  "for  he  in  no  place  taketh  on  him  the 
angels";  iii,  14,  "  beginning  of  the  substance  "  ;  v,  2,  "  those  that 
erre  out  of  the  way  " ;  14,  "  have  their  wits  exercised  " ;  vii,  12, 
"  if  the  priesthood  be  translated,  there  is  made  a  translation  of 
the  law  " ;  23,  "  because  they  were  forbidden  by  death  to  en 
dure  " ;  viii,  2,  "  a  minister  of  holy  things  "  ;  11,  "  from  the  litel 
of  them  to  the  great  of  them  " ;  ix,  1,  "  the  fyrst  (couenant)  then 
had  veryly  justifying  ordinances";  10,  " justifyinges  of  the 
fleshe  "  ;  28,  "  the  seconde  time  shalbe  seene  without  sinne  of 
them  whiche  wayte  for  him";  x,  19,  "libertie  to  enter  into 
holy  (places)  "  ;  38,  "  if  he  withdraw  himself  " ;  xi,  8,  "  receive 
the  inheritance";  13,  "and  saluted." 

James  i,  11,  "For  the  sunne  hath  rysen  with  heat,  and 
the  grasse  hath  wy thered,  and  his  floure  hath  fallen  away,"  &c.  • 
14,  "  every  good  giving  "  ;  iii,  4,  "  whithersoever  the  lust  of  the 
governor  wyl." 

But  they  allow  their  scholarship  to  slip  when  they  permit 
"  Salamine  "  in  Acts  xiii,  5  ;  "  Philippos  "  in  xvi,  8,  12 ;  "  Mile- 

1  In  Buth  i,  17,  "depart "  is  used  iu  death  depart  thee  and  me  " ;  so  in  the 
the  old  active  sense — "  If  ought  but  earlier  editions  of  the  Prayer  Book. 


turn";  in  xx,  17,  "Asson";  in  xx,  14,  "Candie,"  according  to 
the  margin,  or  "  Greta,  which  was  an  high  hill  of  Candie,"  in 
xxiii,  7;  "and  Puteolus,"  in  xxviii,  13. 

But,  face  to  face  with  these  renderings  which  exhibit  an 
aim  and  effort  to  be  faithfully  literal,  there  are  other  modes 
of  bringing  out  the  sense,  by  supplied  terms  filling  out 
the  clause,  and  now  and  then  explaining  it — the  trans 
lator  wrapping  quietly  into  his  work  a  hint  for  the  in 
terpreter.  While  the  interpolations  from  the  Vulgate  found 
in  the  Great'  Bible  are  often  abandoned,  some  are  allowed  to 
remain.  There  are  also  interspersed  many  brief  exegetical 
clauses  which  are  no  necessary  part  of  a  genuine  translation, 
and  are  out  of  all  harmony  with  the  earnest  attempt  at  a 
closer  literality.  Some  of  them  are  mere  supplements,  which 
do  not  materially  injure  the  rendering,  as — 

Genesis  xiv,  15,  "  his  seruantes  were  parted  (in  companies) 
agaynst  them  " ;  xxvii,  14,  "  and  (Jacob)  went." 

1  Kings  i,  23,  "  Beholde  (here  cometh)  Nathan  the  Prophet " ;. 
viii,  43,  (therefore)  heare  thou  in  heauen  thy  dwellyng  place  " ; 
xviii,  19,  "the  prophets  of  the  (idolles)  groaues." 

2  Kings  iv,  3,  "borowe  vessels  for  thee  (of  them  that  are) 

Job  xxxii,  6,  "  and  sayde  (consydering  that)  I  am 

Isaiah  i,  5,  "  (for)  ye  are  euer  falling  away  " ;  6,  "  there  is 
nothing  sounde  in  it  (but)  woundes  "  ;  x,  10,  "  (As  who  say)  I 
am  able  to  winne  the  kingdomes";  xxxvii,  15,  "Hezekia 
prayed  vnto  the  Lord  (on  this  manner)." 

Matthew,  iv,  25,  "  and  from  (the  regions  that  laye)  beyond 
Jordane  "  ;  xiii,  48,  "which  when  it  was  full  (the  fishers)  drew 
to  land  " ;  xvi,  5,  7,  "  they  had  forgotten  to  take  bread  (with 
them)  " ;  xxvi,  71,  "  another  (wenche)  sawe  him." 

Mark  x,  7,  "  (And  sayde)  For  this  cause  shall  a  man  " ;  xiii, 
32,  "  save  the  father  (only)." 

John  xix,  31,  "  because  it  was  the  preparing  (of  the  Sab- 

1  Cor.  v,  10,  "  (I  did  not  meane)  not  at  all  with  the  fornica- 
tours  of  this  world." 

VOL.   II.  G 


Hebrews  xi,  19,  "  (similitude  of  the  resurrection)  " ;  xii,  4, 
"  Ye  have  not  resisted  vnto  (the  sheddyng  of)  blood." 

1  Peter  i,  7,  "  might  be  found  (to  be  unto  you)." 

But  there  are  other  supplements  which  are  decidedly  wrong, 
and  which  weaken  the  sense  either  by  paraphrasing  it  or 
by  adding  clauses  which  have  no  authority : — 

Exodus  xv,  9,  "I  wil  folow  (on  them),  I  will  ouertake 

Deut.  i,  46,  "  that  ye  remayned  (before)  "  ;  xix,  18,  "  put  away 
(the  crye  of)  innocent  bloud." 

Judges  vii,  5,  "  and  (so  doo)  them  that  kneele  downe  " ;  xvii, 
8,  "  where  he  could  finde  (conuenient  place)." 

1  Sam.  ii,  32,  "  thou  shalt  see  thine  enimie  in  the  habitation 
(of  the  Lorde),  and  in  al  the  wealthe  whiche  (God)  shall  give 

2  Sam.  ix,  11,  "  Mephiboseth  may  eate  (as  the  king  sayde) 
vpon  my  table." 

Isaiah  i,  7,  "  the  destruction  of  enemies  (in  the  time  of 
warre) " ;  31,  "  the  very  strong  one  (of  your  idols)  shal  be  as 
towe  " ;  ii,  21,  "  when  he  aryseth  to  destroy  (the  wicked  ones 
of)  the  earth  "  ;  viii,  19,  "If  they  say  vnto  you,  Aske  counsell 
at  soothsayers,  wytches,  charmers,  and  conjurors  (thene  make 
them  this  answer)  "  ;  ix,  2,  "  as  men  that  diuide  the  spoyel  (after 
the  victorie)  "  ;  xxviii,  6,  "  turne  away  the  battayle  to  the  gate 
(of  the  enemies)";  xl,  1,  "Comfort  my  people  (0  yee  prophetes)"; 
xliv,  7,  "  what  shall  come  to  passe  (in  tyme  long  to  come)  "  ; 
xlix,  12,  "the  land  of  Sinis  (which  is  in  the  south)  "  ;  liv,  15, 
"  loe  who  so  gathereth  together  (against  thee,  doth  it)  without 
me  ";  Ixv,  18,  "(But  the  Lord  sayth),  Be  glad." 

Mark  xiv,  62,  "  the  right  hand  of  the  power  (of  God)." 
Luke  i,  56,  "  and  (after warde)  returned  to  her  owne  house  " ; 
xvi,  21,  "  to  be  refreshed  with  the  crummes  which  fel  from  the 
rich  man's  borde  (and  no  man  gave  vnto  him)." 

John  xviii,  13,  "  (and  Annas  sent  Christe  bounde  vnto  Caia- 
phas  the  High  Priest)." 

Acts  ix,  22,  "  by  conferring  (one  scripture  with  another)." 
Romans  iv,  16,  "  by  faith  (in  the  inheritance  given)  "  ;  v,  18, 
"  (sinne  came  on  all     ...     good  came)  " ;  xi,  4,  "  bowed  the 


knee  to  (the  image  of)  Baal  "  ;  xii,  17,  "  Providing  afore  hande 
thinges  honest  (not  onely  before  God,  but  also)  in  the  sight 
of  men  "  ;  xvi,  27,  "  to  (the  same)  God." 

1  Cor.  x,  30,  "  For  if  I  by  (God's)  benefite  may  be  partaker 
(of  the  gyftes  of  God)." 

Eph.  ii,  5,  "by  (whose)  grace  ye  are  saved." 

Hebrews,  ii,  9,  "  wee  see  (that  it  was)  Jesus  "  ;  v,  5,  "  to-day 

1  have  begotten  thee  (gaue  it  him)";  xiii,  3,  "in  the  body 
(subject  to  adversitie)." 

1  Peter  ii,  2,  "  that  ye  may  growe  thereby  (vnto  salvation)." 
Eevelation  ix,  11,  "Apollyon  (that  is  to  say  destroyer)." 
This  Bible  is,  however,  to  be  commended  for  its  occasional 
notice  of  the  article,  and  of  the  conjunctions  and  small  con 
necting  words  so  often  overlooked.      But  it  often  turns  an 
adjectival  epithet  into  the   predicate  of  a  distinct  clause — as 

2  Cor.  v,  18,  "things  which  are  seen  "  ;  viii,  4,  "things  that  are 
offered  to  idols  "  ;  and  if  it  did  not  introduce  such  forms,  it 
kept  them.    Nor  does  it  mark  very  correctly  the  important  dis 
tinction  of  tenses — rendering  the  aorist  often  as  a  perfect,  and 
sometimes  as  a  pluperfect,  as  in  Eph.  i,  4,  "  had  chosen  us." 
It  aims  at  giving  full  force  to  compound  terms,  as  Eph.  vi, 
12,   "against   worldly  governors1    of  the   darknesse   of  this 
world " ;   but   it   occasionally  fails   in   its   effort,  as  when  it 
renders  a  compound  verb,  Rom.  xv,  20,  "  so  have  I  enforced 
myself," 2 — for  "  I  have  made   it  a  point  of  honour."     It   is, 
.as  a  whole,  more  stately  than  precise  ;   periods  that  might 
appear  bald  are  rounded  off,  it  loves  "  mouthfilling  "  words  and 
sentences,  and  does  not  pare  them  down,  if  they  have  been 
employed  in  earlier  versions — 2  Cor.  ix,  5,  "  prepare  your  pre- 
promised  beneficence,  that  it  might  be  ready  as  a  beneficence 
and  not  as  an  extortion."     2  Pet.  ii,  16,  "the  dumbe  beast  and 
used  to  the  yoke." 

The  Episcopal  revisers  and  their  colleagues  had,  in  general, 
the  same  Hebrew  and  Greek '  text  as  was  possessed  by  the 
Oenevan  revisers.  They  refer  to  their  text  now  and  then  by 
the  phrase  in  the  margin,  "  Some  read,"  or  "  Beza  readeth  it," 


or  "  The  Greek  readeth."  But  the  process  of  revision  em 
ployed  in  the  preparation  of  this  Elizabethan  Bible  led  to- 
n  virtual  want  of  uniformity  in  the  various  parts  of  it. 
There  had  been  little  consultation  among  the  revisers,  and 
there  was  not  that  final  supervision  of  their  work  which 
had  been  suggested  by  Bishop  Sandys.  This  individuality 
occasionally  crops  out — some  portions  being  more  lenient 
toward  the  old  versions,  and  others  more  incisive  in  their 
changes.  What  would  be  true  as  a  critical  estimate  of 
one  book  would  not  be  true  to  the  same  extent  of  another 
book.  The  work  was  done  in  isolation,  and,  in  such  a  case, 
the  labour  needed  to  bring  it  all  into  harmony  would  have 
been  tantamount  to  another  revision.  It  is  only  by  earnest 
deliberation,  the  constant  exchange  of  critical  opinion,  and 
the  survey  of  a  term  or  an  idiom  on  all  sides,  that  a  good 
and  popular  version  can  be  formed.  A  new  rendering  must 
be  filtered  through  many  brains  before  it  can  be  finally  adopted. 
The  earliest  translators  were  virtually  individual  workers,  and 
their  versions  bear  the  stamp  of  personal  toil.  The  Genevan 
was  the  first  version  that  sprang  from  collegiate  labour,  and  it 
had  naturally  on  this  account,  no  small  superiority.  But  the 
Bishops,  and  the  other  scholars  associated  with  them,  seem  to 
have  wrought  independently,  and  without  any  critical  or 
literary  fellowship.  Archbishop  Parker,  who  was  so  absorbed 
in  civil  and  ecclesiastical  business  of  all  kinds,  put  the  last 
hand  to  the  work ;  but  it  could  not  be  well  done  in  so  brief 
a  time,  and  without  earnest  and  prolonged  co-operation. 

The  Bishops'  Bible  tried  to  classify  the  Books  of  Scripture, 
but  upon  no  sound  basis — "some  legal,  some  historical,  some 
sapiential,  some  prophetical" — a  distinction  which  could  not  be 
applied  without  violence  to  the  New  Testament;  for  why 
should  the  Gospels  be  termed  legal  and  not  historical  ?  Ac 
cording  to  one  of  the  rules  which  Parker  repeated  to  Cecil,  an 
attempt  was  also  made  to  point  out,  "with  some  stroke  or 
note,"  such  places  "as  may  not  be  edifying,"  that  they  may 
"  be  excluded  in  public  reading,"  as  Gen.  x  and  xi,  10-30 ; 
xxxviii,  1-11,  Levit.  xii-xxiv,  1st  Chron.  i-ix,  and  Neh.  viii  and 
x.  Words  that  "sound  to  any  offence  of  lightness  or  obscenity" 


were  to  be  changed,  and  more  convenient  terms  substituted,  as 
in  1  Samuel  vi,  4,  of  the  Great  Bible,  and  in  1  Corinthians  vi,  9, 
•of  the  Genevan  Bible;  but  other  expressions  that  might  have 
been  removed  were  retained,  as  in  1  Samuel  xxv,  22,  34,  &c., 
and  these  are  yet  found  in  the  Authorized  Version. 

In  a  convocation  held  under  Grindal,  in  1575,  it  was  carried 
that  bishops  were  to  take  care  that  all  incumbents  and  curates 
such  as  are  not  Masters  of  Arts,  should  possess  the  New  Testa 
ment  in  Latin  and  in  English,  and  read  a  chapter  every  day. 
But  such  edicts  do  not  seem  to  have  commanded  prompt  or 
general  obedience;  and  in  1587  Whitgift  issued  some  new 
regulations,  "  for  divers  churches  were  not  sufficiently  furnished 
with  Bibles — some  having  none  at  all,  or  such  as  be  torn  and 
defaced,  and  yet  not  of  the  translation  authorized  by  the  synod 
of  bishops."  To  expedite  obedience  two  editions  were  printed, 
"  a  bigger  and  less,  both  of  which  are  now  extant  and  ready." 
This  was  a  deliberate  attempt  to  sacrifice  the  Genevan  version 
to  the  cause  of  uniformity,  and  to  secure  the  greater  circulation 
of  the  Bishops'  Bible ;  but  the  stratagem  did  not  succeed, 
for  in  the  years  1587-89  we  find  that  only  two  editions  of 
the  Bishops'  were  published,  as  against  seven  at  least  of  the 

Cranmer's  or  the  Great  Bible  was  now  superseded,  and  no 
edition  of  it  was  printed  after  1569,  but  in  that  year  there  were 
three  issues  in  quarto  by  Cawood.  No  edition  of  the  Bishops'  was 
issued  after  1606,  so  that  it  survived  Whitgift  only  two  years. 
Whitgift  often  quotes  the  Genevan  version  in  his  Eeplies  to  his 
tough  antagonist  Cartwright,  and  he  always  mentions  it  in  a 
tone  of  bare  civility.  Cartwright  used  it  as  giving  edge  to  his 
arguments,  and  Whitgift  was  obliged  to  put  it  to  another  use. 
He  usually  calls  it  "the  Bible  printed  at  Geneva,"1  or  "the 
Geneva  Bible,"  but  he  is  silent  as  to  its  merits,  and  as  to  the 
character  of  its  translators;  whereas  Cartwright  styles  them 
"those  learned  and  godly  men."  Whitgift  could  not  vilify 
the  renderings — he  was  too  scholarly  a  man  to  indulge  in  such 
hostile  criticism  ;  but  he  longed  and  laboured  that  the 
Bishops'  Bible  should  be  universally  used,  and,  indeed,  if 
1  Works,  vol.  I,  pp.  203,  294,  &c. 


his  "Injunctions"  had  been  obeyed,  there  would  soon  have 
been  no  copies  left  in  the  printer's  hands.  The  Genevan  was 
not,  however,  so  easily  thrust  aside.  From  15 GO,  the  year  of 
its  first  publication,  to  the  end  of  Elizabeth's  reign  there  were 
published  about  ninety  editions  of  it,  but  under  thirty  of  the 
Bishops'.  The  Genevan  had  thus  three  times  the  circulation 
of  the  Bishops';  nay,  in  the  year  1599,  there  appear  to  have 
been  seven  editions  of  it,  some  of  them,  however,  printed 
abroad.  The  Bishops'  Bible,  which  never  had  any  great  popu 
larity,  was  not  printed  after  1606,  as  we  have  said,  though 
its  New  Testament  was  published  several  times ; l  but  the 
Genevan  kept  its  ground  till  about  the  year  1644.  After  1590 
the  demand  for  the  Bishops'  seems  to  have  greatly  slackened, 
for  from  that  year  to  the  end  of  the  century  only  three 
editions  were  published ;  but  about  thirty  of  the  Genevan,  a 
third  of  them  being  only  New  Testaments.  From  the  acces 
sion  of  James  to  1611  there  was  apparently  published  only 
one  edition  of  the  Bishops',  but  thirty  of  the  Genevan.2 

Thus,  for  a  time,  three  different  versions  were  in  circulation — 
a  fact  that  would  have  delighted  Coverdale,  but  it  must  have 
been  somewhat  embarrassing  to  plain  people  of  ordinary  educa 
tion  and  intellect.  If  any  one  appealed  to  Scripture,  it  might  be 
asked  whether  the  appeal  was  to  the  Great  Bible,  the  Genevan, 
or  the  Bishops'.  It  appears,  however,  that  this  embarrassment 
created  a  desire  for  unity.  In  the  library  of  the  House  of  Lords 
there  is  the  sketch  of  "  an  Act  for  reducing  diversities  of  Bibles 
now  extant  in  the  English  tongue  to  one  settled  Vulgar  trans 
lated  from  the  original."  The  preamble  declares  "  that  great 
errors  arise,  and  papistry  and  atheism  increase,  from  the  variety 
of  translations  of  the  Bible,  while  many  desire  an  authorized 
translation."  The  proposal  was  that  the  Lords  Spiritual,  or  any 
six  of  them,  may  assemble,  treat,  and  deal  touching  the  accom 
plishment  of  the  work,  and  call  for  the  assistance  of  students  of 
either  university,  &c.  The  undated  paper  is  believed  to  refer 
to  a  period  after  1568. 3  Gregory  Martin  did  not  overlook  this 

1  See  page  36.  Testament  between  1560  and  1570. 

2  There  had  also  been  published        3  Westcott's  History  of  the  English- 
four    editions    of    Tyndale's     New     Bible,  p.  x,  2nd  edition. 


plurality  of  versions  :  "  We  must  learn,"  he  says,  in  his  own 
style  and  spirit,  "what  English  translation  is  read  in  their 
church  (which  were  hard  to  know,  it  changeth  so  oft)  before 
we  may  be  held  to  accuse  them  of  false  translation,  how 
shall  we  be  sure  that  they  will  stand  to  any  of  their  trans 
lations  ? 1  From  the  first  read  in  their  church  they  flee  to 
that  which  is  now  read,  and  from  that  again  to  the  later  Genevan 
Bibles,  neither  read  in  their  churches  nor  of  greater  authority 
among  them,  and  we  doubt  not  but  that  they  will  as  fast 
flee  from  this  to  the  former  again."  But  Fulke  defends  with 
ability  and  learning  the  three  versions  in  use — the  Great  Bible, 
the  Genevan,  and  the  Bishops'.  His  words  are  a  noble  vindi 
cation  of  the  fidelity  of  all  the  translators  :  "  We  never  go  from 
that  text  and  ancient  reading  which  all  the  fathers  used  and 
expounded ;  but  we  translate  that  most  usual  text  which  was 
first  printed  out  of  the  most  ancient  copies  that  could  be  found; 
or  if  any  be  since  found,  or  if  the  ancient  fathers  did  read 
otherwise  than  the  usual  copies,  or  any  word  that  is  in  any 
way  material  in  annotation,  commentaries,  readings,  and  ser 
mons,  we  spare  not,  and  declare  it  as  occasion  serveth.  We 
never  flee  from  the  Hebrewe  and  Greeke  in  anie  place,  much 
less  in  places  of  controversie ;  but  we  alwaies  hold,  as  near  as 
we  can,  that  which  the  Greeke  and  Hebrewe  signifieth.  But 
if,  in  places  of  controversie,  we  take  witnesse  of  the  Greeke,  or 
Vulgar  Latine,  where  the  Hebrew  or  the  Greeke  may  be 
thought  ambiguous,  I  trust  no  wise  man  will  count  this  a 
flight  from  the  Hebrew  and  Greeke,  which  we  alwaies  translate 
aright,  whether  it  agree  with  the  70,  or  Vulgar  Latin,  or  no." 2 
"  Happy,  and  thrice  happy,  hath  our  English  nation  bene,  since 
God  hath  given  learned  translators  to  expresse  in  our  mother 
tongue  the  heavenly  mysteries  of  his  Holy  Word,  delivered  to 
his  Church  in  the  Hebrew  and  Greeke  languages ;  who  although 
they  have,  in  some  matters  of  no  importance  unto  salvation,  as 
men  bene  deceived;  yet  have  they  faithfully  delivered  the 
whole  substance  of  the  heavenly  doctrine  conteyned  in  the 

1  Discoverie  of  the  Manifold  2  Defence  of  Sincere  and  True 
Corruptions,  p.  9-11,  Ehemes,  Translations,  &c.,  pp.  99,  100,  Parker 
1582.  Society  Edition. 


Holy  Scriptures,  without  any  hereticale  translations  or  wilfull 
corruptions."1  When  in  1570,  twelve  years  before  Gregory 
Martin  wrote,  the  Queen  had  been  formally  excommunicated, 
the  result  was  that  the  nation,  enlightened  and  braced  by  the 
free  circulation  of  the  English  Scriptures,  began  to  realize  more 
fully  its  final  severance  from  popish  thraldom,  and  to  cling  to 
Elizabeth  more  closely  as  the  guardian  of  its  liberties,  so  that 
the  day  of  her  accession  was  from  that  period  observed  as 
a  popular  festival,  and  joyously  hailed  as  "the  birth-day  of 
the  Gospel." 

1  Defence  of  Sincere  and  True  Translations,  &c.,  p.  591,  Parker  Society 


"  THAT  the  Scriptures  be  not  to  be  set  forth  in  the  vulgar  tongue  to  be 
read  of  all  sorts  of  people,  every  part  of  them,  without  any  limitation  of 
time,  place,  and  persons,  they  seern  to  be  moved  with  these  considerations : 
first,  that  it  is  not  necessary ;  next,  that  it  is  not  convenient ;  thirdly,  that 
it  is  not  profitable ;  fourthly,  that  it  is  dangerous  and  hurtful ;  and  lastly, 
although  it  were  accorded  the  common  people  to  have  liberty  to  read  the 
Bible  in  their  own  tongue,  yet  that  the  translations  of  late  years  made  by 
those  that  have  divided  themselves  from  the  Catholic  Church  be  not  to  be 
allowed,  as  worthily  suspected  not  to  be  sound  and  assured." 

HARDING,  1563. 


version  which  is  now  to  be  considered  was  immediately 
and  professedly  taken  from  the  Vulgate — that  is,  the  revision 
and  translation  of  Jerome.  We  do  not,  however,  like  the  Rhem- 
ists,  hold  the  Vulgate  in  so  high  esteem  as  to  put  it  in  the  place 
of  the  Greek  original.  Its  fidelity  and  literary  merits  are 
not  beyond  impeachment,  though  occasionally  its  readings  in 
the  New  Testament  are  confirmed  by  Greek  MSS.  of  high 
authority:  like  the  expressions,  "Spirit  of  Jesus,"  Acts  xvi,  7; 
"the  Lord  Christ,"  1  Pet.  iii,  15.  WyclifFe's  old  and  literal 
translation  of  it  was  rough,  for  the  Latin  of  the  Vulgate  is 
rough  also — in  its  archaic  forms,  and  its  numerous  and  unusual 
compounds  ;  in  its  peculiar  words  and  constructions ;  its  large 
class  of  verbs,  verbal  forms,  and  nouns  made  out  of  adjectives 
in  its  frequent  employment  of  the  genitive  of  abstract  nouns 
in  room  of  a  qualificative  epithet,  and  of  prepositions  to  mark  a 
relation  that  might  have  been  expressed  by  a  case  ;  in  its  use 
both  of  a  gerund l  and  of  quod  with  the  indicative  or  subjunctive 
for  an  infinitive  ;  and  in  the  approximation  of  its  pronouns  to 
the  Greek  article.  Its  style  was  mixed  through  its  circulation  in 
North  Africa.  The  classic  order  and  position  of  the  words  are 
often  violated,  so  that  possessive  pronouns  became  of  necessary 
frequency;  the  distinction  between  the  perfect  and  imperfect, 
especially  of  the  substantive  verb,  is  lost  sight  of ;  quia 2  ap- 

1  Matt,  xx,  19,  "ad  illudendum,  et         -  As  "audistis  quia  dictum  est;'- 

flagellandum     et      crucifigendum  "  ;  "that  it  was  said" — again  and  again 

though  John  xix,  16,  reads  "  tradidit  in  Matt,  v,  and  in  vii,  23,  xxii,  16, 

eis  ilium  ut  crucifigeretur."  and  Luke  i,  58. 




pears,  not  in  the  sense  of  "  because/'  but  of  "  that " ;  and  ac, 
atque,  et  are  used  without  discrimination. l     Older  forms  which 

1  There  are  also  such  paronomasia 
-as  "  Neque  rrnbent  neque  nubentur  " 
(Cod.  Pal.,  "  nubunt ")  Matt,  xxii,  30  ; 
"  Non  venit  ministrari,  sed  mini- 
strare,"  compared  with  Mark  x,  45  ; 
Gen.  ii,  23,  "  Hsec  vocabitur  Virago, 
quouiam  de  viro  sumpta  est."  There 
are  such  imitations  of  the  Greek  as 
Luke  xiii,  33,  "  Non  capit  prophetam 
perire  extra  Jerusalem"  (Codex  Pal- 
"  Nonne  vos  magis  pluris  estis  illis  ? " 
xxiv,  22,  "Non  fieret  salva  omuis 
caro"  —  Campbell  tartly  remarking 
on  this  last  rendering  "that  Arias 
found  nothing  to  alter  in  it,  in  order 
to  bring  it  down  to  his  own  level." 
Other  solecisms  may  be  adduced  : 
Gen.  xxi,  26,  "Non  audivi  prseter 
hodie";  Gen.  xlii,  13,  "Alius  non 
est  super,"  —  for  "  superest"  ;  Ps. 
Ixvii,  20,  "  Benedictus  Domimis  die 
quotidie"  ;  Ps.  cxxv,  1,  "  In  conver- 
tendo  Domiuus  captivitatem  Sion 
facti  sumus  sicut  consolati "  ;  Luke 
vii,  37,  "  Lamentavimus  vobis" ;  xxi, 
38,  "  Omnis  populus  manicabat  ad 
eum";  John  xv,  2,  "Ut  fructum  plus 
afferat."  Besides,  there  are  peculiar 
foi'nis  of  spelling,  and  of  case,  num 
ber,  conjugation,  and  syntax.  There 
are  many  nouns  ending  in  -mentum, 
like  inquinamentum,  operimeutum  ; 
in  -amen,  like  cogitamen,  spiramen  ; 
in  -arium,  like  atramentarium  ;  in 
-ulum,  like  habitaculum,  pinnaculum ; 
in  -entia,  like  concupiscentia,  suf- 
ferentia ;  in  -itas,  like  religiositas, 
supervacuitas  ;  in  -or,  like  dulcor, 
placor  ;  in  -udo,  like  grossitudo, 
pnenitudo ;  in  -ula,  like  auricula, 
casula  ; — adjectives  in  -bilis,  like 

concupiscibilis,  inexstiiiguibilis ;  in 
-bundus,  as  fumigabundus,  formula- 
bundus ;  in  -atus,-  like  linguatus, 
pudoratus.  There  are  also  verbs  like 
plagiare,  tribulare;  compounds  like 
animaequus,  concaptivus  ;  phrases 
like  "a  longe,"  "de  semel";  nouns 
which  are  Greek  terms  expressed  in 
Roman  letters,  as  brabium,  grabatus. 
Terms  occur  also  with  an  unusual 
signification:  argumentum,  a  mark 
or  sketch ;  coenapura,  the  preparation 
(for  a  series  of  conjectures  as  to  the 
origin  and  incoming  of  this  phrase, 
see  Ronsch,  p.  367)  ;  conditio, 
creation  ;  conversatio,  manner  of 
life;  diffidentia,  unbelief;  honestas, 
riches ;  opinio,  rumour;  prsevaricatio, 
transgression ;  resolutio,  death  ; 
sacramentum,  mystery ;  substantia, 
goods;  fidelis, believing;  impossibilis, 
impotent ;  incredibilis,  unbelieving; 
advocare,  to  console  ;  deprecari,  to 
ask  earnestly;  honestare,  to  make 
rich  (honorarium);  Archbishop  Par 
ker  speaks  of  "  honesting  a  Mr. 
Dr.Clark  with  a  room  in  the  Arches" 
(Correspondence,  p.  411,  Parker  Soc. 
ed.)  These  terms  are  but  a  brief 
specimen,  but  may  serve  io  show  the 
peculiar  Latin  of  the  Vulgate;  and, 
living  in  the  language  of  the  people, 
such  peculiarities  abound  also  in  the 
old  Latin  version,  the  Itala.  The 
critical  remarks  of  Lord  Macaulay  on 
the  kind  of  Latin  used  in  the  Church 
service  in  contrast  with  the  English 
of  the  Liturgy,  bear  on  the  point 
before  us,  and  are  worth  quotation. 
"  The  English  Liturgy  indeed  gains 
by  being  compared  even  with  those 
fine  ancient  liturgies  from  which  it 


had  passed  out  of  classical  use  reappear  in  the  Vulgate  through 
the  tenacity  of  the  popular  speech.1 

But  though  we  cannot  hold  such  exaggerated  views  of  the 
merits  of  the  Vulgate  as  did  the  Rhemists,  to  whom  it  was  "true 
and  authentical  scripture,"  nor  accept  the  Tridentine  edict 
which  so  unduly  exalted  it,  yet  we  cannot  but  regard  it  as  of 
great  value,  even  with  the  conflicting  variations  between  the 
Sixtine  and  Clementine  editions.  The  text  of  the  Vulgate 
was  discussed  at  the  Council  of  Trent  in  1546,  but  it  was  at 
length  declared  'to  be  "  authentic."  -  A  revision  of  it  was 
carried  out  by  a  board,  of  which  Cardinal  Caraffa  was  presi 
dent,  but  Pope  Sixtus  arbitrarily  altered  the  text,  and 
then  "  in  the  plenitude  of  apostolic  power "  authorized  it  for 
the  churches.  On  its  publication  in  1590,  it  was  found 
to  be  very  imperfect,  and  a  second  company,  under  the 
presidency  of  Cardinal  Colonna,  undertook  another  revision, 
which  was  published  in  1592,  in  the  reign  of  Pope  Clement 
VIII,  and  it  too  has  many  blunders.  The  discrepancies  be 
tween  those  editions,  both  formally  sanctioned  by  papal 

is   to  a   great   extent  taken.      The  therefore,  is  Latin  in  the  last  stage 

essential     qualities     of     devotional  of    decay.       The    English    of    our 

eloquence,      conciseness,       majestic  services  is  English  in  all  the  vigour 

simplicity,    pathetic    earnestness   of  and  suppleness  of  early  youth.     To 

supplication,  sobered  by  a  profound  the  great  Latin  writers,  to  Terence 

reverence,  are  common  between  the  and  Lucretius,  to  Cicero  and  Ctesar, 

translations  and  the  originals.     But  to  Tacitus  and  Quintilian, the  noblest 

in  the  subordinate  graces  of  diction  compositions  of  Ambrose  and  Gre- 

the  originals  must  be  allowed  to  be  gory  would  have  seemed  to  be,  not 

far  inferior  to  the  translations.     And  merely   bad    writing,  but  senseless 

the  reason  is  obvious.     The  technical  gibberish."   History  of  England,  vol. 

phraseology  of  Christianity  did  not  III,  p.  475. 

become  a  part  of  the  Latin  language  1  Itala  und  Vulgata,  das  Sprach- 

till  that  language  had  passed  the  age  idiom  der  Urchristlichen  Itala  nnd 

of  maturity   and  was   sinking   into  der    Katholischen    Vulgata,    unter 

barbarism.    But  the  technical  phrase-  Beriicksichtigung    der     Eomischer 

ologv  of  Christianity  was  found  in  Volkssprache.  VonHermauuKonsch, 

the  Anglosaxon  and  in  the  Norman  2nd    ed.,  Marburg,  1875.     Kaulen, 

French,   long  before  the  union    of  Geschichte  der  Vulgata,  p.  131. 

those  two  dialects   had  produced  a  2   See    Geschichte   der    Vulgata. 

third  dialect  superior  to  either.     The  von   Leander   van    Ess,  Tubingen 

Latin  of  the  Roman  Catholic  services,  1824. 


authority,  are  very  numerous,  as   may   be   seen   in   James's 
Bellum  Papale,  1C00.1 

Yet,  in  spite  of  such  points  in  its  history,  the  Vulgate 
has  many  claims  for  the  place  which  it  so  long  held,  and 
for  the  good  which  it  so  often  effected.  It  was,  in  the 
absence  of  the  original,  the  only  accessible  Bible  in  mediaeval 
Western  Europe  —  "a  light  shining,"  though  with  vailed 
lustre,  "  in  a  dark  place."  It  did  its  appointed  work,  and 
brought  peace  and  strength  to  many  hearts,  opening  up  to 
them  a  glimpse  of  the  glorified  One  above  and  beyond  the 
crucifix,  creating  a  fulness  of  trust  that  felt  no  need  of 
saintly  mediation,  nursing  a  loyalty  to  Him  so  intense  and 
absorbing  that  it  looked  down  upon  the  keys  of  St.  Peter 
as  a  paltry  symbol,  while  it  sustained  a  confidence  in  Him 
that  hard  dogma  could  not  deaden,  and  an  adoration  of 
Him  which  a  complicated  and  inflexible  ritual  could  not  pet 
rify.  The  religious  community,  whose  book  it  was,  kept  the 
Roman  empire  from  falling  into  barbarism  at  its  dissolution. 
In  spite  of  its  growing  superstition  and  tyranny,  the  Western 
Church  scattered  round  it  man}7  blessings.  Music,  painting, 
and  architecture  were  fostered  by  it ;  the  figured  windows  in 
the  churches  were  the  poor  man's  Bible,  where  he  saw  in  vivid 
group  and  colouring  the  power  and  pity  of  the  Son  of  Mary.  2 
Its  compact  organization  gave  it  a  great  power,  which  it  often 
wielded  for  the  good  of  society  in  days  of  ignorance  and  war. 
It  broke  the  bonds  of  the  serf,  opened  an  as3dum  for  the  exile 
and  outcast,  restrained  the  fury  of  the  oppressor,  and  softened 
the  haughty  rigour  of  the  nobility.  Grandees  quailed  before 
its  ministers  invested  with  a  superhuman  authority  which  they 
were  afraid  to  resist,  and  were  unable  to  define,  for  its  mastery 
stretched  into  the  invisible  world.  The  abbey  was  often  a 
rebuke  to  the  castle,  and  was  an  almshouse  for  the  poor,  an 
hospital  for  the  sick,  an  inn  for  the  traveller,  and  a  retreat  for 
the  weary  and  forlorn  in  heart.  Its  farms  presented  the  best 

1  Reprinted    under    the    editorial  sistiug  of  forty  plates,  printed  from 
care  of  J.  E.  Cox,  M.A.,  London,  wooden  blocks,  and  depicting  scenes 
1840.  and  persons  from  Scripture,  served  a 

2  The    "  Biblia    pauperum,"    con-  similar  purpose. 


specimens  of  tillage,  and  its  blooming  orchards  were  a  reproof 
to  all  who  loitered  in  the  "  vineyard  of  the  sluggard."  In  the 
midst  of  many  drawbacks,  inconsistencies,  and  errors,  the  Latin 
Church  may  glory  in  pointing  to  the  heroic  and  self-denying 
toils  and  sufferings  of  its  missionaries  and  martyrs,  whose 
romantic  lives  are  grander  than  fiction,  and  who  met  their 
death,  not  merely  with  saintly  calmness,  but  prophetic  exulta 
tion.  Those  noble  souls  were  baptized  with  the  Holy  Spirit ; 
the  true  unction  filled  them  with  a  seraphic  devoutness,  which 
did  not  depend  on  a  gorgeous  service  with  its  music,  incense, 
and  images.  The  mystics  who  had  felt  the  power  of  the 
unseen,  and  were  rapt  into  hidden  communing  with  God, 
did  not  rest  on  a  sacerdotal  ministry.  The  Houses,  especially 
of  the  Benedictine  class,  so  magnificent  in  architecture,  often 
and  honestly  strove  in  earlier  times  to  realize  the  ideal  of  their 
founder.  In  them  was  conserved  whatever  of  science  or  art 
was  known ;  and  in  them  was  copied,  for  circulation,  the  Latin 
Bible  which  preserved  for  centuries  the  knowledge  of  the 
Gospel,  and  gave  their  first  inspiration  to  the  Reformers. 
The  old  saying  was  "  claustrum  sine  armario,  castrum  sine 
armentario."  The  Scriptorium  was  often  filled  with  busy  and 
tasteful  copyists.  Ordericus  Vitalis  tells  of  a  monk  who,  though 
he  had  been  a  habitual  transgressor  of  monastic  rules,  yet  had 
copied  a  handsome  volume  of  Scripture,  and  that,  when  after 
death  he  stood  before  the  divine  tribunal  in  the  crisis  of  his 
destiny,  the  accusing  spirits  and  the  good  angels  made  a 
bargain  that  every  letter  in  the  transcribed  Bible  should  stand 
in  merit  against  every  sin  adduced,  the  result  being  that  by  the 
credit  of  a  single  letter  the  trembling  culprit  escaped — "  the 
mercy  of  the  Judge  being  extended  toward  him." 

On  the  other  hand  the  popish  system  became  at  length 
exclusive,  claimed  of  divine  right  a  paramount  jurisdiction 
over  all  kingdoms,  interfered  with  their  policy  by  diplo 
macy,  menace,  and  anathema,  in  order  to  bind  them  as 
vassals  to  the  Papal  chair.  The  primates  in  England  and 
in  other  countries  became  statesmen  and  were  rewarded  by 
preferments  for  their  work  as  politicians ;  the  mitre  proudly 
reared  itself  above  coronets,  and  the  dispensation  of  human 


law  left  little  room  for  the  ministry  of  the  Gospel.  Where- 
ever  the  Papacy  had  the  power,  it  punished  as  heresy  all 
variation  of  opinion,  and  repressed  free  thought,  honest 
inquiry,  and  mental  development.  In  short,  it  obscured  the 
way  of  salvation  by  its  ecclesiastical  apparatus,  the  priest 
standing  before  Christ  received  confession,  granted  absolu 
tion,  or  carried  on  a  scandalous  traffic  in  indulgences  ;. 
penance  took  the  visible  place  of  "  godly  sorrow,"  and  the 
mass  with  its  pretentious  miracle  of  transubstantiation 
superseded  an  ordinance  sublime  in  its  simplicity,  for  its 
grand  purpose  is  told  in  nine  English  monosyllables — "Ye 
do  show  the  Lord's  death  till  He  come."  The  word  of 
God  was  virtually  proscribed,  and  the  reading  of  it  put 
under  a  ban,  in  order  to  keep  the  people  passive  under  the 
tutelage  of  the  priesthood.  Cardinal  Ximenes,  who  had  spent 
at  least  £25,000  and  many  years  of  anxiety  on  the  produc 
tion  of  the  Complutensian  Polyglott  and  its  various  texts, 
shuddered  at  the  desecration  involved  in  giving  the  con 
quered  and  proselytized  Moors  the  Bible  in  their  own  lan 
guage,  as  Archbishop  Talavera  had  suggested — "  for  it  would 
be  casting  pearls  before  swine."  l 

The  Romish  Church  has  ever  been  reluctant  to  give  vernac 
ular  Scriptures  to  the  people.  The  Council  of  Toulouse  in  1229 
made  a  stern  prohibition,  and  the  Council  of  Trent  followed 
the  same  course  in  1564.  This  act  was  confirmed  by  Pope 
Clement  VIII  in  159G,  by  Benedict  XIV  in  1757,  by  Pius 
VII  in  1816,  by  Leo  XII  in  1824,  and  by  Gregory  XVI 
in  1844,  whose  encyclical  brief  told  his  "venerable 
brethren"  to  seize  out  of  the  hands  of  the  faithful  "Bibles 
translated  into  the  vulgar  tongue."  Nor  has  Pius  IX 
been  behind  his  predecessors  in  this  antibiblical  crusade. 
But  Pius  VI  wrote  in  1778  to  Martini  a  commendation 
of  his  Italian  version,  and  the  letter,  translated  into  English, 
is  found  in  many  modern  editions.  Copies  of  the  Scriptures 
are  now  common  among  Catholics. 

Some  of  the  reasons  for  refusing  the  Bible  to  the  laity  are 
amusing,  and  others  are  advanced  with  perverse  ingenuity, 
1  Life  of  Xiinenes,  English  Translation,  p.  72. 


One  of  the  divines  of  Douai,  Dr.  Kellison,  in  his  answer  to 
SutclifFe,  argues  that  as  the  inscription  on  the  cross  was  written 
in  Hebrew,  Greek,  and  Latin,  "  therefore  the  church  would 
have  God's  word  not  to  be  written  commonly  in  any  other 
tongue  than  in  one  of  those  three  sanctified  tongues."  l 
After  saying  that,  on  the  question  of  the  circulation  of  the 
Bible,  Popery  and  Protestantism  are  antagonistic,  "and  we 
glory  in  avowing  it,"  Cardinal  Wiseman2  asserts  that  the 
Catholics  "  do  not  give  the  Bible  indiscriminately  to  all, 
because  God  himself  has  not  so  given  it  " ;  that  the  "  reading  " 
of  it  is  not  a  term  of  salvation,  while  "  hearing  is "  ;  that 
"  paper  and  ink 'are  not  the  badges  of  His  apostles'  calling, 
but  the  keys  of  the  kingdom";  that  the  church  has  no 
instinct  toward  Bible  reading;  and  that  where  "universal 
license  to  read  the  Scriptures  prevails,  church  government 
declines " — "  We  do  not  encourage  the  people  to  read  them, 
we  do  not  spread  them  to  the  utmost  among  them.  Certainly 
not."  There  was  an  especial  and  instinctive  horror  of  an  open 
English  Bible  both  in  the  days  of  Wycliffe  and  Tyndale,  as  if 
the  hierarchy  had  forecast  what  the  result  might  come  to  be. 

For  a  time  at  the  beginning  of  the  reign  of  Elizabeth, 
Catholics  attended  the  English  service ;  but  the  Inquisition  and 
the  Pope  on  being  consulted  strongly  denounced  all  such  com 
promise.  Several  Catholics  had  left  England  on  the  accession 
of  Elizabeth,  and  had  naturally  found  a  refuge  in  the  Popish 
countries  of  the  Continent.  The  English  Bible  in  use  could 
not  be  appreciated  or  used  by  them,  for  it  was  tainted  in 
its  very  origin.  But  as  it  was  in  extensive  circulation,  they 
were  afraid  of  it,  and  thought  to  check  its  influence  by  a 
rival  version — guarded  by  stringent  dogmatic  notes.  The 
English  refugees  at  Geneva  had  made  a  popular  translation, 
why  might  not  Popish  exiles  do  a  similar  work  for  their  own 
party  still  residing  in  the  land  from  which  they  had  fled  ? 
It  was  not  indeed  deemed  necessary  that  Catholics  should 
have  or  read  a  Bible  in  their  mother  tongue ;  and  the  history 
of  the  English  Bible  showed  that  the  Romish  powers 

1  Ehemes,  1608.    Cotton's  Ehemes  and  Do  way,  p.  5. 

2  Catholic  Doctrine,  pp.  20,  21. 
VOL.  II.  H 


steadily  discountenanced  all  such  versions,  and  sometimes  put 
to  death  both  translators  and  possessors  as  guilty  of  treason 
against  the  Pope  and  the  authority  of  the  church.  But  it  was 
somehow  felt  that  Popish  religionists  should  be  put  upon  a  level 
with  their  Protestant  countrymen,  and  that  they  should  have 
prepared  for  them  a  Bible  in  English — or  at  least  in  such 
English  as  would  show  that  it  belonged  to  a  Latin  community. 

In  referring  to  the  publication  of  this  New  Testament 
King  James'  translators  were  tempted  to  say  in  their 
preface :  "  Now  the  Church  of  Rome  would  seeme  at  the 
length  to  bear  a  motherly  affection  towards  her  children,  and 
to  allow  them  the  Scriptures  in  their  mother  tongue  :  but 
indeed  it  is  a  gift,  not  deseruing  to  be  called  a  gift,  an 
vnprofitable  gift :  they  must  first  get  a  Licence  in  writing 
before  they  may  vse  them,  and  to  get  that,  they  must  approue 
themselues  to  their  Confessor.  .  .  .  Yea,  so  vnwilling 
they  are  to  communicate  the  Scriptures  to  the  peoples 
vnderstanding  in  any  sort,  that  they  are  not  ashamed  to 
•confesse,  that  wee  forced  them  to  translate  it  into  English 
against  their  wills.  This  seemeth  to  argue  a  bad  cause,  or  a 
bad  conscience,  or  both.  Sure  we  are,  that  it  is  not  he  that 
hath  good  gold,  that  is  afraid  to  bring  it  to  the  touch 
stone,  but  he  that  hath  the  counterfeit;  neither  is  it  the 
true  man  that  shunneth  the  light,  but  the  malefactour,  least 
his  deedes  should  be  reproued  :  neither  is  it  the  plaine  dealing 
merchant  that  is  vnwilling  to  haue  the  waights,  or  the  mete- 
yard  brought  in  place,  but  he  that  vseth  deceit.  But  we  will 
let  them  alone  for  this  fault,  and  returne  to  translation." 

A  number  of  English  Catholics  had  settled  at  Douai  in 
Flanders  in  1568,  and  established  a  "Seminarie"  for  the 
training  of  priests  who  were  to  win  England  back  to  the 
Catholic  faith.  Many  agents  trained  in  the  seminary  did 
visit  England  at  various  times,  some  with  the  resolution 
of  assassinating  the  queen ;  and  several  of  these  enthusiasts, 
nurtured  by  the  Pope  and  Philip  IT  of  Spain,  were  dis 
covered,  as  were  Campian  and  his  colleagues,  Sherwin  and 
Briant,  who,  on  the  1st  December,  1581,  paid  the  penalty 
of  their  life  not  as  Papists  but  as  traitors.  The  queen, 


quite  aware  of  these  plots  to  murder  her,  said  once,  in 
addressing  her  Parliament,  "  I  know  no  creature  that 
breathes  whose  life  standeth  hourly  in  more  peril  than  mine 
own."  After  a  Huguenot  riot  the  magistrates  ordered  the 
departure  of  the  Catholic  refugees,  and  the  college  was 
broken  up  by  De  Requescens,  the  representative  of  Spain, 
but  the  Duke  of  Guise  gave  it  a  residence  at  Rheims  in 
France.  The  Seminary  returned  to  Douai  in  1593,  and  it  found 
a  final  resting  place  in  England  at  Old  Hall  Green,  in  the 
parish  of  Standon,  and  county  of  Hertford.  At  Rheims  the 
work  of  translating  was  carried  on,  and  accordingly  the  New 
Testament  was  published  at  that  place  in  1582.  One  of  the 
translators,  Gregory  Martin,  had  been  one  of  the  original 
.scholars  of  St.  John's  College,  Oxford,  and  M.A.  in  1564. 
After  concealing  his  change  of  opinion  for  some  time  he  passed 
over  to  Douai  in"  1570,  and  after  a  short  sojourn  at  Rome 
he  became  a  divinity  reader  in  the  English  seminary  of 
Rheims.  He  died  1584.  He  is  declared  by  Wood  to  have  been 
"  an  excellent  linguist,"  exactly  read  and  versed  in  the  Holy 
Scriptures,  and  went  beyond  others  of  his  time  in  humane 
literature."  He  was  the  principal  translator  of  the  entire 
Bible;  and  his  death  is  said  to  have  been  hastened  by  his 
incessant  toil.  William  Allen,  another  of  the  company, 
had  been  a  canon  of  York  and  principal  of  St.  Mary's 
Hall,  Oxford,  in  the  reign  of  Queen  Mary  ;  but  going 
at  her  death  to  Louvain,  he  was  made  a  doctor  of  divinity,  a 
canon  of  Cambray,  and  afterwards  of  Rheims,  where,  by  his 
energy  and  enthusiasm,  he  was  the  chief  means  of  establish 
ing  the  Popish  seminary  for  English  students.  Under 
Pope  Sixtus  V  he  was  consecrated  Archbishop  of  Mechlin 
and  raised  to  the  rank  of  cardinal.  Had  the  Spanish 
Armada  conquered,  he,  as  "  Cardinal  of  England,"  was  to 
have  been  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  and  Legate;  and  he 
had  composed  and  printed  in  Flanders  a  pastoral  address 
to  be  carried  over  by  the  Duke  of  Parma  and  circulated 
as  soon  as  he  effected  a  landing.  l  His  extreme  outbursts 
of  prejudice  went  far  beyond  truth,  as  when  he  says  of  the 
1  Dewes,  Parliaments  of  Queeii  Elizabeth,  p.  328. 


queen,  "  She  is  a  caitiff  under  God's  and  Holy  Church's 
curse,  given  up  to  a  reprobate  mind,  therefore  her  open  enor 
mities  and  her  secret  sins  must  be  great  and  not  numerable." 
Nicholas  Sanders,  another  notorious  Catholic  of  that  period, 
was  so  unveracious  as  to  assert  that  the  prayers  offered  ta 
the  Virgin  in  the  Catholic  Church  are  in  the  English  Prayer 
Book  presented  to  Queen  Elizabeth.  Bishop  Andrewes  says  of 
him,  "  His  forehead  was  surely  flint  and  his  tongue  a  razor."  J 
Another  of  the  band  was  Richard  Bristow,  M.A.,  Christ's 
Church,  Oxford,  afterwards  Fellow  of  Exeter  College,  who, 
going  in  1569  to  Louvain,  abjured  Protestantism.  He  became 
reader  of  divinity  at  Douai,  and  afterwards  at  Rheims,  where 
he  prepared  the  notes  of  the  New  Testament.  Thomas 
Worthington  studied  at  Oxford,  but  joined  his  party  at  Douai, 
and  then  was  sent  to  Rheims,  where  he  became  president 
of  the  college.  He  is  said  to  have  prepared  the  annotations 
and  tables  for  the  Old  Testament. 

The  New  Testament  was  published  at  Kheims  in  1582,  with 
the  following  long  title  : 

"  The  New  Testament  of  Jesus  Christ,  translated  faithfully 
into  English,  out  of  the  authentical  Latin,  according  to  the 
best  corrected  copies  of  the  same,  diligently  conferred  with  the 
Greeke  and  other  editions  in  diuers  languages :  With 
argvments  of  bookes  and  chapters,  annotations,  and  other 
necessarie  helpes,  for  the  better  vnderstanding  of  the  text, 
and  specially  for  the  discouerie  of  the  corruptions  of  diuers 
late  translations,  and  for  cleering  the  controuersies  in  religion, 
of  these  daies :  IN  THE  ENGLISH  COLLEGE  OF  RHEMES. 

"Psal.  118.  Da  mihi  intellectum,  et  scrutabor  legem  tuamr 
et  custodiam  illam  in  toto  corde  meo.  That  is,  Giue  me  vnder 
standing,  and  I  wil  searche  thy  law  and  wil  keepe  it  with  my 
whole  hart. 

"  S.  Aug.,  tract.  2  in  Epist.  Joan.  Omnia  quae  in  Scripturis 
sanctis,  ad  instructionem  et  salutem  nostram,  intente  oportet 
audire ;  maxime  memoriae  commendanda  sunt,  quae  aduersus 
hereticos  valent  plurimum:  quorum  insidiae,  infirmiores  quosque 
et  negligentiores  circumuenire  non  cessant. 
1  Tortura  Torti,  p.  143. 


"  That  is, 

"  All  things  that  are  readde  in  holy  Scriptures  we  must  heare 
with  great  attention,  to  our  instruction  and  saluation,  but 
those  things  specially  must  be  commended  to  memorie,  which 
make  most  against  Heretikes :  whose  deceites  cease  not  to 
circumuent  and  beguile  al  the  weaker  sort  and  the  more 
negligent  persons. 

"Printed  at  Rhemes,  by  John  Fogny.  1582.  Cvm  privi- 

The  Preface  is  long  and  elaborate,  its  general  spirit 
being  that  of  defence  and  explanation;  admitting  that 
what  they  have  done  is  after  all  a  superfluous  labour, 
there  being  no  real  necessity  for  it,  and  its  only  occasion 
being  "  the  present  time,  state,  and  condition  of  our  country." 
They  are  at  a  loss  to  assign  a  specific  reason  for  a  work  which 
Scripture  forbids,  and  yet  does  not  forbid ;  allows,  and  still 
disallows ;  and  their  statements  are  given  with  such  a  nicety 
of  distinctions  and  such  balancings,  that  only  subtile  minds  can 
apprehend  them ;  for  their  church  neither  prohibits,  nor  com 
mands,  nor  yet  treats  the  matter  as  one  of  forbearance.  As 
they  acted  on  such  ambiguous  views,  their  English  Bible 
is  scarcely  intelligible  to  common  people,  so  many  ecclesi 
astical  terms  are  preserved  unchanged  or  are  slightly  altered. 
The  version  is  completely  papalized,  for  they  purposed  to 
add  a  new  bulwark  to  their  Zion,  and  make  the  interposi 
tion  of  the  priesthood  still  necessary  to  the  full  understanding 
of  the. Word  of  God.  The  Latinized  English  of  the  version 
would  have  delighted  the  heart  of  Bishop  Gardyner.  Appeals 
.  are  made  to  the  fathers  on  these  points,  and  there  are  eloquent 
descriptions  of  the  abuses  of  profane  and  promiscuous  Scrip 
ture  reading.  Other  translations  are  also  tersely  censured. 

As  none  of  the  more  recent  editions  of  the  Rheims  New 
Testament  contain  the  preface,  a  few  paragraphs  from  it  may 
be  given : — 

"Which  translation  we  doe  not  for  al  that  publish,  vpon 
erroneous  opinion  1  of  necessitie,  that  the  holy  Scriptures 
should  alwaies  be  in  our  mother  tongue,  or  2  that  they 
ought,  or  were  ordained  by  God,  to  be  read  indifferently  of 


al,  or  3  could  be  easily  vnderstood  of  euery  one  that  readeth 
or  heareth  them  in  a  knowen  language  :  or  4  that  they 
were  not  often,  through  mans  malice  or  infirmitie,  pernicious 
and  much  hurtful  to  many :  5  or  that  we  generally 
and  absolutely  deemed  it  more  conuenient  in  it  self,  and 
more  agreeable  to  Gods  word  and  honour,  or  edification  of 
the  faithful,  to  haue  them  turned  into  vulgar  tongues, 
than  to  be  kept  and  studied  only  in  the  Ecclesiastical  learned 
languages:  Not  for  these  nor  any  such  like  causes  do  we 
translate  this  sacred  booke,  but  vpon  special  consideration 
of  the  present  time,  state,  and  condition  of  our  countrie,  vnto 
which,  diuers  things  are  either  necessarie,  or  profitable  and 
medicinable  now,  that  otherwise  in  the  peace  of  the  Church 
were  neither  much  requisite,  nor  perchance  wholy  tolerable." 

"1.  In  this  matter,  to  marke  only  the  wisdom  and  modera- 
ation  of  holy  Church  and  the  gouernours  thereof  on  the  one 
side,  and  the  indiscrete  zeale  of  the  popular,  and  their  factious 
leaders,  on  the  other,  is  a  high  point  of  prudence.  These 
later,  partly  of  simplicitie,  partly  of  curiositie,  and  specially 
of  pride  and  disobedience,  haue  made  claime  in  this  case  for 
the  common  people,  with  plausible  pretences  many,  but  good 
reasons  none  at  al.  The  other,  to  whom  Christ  hath  giuen 
charge  of  our  soules,  the  dispensing  of  Gods  mysteries  and 
treasures  (among  which  holy  Scripture  is  no  small  store) 
and  the  feeding  his  familie  in  season  with  foode  fit  for  euery 
sort,  haue  neither  of  old  nor  of  late,  euer  wholy  condemned 
al  vulgar  versions  of  Scripture,  nor  haue  at  any  time  generally 
forbidden  the  faithful  to  reade  the  same :  yet  they  haue  not  by 
publike  authoritie  prescribed,  commaunded,  or  authentically 
euer  recommended  any  such  interpretation  to  be  indifferently 
vsed  of  al  men.  .  .  . 

"Now  since  Luthers  reuolt  also,  diuers  learned  Catholikes 
for  the  more  speedy  abolishing  of  a  number  of  false  and  im 
pious  translations  put  forth  by  sundry  sectes,  and  for  the 
better  preseruation  or  reclaime  of  many  good  soules  endan- 
dered  thereby,  haue  published  the  Bible  in  the  several  lan 
guages  of  almost  al  the  principal  prouinces  of  the  Latin  Church: 
no  other  bookes  in  the  world  being  so  pernicious  as  heretical 


translations  of  the  Scriptures,  poisoning  the  people  vnder 
colour  of  diuine  authoritie,  and  not  many  other  remedies 
being  more  soueraine  against  the  same  (if  it  be  vsed  in 
order,  discretion,  and  humilitie)  then  the  true,  faithful,  and 
sincere  interpretation  opposed  therevnto. 

"  2.  Which  causeth  the  holy  Church  not  to  forbid  vtterly  any 
Catholic  translation,  though  she  allow  not  the  publishing  or 
reading  of  any  absolutely  and  without  exception,  or  limitation  : 
knowing  by  her  diuine  and  most  sincere  wisedom,  how,  where, 
when,  and  to  whome  these  her  Maisters  and  Spouses  giftes  are 
to  be  bestowed  to  the  most  good  of  the  faithful :  and  therfore 
neither  generally  perrnitteth  that  which  muste  needes  doe 
hurt  to  the  vn worthy,  nor  absolutely  condemneth  that  which 
may  doe  much  good  to  the  worthy.  Where  upon,  the  order 
which  many  a  wise  man  wished  for  before,  was  taken  by 
the  Deputies  of  the  late  famous  Councel  of  Trent  in  this 
behalfe,  and  confirmed  by  supreme  authoritie,  that  the  holy 
Scriptures,  though  truly  and  Catholikely  translated  into  vulgar 
tonges,  yet  may  not  be  indifferently  readde  of  al  men,  nor 
of  any  other  then  such  as  haue  expresse  licence  therevnto 
of  their  lawful  Ordinaries,  with  good  testimonie  from  their 
Curates  or  Confessors,  that  they  be  humble,  discrete  and 
deuout  persons,  and  like  to  take  much  good,  and  no  harme 
thereby.  Which  prescript,  though  in  these  daies  of  ours  it  can 
not  be  so  precisely  obserued,  as  in  other  times  and  places, 
where  there  is  more  due  respecte  of  the  Churches  authoritie, 
rule,  and  discipline  :  yet  we  trust  al  wise  and  godly  persons  wil 
vse  the  matter  in  the  meanwhile,  with  such  moderation, 
meekeness,  and  subiection  of  hart,  as  the  handling  of  so  sacred 
a  booke,  and  sincere  senses  of  Gods  truth  therein,  and  the 
holy  Canons,  Councels,  reason,  and  religion  do  require. 

"  Wherein,  though  for  due  preseruation  of  this  diuine  worke 
from  abuse  and  prophanation,  and  for  the  better  bridling  of 
the  intolerable  insolencie  of  proud,  curious,  and  contentius 
wittes,  the  gouernours  of  the  Church  guided  by  Gods  Spirit, 
as  euer  before,  so  also  vpon  more  experience  of  the  maladie 
of  this  time  then  before,  haue  taken  more  exacte  order  both 
for  the  readers  and  translatours  in  these  later  ages,  then  of  old, 


yet  we  must  not  imagin  that  in  the  primitiue  Church,  either 
euery  one  that  vnderstoode  the  learned  tonges  wherein  the 
Scriptures  were  written,  or  other  languages  into  which  they 
were  translated,  might  without  reprehension,  read,  reason, 
dispute,  turne  and  tosse  the  Scriptures  :  or  that  our  forefathers 
suffered  euery  schole-maister,  scholer,  or  Grammarian  that  had 
a  little  Greeke  or  Latin,  straight  to  take  in  hand  the  holy 
Testament :  or  that  the  translated  Bibles  into  the  vulgar 
tonges,  were  in  the  hands  of  euery  husband  man,  artificer, 
prentice,  boies,  girles,  mistresse,  maide,  man  :  that  they  were 
sung,  plaied,  alleaged,  of  euery  tinker,  tauerner,  rimer,  min 
strel  :  that  they  were  for  table  talke,  for  alebenches,  for  boates 
and  barges,  and  for  euery  prophane  person  and  companie.  No, 
in  those  better  times  men  were  neither  so  il,  nor  so  curious 
of  them  selues,  so  to  abuse  the  blessed  booke  of  Christ :  neither 
was  there  any  such  easy  meanes  before  printing  was  inuented, 
to  disperse  the  copies  into  the  handes  of  euery  man,  as  now 
there  is. 

"  They  were  then  in  Libraries,  Monasteries,  Colleges, 
Churches,  in  Bishops,  Priests,  and  some  deuout  principal  Lay 
mens  houses  and  handes  :  who  vsed  them  with  feare  and  reuer- 
ence,  and  specially  such  partes  as  perteined  to  good  life  and 
maners,  not  medling,  but  in  pulpit  and  schooles  (and  that  moder 
ately  to)  with  the  hard  and  high  mysteries  and  places  of  greater 
difficultie.  The  poore  ploughman  could  then,  in  labouring  the 
ground,  sing  the  hymnes  and  psalmes  either  in  knowen  or 
vnknowen  languages,  as  they  heard  them  in  the  holy  Church, 
though  they  could  neither  reade  nor  knowe  the  sense,  mean 
ing,  and  mysteries  of  the  same.  Such  holy  persons  of  both 
sexes,  to  whom  St.  Hierom  in  diuers  Epistles  to  them,  com- 
mendeth  the  reading  and  meditation  of  holy  Scriptures,  were 
diligent  to  search  al  the  godly  histories  and  imitable  examples 
of  chastitie,  humilitie,  obedience,  clemencie,  pouertie,  penance, 
renouncing  the  world :  they  noted  specially  the  places  that  did 
breede  the  hatred  of  sinne,  feare  of  Gods  iudgement,  delight  in 
spiritual  cogitations :  they  referred  them  selues  in  al  hard 
places,  to  the  iudgement  of  the  auncient  fathers  and  their 
maisters  in  religion,  neuer  presuming  to  contend,  controule, 


teach  or  talke  of  their  owiie  sense  and  phantasie,  in  deepe 
questions  of  diuinitie.  Then  the  Virgins  did  meditate  vpon 
the  places  and  examples  of  chastitic,  modestie  and  demure- 
nesse  :  the  maried,  on  coniugal  faith  and  continencie  :  the  par 
ents,  how  to  bring  vp  their  children  in  faith  and  feare  of  God : 
the  Prince,  how  to  rule  :  the  subiect,  how  to  obey :  the  Priest, 
how  to  teach  :  the  people,  how  to  learne. 

"  3.  Then  the  scholer  taught  not  his  maister,  the  sheepe  con- 
trouled  not  the  Pastor,  the  young  student  set  not  the  Doctor 
to  schoole,  nor  reproued  their  fathers  of  error  and  ignorance. 
Or  if  any  were  in  those  better  daies  (as  in  al  times  of  heresie 
such  must  needes  be)  that  had  itching  eares,  tikling  tongues 
and  wittes,  curious  and  contentious  disputers,  hearers,  and 
talkers  rather  than  doers  of  Gods  word  :  such  the  Fathers  did 
euer  sharply  reprehend,  counting  them  vnworthy  and  vnpro- 
fitable  readers  of  the  holy  Scripture.  .  .  . 

"  We  therfore  hauing  compassion  to  see  our  beloued 
countriemen,  with  extreme  danger  of  their  soules,  vse  only 
such  profane  translations,  and  erroneous  mens  mere  phantasies, 
for  the  pure  and  blessed  word  of  truth,  much  also  moued  there 
unto  by  the  desires  of  many  deuout  persons :  haue  set  forth, 
for  you  (benigne  readers)  the  new  Testament  to  begin  withal, 
trusting  that  it  may  giue  occasion  to  you,  after  diligent 
perusing  thereof,  to  lay  away  at  lest  such  their  impure  ver 
sions  as  hitherto  you  haue  ben  forced  to  occupie.  How  wel 
we  haue  done  it,  we  must  not  be  iudges,  but  referre  al  to  Gods 
Church  and  our  superiors  in  the  same,  to  them  we  submit  our 
selues,  and  this,  and  al  other  our  labours,  to  be  in  part  or  in 
the  whole,  reformed,  corrected,  altered,  or  quite  abolished : 
most  humbly  desiring  pardon  if  through  our  ignorance, 
temeritie,  or  other  humane  infirmitie,  we  haue  any  where  mis 
taken  the  sense  of  the  holy  Ghost,  further  promising,  that  if 
hereafter  we  espie  any  of  our  owne  errors,  or  if  any  other,  either 
frende  of  good  wil,  or  aduersarie  for  desire  of  reprehension,  shal 
open  vnto  vs  the  same  :  we  wil  not  (as  Protestants  doe)  for 
defense  of  our  estimation,  or  of  pride  and  contention,  by  wrang 
ling  wordes  wilfully  persist  in  them,  but  be  most  glad  to  heare 
of  them,  and  in  the  next  edition  or  otherwise  to  correct  them : 


for  it  is  truth  that  we  seeke  for,  and  Gods  honour :  which 
being  had  either  by  good  intention,  or  by  occasion,  al  is  wel. 
This  we  professe  only,  that  we  haue  done  our  endeuour  with 
praier,  much  feare  and  trembling,  lest  we  should  dangerously 
erre  in  so  sacred,  high,  and  diuine  a  work :  that  we  haue  done 
it  with  al  faith,  diligence,  and  sinceritie  :  that  we  haue  vsed  no 
partialitie  for  the  disaduantage  of  our  aduersaries,  nor  no  more 
licence  then  is  sufferable  in  translating  of  holy  Scriptures  : 
continually  keeping  our  selues  as  neere  as  is  possible,  to  our 
text  and  to  the  very  words  and  phrases  which  by  long  vse  are 
made  venerable,  though  to  some  prophane  or  delicate  eares  they 
may  seeme  more  hard  or  barbarous,  as  the  whole  style  of  Scrip 
ture  doth  lightly  to  such  at  the  beginning :  acknowledging 
with  St.  Hierom,  that  in  other  writings  it  is  ynough  to  giue  in 
translation,  sense  for  sense,  but  that  in  Scriptures,  lest  we  misse 
the  sense,  we  must  keepe  the  very  wordes.  .  .  . 

"  Now,  though  the  text  thus  truly  translated,  might  suffi 
ciently,  in  the  sight  of  the  learned  and  al  indifferent  men,  both 
controule  the  aduersaries  corruptions,  and  proue  that  the  holy 
Scripture  whereof  they  haue  made  so  great  vauntes,  maketh 
nothing  for  their  new  opinions,  but  wholly  for  the  Catholike 
Churches  beleefe  and  doctrine,  in  al  the  pointes  of  difference 
betwixt  vs :  yet  knowing  that  the  good  and  simple  may 
easily  be  seduced  by  some  few  obstinate  persons  of  perdition 
(whom  we  see  giuen  ouer  into  a  reprobat  sense,  to  whom  the 
Gospel,  which  in  it  self  is  the  odour  of  life  to  saluation,  is  made 
the  odour  of  death  to  damnation,  ouer  whose  eyes  for  sinne  and 
disobedience  God  suffereth  a  veile  or  couer  to  lie,  whiles  they 
read  the  New  Testament,  euen  as  the  Apostle  saith  the  lewes 
haue  til  this  day,  in  reading  of  the  old,  that  as  the  one  sort  can 
not  finde  Christ  in  the  Scriptures,  reade  they  neuer  so  much, 
so  the  other  can  not  finde  the  Catholike  Church  nor  her  doc 
trine  there  neither),  and  finding  by  experience  this  saying 
of  St.  Augustin  to  be  most  true,  'If  the  preiudice  of  any 
erroneous  presuasion  preoccupate  the  mind,  whatsoeuer  the 
Scripture  hath  to  the  contrarie,  men  take  it  for  a  figuratiue 
speach ' :  for  these  causes,  and  somewhat  to  help  the  faithful 
reader  in  the  difficulties  of  diuers  places,  we  haue  also  set  forth 


reasonable  large  Annotations,  thereby  to  shew  the  studious 
reader  in  most  places  perteining  to  the  controuersies  of  this 
time,  both  the  heretical  corruptions  and  false  deductions,  and 
also  the  Apostolike  tradition,  the  expositions  of  the  holy  fathers, 
the  decrees  of  the  Catholike  Church  and  most  ancient  Councels  : 
which  means  whosoeuer  trusteth  not,  for  the  sense  of  the  holy 
Scriptures,  but  had  rather  folow  his  priuate  iudgement  or  the 
arrogant  spirit  of  these  Sectaries,  he  shal  worthily  through 
his  owne  wilfulnes  be  deceiued :  beseeching  al  men  to  looke 
with  diligence,  sinceritie,  and  indifference,  into  the  case  that 
concerneth  no  lesse  then  euery  ones  eternal  salvation  or 
damnation.  . 

"  In  this  ovr  translation,  because  we  wish  it  to  be  most 
sincere,  as  becommeth  a  Catholike  translation,  and  haue  en- 
deuoured  so  to  make  it :  we  are  very  precise  and  religious  in 
folowing  our  copie,  the  old  vulgar  approued  Latin  :  not  only  in 
sense,  which  we  hope  we  alwaies  doe,  but  sometimes  in  the 
very  words  also  and  phrases,  which  may  seeme  to  the  vulgar 
reader  and  to  common  English  eares  not  yet  acquainted  there 
with,  rudenesse  or  ignorance  :  but  to  the  discrete  Header  that 
deeply  weigheth  and  considereth  the  importance  of  sacred 
words  and  speeches,  and  how  easily  the  voluntarie  Translatour 
may  misse  the  true  sense  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  we  doubt  not  but 
our  consideration  and  doing  therein,  shal  seeme  reasonable  and 
necessarie :  yea  and  that  al  sortes  of  Catholike  Headers  wil  in 
short  time  thinke  that  familiar,  which  at  the  first  may  seeme 
strange,  and  wil  esteeme  it  more,  when  they  shal  otherwise 
be  taught  to  vnderstand  it,  then  if  it  were  the  common  known 

"  For  example,  we  translate  often  thus,  '  Amen,  amen,  I  say 
unto  you.'  Which  as  yet  seemeth  strange,  but  after  a  while  it 
wil  be  as  familiar,  as  '  Amen,'  in  the  end  of  al  praiers  and 
Psalmes,  and  even  as  when  we  end  with '  Amen,'  it  soundeth  far 
better  then,  '  So  beit ' :  so  in  the  beginning,  '  Amen,  Amen,' 
must  needes  by  vse  and  custom  sound  far  better,  then, '  Verily 
verily.'  Which  in  deede  doth  not  expresse  the  asseueration  and 
assurance  signified  in  this  Hebrue  word,  besides  that  it  is  the 
soleinne  and  usual  word  of  our  Sauiour  to  expresse  a  vehement 


asseueration,  and  therefore  is  not  changed,  neither  in  the 
Syriake  nor  Greeke,  nor  vulgar  Latin  Testament,  but  is  pre- 
serued  and  vsed  of  the  Euangelistes  and  Apostles,  them  selues, 
euen  as  Christ  spake  it  '  propter  sanctiorem  authoritatem  '  as 
St.  Augustin  saith  of  this  and  of  'Allelu-ia,  for  the  more  holy 
and  sacred  authoritie  thereof. '  li.  2  Doct.  Christ,  c.  11. 
And  therefore  do  we  keepe  the  word  'Allelu-ia,'  Apoc.  19, 
as  it  is  both  in  Greeke  and  Latin  yea  and  in  al  the  English 
translations,  though  in  their  bookes  of  common  praier  they 
translate  it,  '  Praise  ye  the  Lord.'  Againe  if  '  Hosanna,  Raca, 
Belial,'  and  such  like  be  yet  vntranslated  in  the  English 
Bibles,  why  may  not  we  say,  '  Corbana/  and  '  Parasceue ' : 
specially  when  they  Englishing  this  later  thus, '  the  preparation 
of  the  Sabboth/  put  three  words  more  into  the  text  then 
the  Greeke  word  doth  signifie.  Mat.  27,  62.  And  others 
saying  thus,  '  After  the  day  of  preparing,'  make  a  cold  trans 
lation  and  short  of  the  sense :  as  if  they  should  translate 
Sabboth,  '  the  resting,'  for  '  Parasceue '  is  as  solemne  a  word 
for  the  Sabboth  eue,  as  '  Sabboth '  is  for  the  lewes  seventh 
day,  and  now  among  Christians  much  more  solernner,  taken 
for  Good-friday  only.  These  words  then  we  thought  it  far 
better  to  keepe  in  the  text,  and  to  tel  their  signification  in  the 
margent  or  in  a  table  for  that  purpose,  then  to  disgrace  both 
the  text  and  them  with  translating  them. 

"  Moreouer,  we  presume  not  in  hard  places  to  mollifie  the 
speaches  or  phrases,  but  religiously  keepe  them  word  for  word, 
and  point  for  point,  for  fear  of  missing,  or  restraining  the  sense 
of  the  holy  Ghost  to  our  phantasie,  as  Eph.  6,  '  Against  the 
spirituals  of  wickedness  in  the  celestials,'  and,  '  What  to  me  and 
thee  woman?'  and  1  Pet.  2,  'As  infants  euen  now  borne,  reason 
able,  milke  without  guile  desireye.'  We  do  so  place,  'reasonable,' 
of  purpose,  that  it  may  be  indifferent  both  to  infants  going 
before,  as  in  our  Latin  text:  or  to  milke  that  folio weth  after,  as 
in  other  Latin  copies  and  in  the  Greeke.  lo.  3  we  translate, 
'  The  spirit  breatheth  where  he  wil  &c.'  leauing  it  indifferent 
to  signifie  either  the  holy  Ghost,  or  winde  :  which  the  Pro 
testants  translating,  '  minde,'  take  away  the  other  sense  more 
common  and  vsual  in  the  ancient  fathers.  We  translate  Luc.  8, 


23,  'They  were  filed,'  not  adding  of  our  owne,  'with  water,'  to 
mollifie  the  sentence,  as  the  Protestants  doe,  and  c.  22,  '  This  is 
the  chalice,  the  new  Testament '  &c,  not  '  This  chalice  is  the 
new  Testament,'  likewise,  Mar.  13,  '  Those  daies  shal  be  such 
tribulation '  &c,  not  as  the  Aduersaries,  '  in  those  daies,'  both 
our  text  and  theirs  being  otherwise,  likewise  lac.  4,  G,  '  And 
giueth  greater  grace,'  leauing  it  indifferent  to  the '  Scripture/  or 
to  the  '  holy  Ghost,'  both  going  before.  .  . 

"  We  adde  the  Greeke  in  the  margent  for  diuers  causes. 
Sometime  when  the  sense  is  hard,  that  the  learned  reader  may 
consider  of  it  and  see  if  he  can  helpe  him  selfe  better  then  by 
our  translation.  "  Item  we  adde  the  Latin  word  sometime  in 
the  margent,  when  either  we  can  not  fully  expresse  it  (as  Act. 
8.  'They  tooke  order  for  Stevens  funeral,'  and,  'Al  take  not  his 
word,)'  or  when  the  reader  might  thinke,  it  can  not  be  as  we 
translate,  as,  Luc.  8.  'A  storme  of  winde  descended  in  to  the 
lake,  and  they  were  filled/  and,  lo.  5.  '  when  lesus  knew  that 
he  had  now  a  long  time/  meaning,  in  his  infirmitie. 

"  This  precise  folowing  of  our  Latin  text,  in  neither  adding 
nor  diminishing,  is  the  cause  why  we  say  not  in  the  title  of  the 
Gospels  in  the  first  page,  S.  Matthew,  S.  Mar.,  S.  John : 
because  it  is  so  neither  in  Greeke  nor  Latin,  though  in  the 
toppes  of  the  leaues  folowing,  where  we  may  be  bolder,  we 
adde,  S.  Matthew  &c.  to  satisfie  the  reader:  Much  vnlike 
to  the  Protestants  our  Aduersaries,  which  make  no  scruple 
to  leaue  out  the  name  of  Paul  in  the  title  of  the  Epistle  to 
the  Hebrues,  though  it  be  in  euery  Greeke  booke  which  they 
translate.  And  their  most  authorised  English  Bibles  leaue 
out  (Catholike)  in  the  title  of  S.  James  Epistle  and  the  rest, 
which  were  famously  knowen  in  the  primitiue  Church  by  the 
name  of '  Catholicae  Epistolse/  Euseb.  hist.  Eccl.  li.  2,  c.  22. 

"  Item  we  giue  the  Reader  in  the  places  of  some  importance, 
another  reading  in  the  margent,  specially  when  the  Greeke  is 
agreeable  to  the  same. 

"  We  binde  not  our  selues  to  the  pointes  of  any  one  copie, 
print,  or  edition  of  the  vulgar  Latin,  in  places  of  no  con- 
trouersie,  but  folovv  the  pointing  most  agreeable  to  the  Greeke 
and  to  the  fathers  commentaries. 


"  We  translate  sometime  the  word  that  is  in  the  Latin  mar- 
gent,  and  not  that  in  the  text,  when  by  the  Greeke  or  the  fathers 
we  see  it  is  a  manifest  fault  of  the  writers  heretofore,  that 
mistooke  one  word  for  an  other. 

"  Thus  we  haue  endeuoured  by  al  meanes  to  satisfie  the 
indifferent  reader,  and  to  helpe  his  vnderstanding  euery  way, 
both  in  the  text,  and  by  Annotations :  and  withal  to  deale 
most  sincerely  before  God  and  man,  in  translating  and  ex 
pounding  the  most  sacred  text  of  the  holy  Testament.  Fare 
wel  good  Reader,  and  if  we  profit  the  any  whit  by  our  poore 
paines,  let  us  for  Gods  sake  be  partakers  of  thy  deuout  praiers, 
and  together  with  humble  and  contrite  hart  cal  upon  our 
Sauiour  Christ  to  cease  these  troubles  and  stormes  of  his 
derest  spouse." 

In  this  preface,  so  ingenuous  and  yet  so  reserved  about 
their  motives,  so  nimble  in  its  fence  and  so  fierce  in  its 
assault,  the  Rhemists  laid  themselves  open  to  the  castigation 
of  their  watchful  opponents  who  were  glad  of  the  occasion,  and 
at  once  seized  upon  it  with  unmeasured  severity.  Fulke 
opened  upon  them  in  the  following  terms  l : — 

"Whoso  seeth  what  unnecessary  charge  you  have  put 
your  selves  unto  in  printing  this  your  Translation  in  so 
large  a  volume,  may  easily  perceive  you  set  it  not  forth 
for  poor  men's  profit ;  and  that,  by  so  excessive  price  of  so 
small  a  part  of  the  whole  Bible,  you  mean  to  discourage  your 
friends  from  waiting  for  all  the  rest. 

"As  for  the  special  consideration  that  procured  this 
edition,  when  you  do  express  it,  we  may  better  judge  of  it. 
In  the  mean  time,  we  can  conceive  none  other,  but  that  which 
is  the  practice  of  many  heretikes : — when  you  could  not 
altogether  suppress  the  knowledge  of  the  holy  Scriptures, 
whereby  your  errors  are  discovered ;  you  thought  it  the  next 
way  for  your  purpose,  by  your  partial  translation  as  much 
as  you  could  to  obscure  them,  and  by  your  heretical  Anno 
tations  to  pervert  them,  that  the  one  should  make  them 
unprofitable,  the  other  also  hurtful. 

"  And  whereas  you  say,  '  That  of  old  they  have  not  ever 
1  Confutation,  &c.,  Preface.  London,  1589. 


condemned  all  vulgar  versions  of  the  Scripture,  nor  generally 
forbidden  the  faithful  to  read  them ; '  Let  the  registers  of 
Bishops  be  searched,  where  it  will  appear  that  many  have 
been  accused  and  condemned  as  Heretics,  for  having,  reading, 
or  hearing  the  holy  Scriptures  in  the  English  tongue,  without 
any  exception  taken  against  the  truth  of  the  translation." 

A  portion  of  Cartwright's  Answer  to  'the  Preface  of  the 
Rhemish  New  Testament  was  published  at  Edinburgh  in 
1602,  and  in  it  the  Puritan  leader  thus  delivers  himself1 : — 

"  It  is  evident,  that  you  permit  it,  not  either  in  reverence 
to  the  Holy  Scriptures,  or  love  to  the  people  :  but  rather 
as  desperat  enemies  which  had  rather  kill  with  it,  than 
that  the  head  of  your  gaineful  errors  should  be  stricken  off 
by  it.  And  it  fareth  altogether  with  you  in  this  poynt 
as  with  men  which  having  a  natural!  hatred  of  cheese,  or 
of  some  such  foode,  in  suche  sorte  as  the  very  sight  or  touch 
of  it  doth  offend  them :  yet  being  effamished,  are  content 
for  the  safetie  of  their  lives  even  to  eate  it.  For,  abhorring 
from  the  Scriptures  in  time  of  your  peace ;  when  it  cometh 
that  you  and  your  state  is  plunged  by  such  as  you  call  '  hasre- 
tickes,'  you  are  glad  to  bite  or  nibble  upon  the  Scriptures,  if 
happelie  you  can  get  anything  to  serve  the  present  neede. 

"  After  that,  by  hiding  and  burning  the  Scriptures,  by  threat 
ening  and  murdering  of  men  for  reading  of  them,  they  cannot 
attaine  to  the  causing  of  such  a  night  of  ignorance,  wherein 

O  O  O  ' 

they  might  doe  all  thinges  without  controulement :  there 
remayned  one  onely  engine  which  Satan  (with  all  his  Angels) 
having  framed  and  hammered  upon  his  lying  forge,  hath  fur 
nished  them  of.  This  engine  is,  the  defacing  and  dis-authorizing 
of  the  Scriptures,  as  it  were  the  taking  from  them  their  girdle 
or  garter  of  honour,  by  a  false  surmise  of  corruption  of  them, 
in  the  languages  wherein  they  were  first  written.  Which 
abominable  practice  being  attempted  in  th'  Old  testament  by 
Lindanus 2  is  now  assayed  in  the  new  by  the  Jesuites." 

1  Pp.  6  and  92.  genere,"    Colonioe,    1558,   16mo,  in 

-  Liudanus,  Bishop  of  Ruremond,  which  he  affirms  the  superiority  of 

in  Holland,  published  a  work  "  De  the  Latin  Vulgate  version  over  the 

optiino      Scripturas      iuterpretaudi  Hebrew  and  Greek  Originals. 


The  Rhemists  profess  perfect  integrity  concerning  their  own 
work,  wishing  it  to  be  "  most  sincere  as  becometh  a  Catholic 
translation."  In  the  note  at  Acts  xiii,  1,  they  say,. that  they 
might  have  rendered  the  clause,  "  as  they  were  ministering," 
by  "  as  they  were  sacrificing,"  or  "  saying  masse,"  "  but 
we  keepe  our  texte  as  the  translators  of  Scripture  should 
doe  most  religiously."  The  rendering,  2  Peter  i,  10,  "  labour 
the  more  that  by  good  works  you  may  secure  your  voca 
tion,"  is  faithful  to  the  Vulgate,  and  the  addition  has  a 
little  support  in  some  MSS.  and  versions. 

As  they  deliberately  chose  the  Vulgate1  to  translate  from,  they 
give  us  the  reasons  of  their  preference  :  Its  antiquity,  its  edi 
torial  revision  by  Jerome,  its  commendation  by  Augustine,  its- 
use  by  the  Fathers,  its  proclaimed  authenticity  by  the  Council 
of  Trent,  its  gravity,  its  impartiality,  the  preference  given  to  it 
occasionally  by  Beza  and  the  Calvinists,  its  superiority  to  all 
other  Latin  translations,  and  in  cases  of  discrepancy  to  the 
vulgar  Greek  text  itself,  "  according  to  the  testimony  of  the  old 
scholars  and  divines."  But  critical  rules  and  opinions  are 
characterized  by  a  peculiar  lubricity.  Their  statement  is  that 
the  Latin  does  usually  agree  with  the  Greek  text,  that  any  dis 
agreement  is  often  found  to  be  coincident  with  some  old 
copy,  "as  may  be  seen  in  Stephens'  margin,"  and  that  the 
adversaries  sometimes  accept  such  marginal  readings ;  that 
when  Greek  copies  exhibit  a  different  text,  the  Vulgate  is 
found  to  agree  with  patristic  quotations;  that  emendations 
may  be  resorted  to  if  such  authority  be  wanting,  or  recourse  may 
be  had  to  the  Latin  Fathers,  and  if,  in  this  appeal,  discrepancy 
should  be  found,  the  blame  is  to  be  laid  to  the  "great  diversitie 
and  multitude "  of  Latin  copies.  So  that  in  this  easy  and 
incoherent  way  of  moving  from  post  to  pillar,  as  often  as  their 
position  is  felt  to  be  untenable,  the  superiority  of  the  Latin 
translation  to  the  Greek  original  is  demonstrated. 

This  version,  however,  was  made  by  men  of  no  small  erudition, 
but  very  thorough  devotees  of  Rome.  The  integrity  which  they 

1 A     certain    cardinal     confessed    again,  lest  his  Latinity  should  be 
that  he  had  gone  over  the  Vulgate    spoiled, 
once,   but   vowed   never  to  read  it 


claim  for  themselves  they  deny  to  others.  Their  opponents  are 
ever  accused  of  translating  for  the  purpose  of  falsifying  the  sacred 
text,  and  wilfully  misinterpreting  it.  They  do  not  find  mere 
blunders  in  their  antagonists — what  they  impute  to  Protestant 
scholars  and  critics  is  conscious  wickedness,  the  making  of 
additions,  alterations,  and  omissions,  in  avowed  and  profane 
rebellion  against  the  Divine  truth.  The  Notes  are  purely 
polemical,  as  if  the  version  had  been  made  to  furnish  occasion 
for  them.  No  element  of  charity  breathes  in  them,  no  com 
passion  for  poor  non-Catholics ;  heretics  and  Protestants  are 
assailed  on  every  page,  and  their  sins  are  educed  from  the  text, 
often  by  the  most  ingenious  inferences,  or  are  connected  with 
it  by  an  invisible  film  of  gossamer.  Fury  and  indignation  are 
poured  upon  them,  and  they  are  overwhelmed  with  scathing 
invective,  and  terrible  menace  —  exposure  to  the  worst  of 
penalties  on  earth,  and  unutterable  retributions  in  the  world  to 
come.  In  the  words  of  Geddes,  their  co-religionist,  "  the 
translation  is  accompanied  with  virulent  annotations  against 
the  Protestant  religion,  and  manifestly  calculated  to  support  a 
system,  not  of  genuine  catholicity,  but  of  Transalpine  Popery." 
The  Rhemist  scholars,  though  they  paid  divine  honours  to 
the  Latin  text,  rendered  always  with  the  Greek  text  before 
them,  as  their  title-page  asserts,  as  their  margin  proves,  and  as 
their  frequent  insertion  of  the  definite  article  also  indicates ; 
for  it  is  found  in  many  places  where  previous  translators  have 
neglected  it,  as  may  be  seen  in  1  Thess.  i,  3,  "  the  charity,  the 
enduring  of  the  hope  "  ;  Matt,  iv,  5,  "  the  pinnacle  "  ;  xxviii,  16, 
"  the  mount  " ;  Eph.  ii,  3,  "  as  also  the  rest " ;  Rev.  vii,  13, 
"  clothed  in  the  white  robes  "  ; — conversely,  Luke  ii,  9,  "  an 
angel  of  our  Lord";  Matt,  ii,  13,  "an  angel";  John  iv, 
27,  "  talked  with  a  woman " ;  and  in  these  three  places  the 
Authorized  Version  wrongly  inserts  the  definite  article  ;  Luke 
xvi,  13,  "  cleave  to  one  and  contemn  the  other,"  a  distinc 
tion  to  which  the  mere  Latin  could  not  have  helped  them. 
They  did  not,  as  has  been  often  done,  translate  as  a  rule  the 
genitive  like  an  adjective  of  quality,  as  in  the  phrase 
"  glorious  liberty,"  Rom.  viii,  21 ;  "  the  glorious  gospel,"  2  Cor. 
iv,  4;  "deceitful  lusts,"  Eph.  iv,  22;  "true  holiness,"  24; 

VOL.  II.  I 


"our  vile  body,"  "his  glorious  body,"  Philip,  iii,  21;  "his 
mighty  angels,"  2  Thess.  i,  7;  "his  dear  son,"  Coloss.  i,  13; 
but  they  keep  literally  "  liberty  of  the  glory,"  "  gospel  of  the 
glory,"  "  desires  of  error,"  "  holiness  of  the  truth,"  "  body  of 
our  humility,"  "  body  of  his  glory,"  "angels  of  his  power," 
"  Son  of  his  love."  In  some  of  these  instances,  not  in  all,  the 
Authorized  Version  gives  the  literal  rendering  on  the  margin 
of  the  first  edition.  While  the  Rheims  Version  is  sometimes 
ludicrous  in  consequence  of  the  close  adherence  to  the  Vulgate, 
there  are  very  many  clauses  in  which  there  are  happy  and 
nicely  adjusted  renderings.  True  to  their  ecclesiastical  beliefs, 
they  render  "  presbyter  "  by  "  priest,"  "  repent "  by  "  do  pen 
ance,"  "  repented  in  sackcloth  arid  ashes  "  by  "  done  penance  in 
haircloth  and  ashes,"  and  "  cup "  by  "  chalice."  By  the  use 
of  "halleluiah,"  "  hosanna,"  "amen,"  and  "Belial,"  they  justify 
"  pasche,"  "  parasceue,"  "  Azymes  "  ;  their  further  argument 
being,  if  "  proselyte  "  be  taken  why  not  "  neophyte,"  if  "  phy 
lacteries  "  why  not  "  prepuce  and  Paraclete,"  if  "  anathema  " 
why  not  "  depositum  "  ?  How  is  it  possible,  it  is  asked,  to 
express  "evangelizo "  but  by  "evangelize  " ?  But  their  slavish 
adherence  to  the  idiom  and  order  of  the  Latin  text  leads  often 
to  obscurity,  nay,  not  a  few  clauses  are  incomprehensible — 
if  they  are  ambiguous  and  unintelligible  in  the  Vulgate,  they 
characteristically  remain  so  in  the  translation,  for  face 
answereth  to  face.  Many  Latin  terms  are  transferred,  not 
rendered.  Their  translation,  as  Fuller  says,  "needs  to  be 
translated,"  for  their  English  style  is  continually  disfigured 
by  foreign  words.1  Thus — 

Matt,  i,  17,  "transmigration  of  Babylon  ";  vi,  11,  "super- 
substantial  bread  " ;  xvi,  26,  "  what  permutation  "  ;  xxvii,  62, 
"  day  which  is  after  the  parascetie." 

Mark  iii,  6,  "made  a  consultation";  14,  "he  made  that 
twelve  should  be  with  him  "  ;  v,  35,  "  they  come  to  the  arch- 

1  On  the  back  of  the  title-page  of  account  of  his  sufferings  which  he 
the  first  edition  of  the  New  Testa-  endured  in  virtue  of  a  sentence  pro- 
ment  is  printed  the  ecclesiastical  nounced  upon  him  by  the  High  Corn- 
license,  which  is  called  "The  Censure  missioners'  Court,  says,  "the  censure 
and  Approbation.''  Leighton,  in  the  was  to  cut  my  ears,  slit  my  nose,';&c. 


synagogue  " ;  xiv,  27,  "  scandalized  " ;  xv,  46,  "  wrapped  him  in 
the  sindon." 

Luke  i,  6,  "  walking  in  all  the  commaundements  and  justifica 
tions  of  our  Lord  "  ;  67,  "  replenished  with  the  Holy  Ghost  "  ; 
iii.  14,  "  be  content  with  your  stipends  " ;  iv,  40,  "  incontinent 
rising";  ix,  22,  "be  rejected  of  the  ancients";  46,  "  there  entered 
a  cogitation  into  them  "  ;  xiv,  32,  "  sending  a  legacie  "  ;  xii,  11, 
"magistrates  and  potestates";  xx,  26,  "they  could  not  repre 
hend  his  word";  xxii,  7,  "the  day  of  theAzynies  came,  .  .  .  that 
the  pasche should  be  killed";  12,  "a  great  refectorie  adorned"  ; 
18,  "I  will  not  drink  of  the  generation  of  the  vine";  42, 
"  transfer  this  chalice  from  me";  xxiii,  14,  "as  averting  the 
people  " ;  24,  "  adjudged  their  petition  to  be  done." 

John  ii,  11,  "  What  to  me  and  thee  woman  ? "  19,  "  dissolve 
this  temple  "  ;  iii,  20,  "  that  his  works  may  not  be  controuled  " 
(checked  or  censured)  ;  vii,  5,  "  Scenope'gia  was  at  hand  "  ;  xix, 
42,  "  a  new  monument." 

Acts  i,  2,  "  he  was  assumpted  "  ;  xxi,  21,  "  zelatours  " ;  xxii,  3, 
"  an  emulatour  of  the  law  "  ;  xxiii,  14,  "  by  execration  we  have 

Rom.  i,  11,  "  some  spiritual  grace  " ;  30,  "  odible  to  God  "  ;  ii, 
20,  "  of  science  and  of  veritie  " ;  25,  "  if  thou  be  a  prevaricator 
of  the  law,  thy  circumcision  is  become  prepuce  "  ;  iii,  25,  "  hath 
prepared  a  propitiation  "  ;  viii,  18,  "I  think  that  the  passions 
of  this  time  are  not  condigne  to  the  glory  to  come  "  ;  39,  "  from 
the  charitie  of  God  which  is  in  Christ  Jesus  our  Lord";1  xvi,  5, 
"  their  domestical  church." 

1  Cor.  i,  8,  "  who  will  confirme  you  unto  the  end  without 
crime " ;  v,  4,  "  with  the  vesture  of  our  Lord  Jesus " ;  v,  7, 
"  purge  the  old  leaven,  that  ye  may  be  a  new  paste  as  you 
are  Azymes";  vii,  6,  "I  say  this  by  indulgence;"  18,  "let 
him  not  procure  prepuce";  vii,  19,  "prepuce  is  nothing,  but 
the  observation  of  the  commaundements  of  God "  ;  x,  11, 
"written  to  our  conception " ;  13,  "that  you  may  be  able  to 
sustein  "  ;  18,  "  they  that  eat  the  hosts  "  ;  xi,  4,  "  dishonesteth 
his  head  "  ;  xiv,  23,  "vulgar  persons  or  infidels." 

1  It  may  be  noted  that  the  pro-  Lord,  "  our  Lord,"  just  "  as  we  say 
noun  is  always  prefixed  to  the  term  our  lady."  See  note  1  Tim.  vi. 


2  Cor.  iii,  18,  "  with  face  revealed  " ;  iv,  10,  "  bearing  about 
in  our  body  the  mortification  of  Jesus " ;  vi,  6,  "  long- 
animitie";  vii,  1,  "from  all  inquination  of  the  flesh  and  spirit"; 
viii,  19,  "  ordained  ....  fellow  of  our  peregrination  " ;  x,  4, 
"  unto  the  destruction  of  munitions  "  ;  xi,  8,  "  taking  a  stipend  "  ; 
xiii,  3,  "  seek  you  an  experiment  of  him  that  speaketh  in  me, 

Gal.  i,  13,  "  expugned  it";  v,  4,  "evacuated  from  Christ"; 
3,  "  every  man  circumciding  himself";  21,  "  ebrieties,  commessa- 
tions  "  ;l  vi,  1,  "  if  a  man  be  preoccupated  in  any  fault." 

Eph.  i,  9,  "  sacrament  of  his  will "  ;  ii,  2,  "  children  of  diffi 
dence";  19,  "the  domesticals  of  God";  iii,  6,  "  concorporate 
and  comparticipant  "  ;  11,  "  princes  and  potestates  in  the 
celestials";  11,  "  according  to  the  prefinition  of  worlds"  ;  iv,  16, 
"  by  all  juncture  of  subministration  "  ;  30,  "  contristate  not  the 
holy  spirit  of  God  " ;  v,  32,  "  this  is  a  great  sacrament  "  ;  vi,  12, 
"  against  the  rectours  of  the  world,  of  this  darkness  against 
the  spirituals  of  wickednes  in  the  celestials." 

Philip,  ii,  9,  "every  knee  bow  of  the  celestials,  terrestrials, 
and  infernals";  iii,  10,  "the  societie  of  his  passions." 

Col.  i,  18,  "  in  all  things  holding  the  primacy  " ;  27,  "  the 
glory  of  this  sacrament  in  the  Gentiles." 

1  Tim.  i,  7,  "  doctors  of  the  law "  ;   vi,  20,  "  keep  the  de- 

2  Tim.  i,  14,  "  keep  the  good  depositum  "  ;  ii,  4,  "  entangleth 
himself  with  secular  businesses  "  ;  iv,  6,  "  the  time  of  my  resolu 
tion  2  is  at  hand." 

Titus  i,  16,  "  incredulous"  ;  iii,  3,  "  serving  divers  desires  and 
voluptuousnesses  .  .  .  odible." 

Philemon  6,  "  in  the  agnition  of  all  good." 

Heb.  ii,  17,  " repropitiate  the  sins";  iii,  13,  "obdurate  with 
the  fallacie  of  sinne";  v,  9,  "being  consummate";  11,  "great 

1  Strype    relates     that     Cranmer  Crnnmer,  vol.   II,  p.  207,   Oxford, 

sent  visitors  to  All  Souls,  Oxford,  1848. 

because    of    scandalous    reports    of  2  John  Knox  uses  the  same  term, 

"  their  compotations,  ingurgitations,  "  daylie  luiking  for  the  resolution  of 

....    enormous    and     excessive  this  my  tabernakle."    "Works,  VI,  p. 

commessations."        Memorials       of  418,  ed.  David  Laing,  Edin.,  1864. 


speech  and  inexplicable  "  ;  ix,  1,  "  justifications  of  service  "  ;  2, 
"  proposition  of  loaves  "  ;  3,  "  Sancta  Sanctorum  "  ;  28,  "  to  ex 
haust  the  sins  of  many  " ;  xii,  2,  "  sustained  the  cross,  contemn 
ing  confusion  "  ;  xiii,  7,  "your  prelates  "  ;  16,  "  with  such  hostes 
God  is  premerited." 

James  i,  17,  "  with  whom  is  no  transmutation  "  ;  27,  "pupilles 
and  widowes  " ;  ii,  7,  "  the  good  name  that  is  invocated  upon 

1  Peter  i,  2,  "  according  to  the  prescience  of  God  " ;  5,  "  by 
the  vertue  of  God  are  kept"  ;  iii,  20,  "incredulous  sometime"; 
iv,  12,  "  think  it  not  strange  in  the  fervour  which  is  to  you  for 
a  tentation  ";  13,  "  but   communicating  with  the  passions  of 
Christ  " ;  v,  5,  "  insinuate  humilitie  one  to  another." 

2  Peter  i,  3,  "  his  own  proper  glory  and  virtue  "  ;   7,  "  love  of 
the  fraternitie  " ;   ii,  13,  "  coinquinations  and  spots  "  ;  iii,  13, 
"  in  which  justice  inhabiteth." 

1  John  iii,  1,  "  behold  what  manner  of  charitie  the  Father 
hath  given  us  "  ;  iv,  3,  "  every  spirit  that  dissolveth  Jesus  is 
not  of  God  "  ;  1G,  "  God  is  charitie."1 

3  John   9,   "he   that  loveth  to   bear   the  primacy  among 

Jude  i,  4,  "  were  long  ago  prescribed  unto  this  judgment, 

.     .     denying  the  only  Dominator." 

Rev.  i,  10,  "Dominical  day";  ii,  14,  "to  cast  a  scandal 
before";  iii,  17,  "a  miser  and  miserable";  xiv,  11,  "if  any 
man  take  the  character  of  his  name  " ;  xxii,  14,  "  that  wash 
their  stoles"  ;  17,  "let  him  take  the  water  of  life  gratis." 

Some  phrases  are  not  so  cramped  and  narrow  as  those  given,  or 
as  that  which  occurs  in  Romans  xiv,  19,  "Therfore  the  things 
that  are  of  peace  let  vs  pursue  :  and  the  tilings  that  are  of 
edifying  one  toward  an  other  let  vs  keepe."  And  there  are 
some  freer  renderings — Matt,  viii,  29,2  "  What  is  between  us  ?" 

1   "  I  did  ever  allow  the  discretion  differency  and  equivocation   of  the 

and  tenderness  of  the  Ehemish  trans-  word  with  impure  love."  Lord  Bacon, 

lation  on  this  point,  that  finding  in  Pacification  of  the  Church,  Works, 

the  original  the    word  dyaTny,  and  vol.  VII,   p.  81,    ed.  B.   Montague, 

never  epws,  do  ever  translate  'charity'  London,  1827. 

and  never  '  love,'  because  of  the  in-  2  "  Quid  nobis  et  tibi  ? " 


ix,^,1  "have  a  good  heart  "  ;  xxi,  41,2  "he  will  bring  to  naught"; 
Mark  ii,  I,3  "  after  some  days  "  ;  15,4  "  he  sat  at  meat  " ;  Luke 
xviii,  14,5  "  more  than  he  "  ;  John  xii,  2,6  "  them  that  sat  at  the 
table  " ;  G,7  "not  because  he  cared  for  the  poor  "  ;  Acts  ix, II,8 
"Loe,  here  I  am,  Lord";  x,  10,9  "to  take  somewhat";  xvii,  4,10 
"  that  served  God"  ;  5,11  "of  the  rascal  sort." 

They  explain  some  of  the  words  used  in  a  stricter  Latin  or 
Low  Latin  sense :  as  "  calumniate,"  to  use  violent  oppres 
sion,  12  Luke  iii,  14  ;  "contristate,"  to  make  heavy  and 
sad,  Eph.  iv,  30 ;  i,  C,  "  grace  wherein  he  hath  gratified  us, 
made  gracious " ;  "  prevarication "  is  transgression,  as  in 
Rom.  ii,  23;  "  prefmition  "  means  a  determination  before,  as 
in  Eph.  iii,  11. 

There  are  also  not  a  few  familiar  Saxon  phrases  in  the 
version — the  English  instincts  of  the  translators  were  not 
wholly  quenched  or  perverted  : 

Matt,  ix,  24,  "  the  multitude  keeping  a  sturre";  x,  25,  "good- 
man  of  the  house  " ;  xiv,  9,  "  the  king  was  stricken  sad  "  ;  xviii, 
28,  "  throttled  him  "  ;  xx,  1,  "  work  man  "  ;  xxi,  44, "  it  shal  al 
to  bruise  him  "  ;  xxv,  27,  "  bankers  " ;  xxvii,  5,  "hanged  himself 
with  an  halter." 

Mark  v,  36,  "  saith  to  the  Archsynagogue  "  ;  3.9,  "  why  make 
you  this  a  doe  ?  the  wench  is  not  dead  "  ;  41,  "  where  the 
wench  was  lying  "  ;  ix,  7,  "  this  is  my  son  most  dear." 

Luke  i,  65,  "  these  things  were  bruited  over  all  the  hill 
countrie  "  ;  ii,  3,  "  all  want  to  be  enrolled  "  ;  44,  "  kinsfolk 
and  acquaintance  "  ;  viii,  22,  "  let  us  strike  over  the  lake  " ;  33, 
"  the  herd  .  .  .  was  stifled  "  ;  35,  "  well  in  his  wits  " ;  xi, 
25,  "  swept  with  a  besom  and  trimmed " ;  xiii,  34,  "  as  the 
bird  doth  her  brood  "  ;  xv,  8,  "  what  woman  having  ten  grotes 

1  "  Confide."  8  "  Ecce  ego,  Domine." 

2  "  Male  perdet."  9  "  Gustare." 

3  "  Post  dies."  ]0  "  Colentibus." 

4  "  Accumberet."  »  "  De  Vulgo." 

5  "  Ab  illo."  13  On  "  calumniate  "  in  this  sense 

6  "  Discumbentibus/'  see  the  remarks  of  Cardinal  Wise- 

7  "  Non  quia  de  egeuis  pevtinebat     man,  Works,  vol.  I,  p.  86. 
ad  eum." 


if  she  leese  one  grote";  xvi,  2,  "  bailiffe"  ;  4,  "  bailieship  "  ;  9, 
"  when  you  fail"  ;  xviii,  2,  "feared  not  God  and -of  man  made 
no  account "  ;  xx,  18,  "  every  one  that  falleth  upon  this  stone 
shall  be  quashed,  and  upon  whom  it  shall  fall,  it  shall  break 
him  to  powder." 

John  iv,  5,  "beside  the  maner  that  Jacob  gave  to  his  sonne"  ; 
viii,  44,  "  a  mankiller  from  the  beginning." 

Acts  ii,  30,  "  sit  upon  his  seat  "  ;  v,  7,  "  not  knowing  what 
was  chaunced  " ;  viii,  2,  "  took  order  for  Steven's  funeral "  ; 
xvii,  18,  "  this  wordsower." 

1  Cor.   viii,  1,  "  knowledge  puffeth  up,"  after  the  Genevan 
of  1560 ;  xiv,  35,  "  it  is  a  foul  thing  for  a  woman  to  speak 
in  the  church " ;  xv,   54,  "  this  mortal  hath  done  on  immor- 

2  Cor.  v,  4,  "  overclothed  "  ;   xii,  20,   "  stomakings." 
Col.  iii,  10,   "  doing  on  the  new  [man]." 

1  Thes.  iv,  6,  "  that  110  man  ouergoe     .     .      .     his  brother." 

2  Tim.  iii,  13,  "erring  and  driving  into  error." 

Heb.  xii,  12,  "  stretche  up  the  slacked  handes";  16,  "  for 
one  dish  of  meat  sold  his  first-birth-rightes." 

1  Peter  ii,  12,  "misreport  of  you";  iii,  3,  "whose  trimming." 

2  Peter  ii,  4,  "  with  the  ropes  of  Hell  being  drawn  down  into 
Hell  "  ;  iii,  8,  "  my  dearest." 

Rev.  ii,  17,  "  a  white  counter." 

But  the  Rhemist  translators,  though  they  make  no  mention 
of  previous  translations,  kept  before  them  both  the  Genevan  and 
the  Bishops',  and  have  supplied  not  a  few  good  renderings 
which  were  thankfully  accepted  by  the  revisers  of  King 
James.  They  have  enriched  the  vocabulary  of  the  Autho 
rized  Version.  From  them  came  "  hymn  "  in  Matt,  xxvi,  30  ; 
and  "  blessed"  in  26  ;  "  decease  "  in  Luke  ix,  31 ;  "  reprobate," 
Rom.  i,  28  ;  "  impenitent,"  ii,  5  ;  "  commendeth,"  v,  8 ;  and 
in  the  Epistle  of  James  i,  5,  "  upbraideth  not  "  ;  5,  "  nothing- 
doubting,"  "the  engrafted  word";  21,  " bridleth his  tongue,"  the 
previous  versions  having  "refraineth";  "  unction,"  1  John  ii ;  and 
the  word  "  mystery,"  "  at  his  own  charges,"  1  Cor.  ix,  7 ; 
"  contemptible,"  2  Cor.  x,  10 ;  2  Tim.  iii,  6,  "  silly  "—the 
Bishops'  having  "  simple  "  in  brackets  (mulierculas).  They 


have  given  us  "  confess "  for  "  knowledge,"  "  propitia 
tion,"  "  seduce,"  "  have  confidence,"  "  stumbling,"  and  "  under 
standing  " — all  these  in  the  first  Epistle  of  John,  and  all  directly 
from  the  Vulgate.  Such  Latin  terms  as  '*  lucre,"  "  superflui- 
tie,"  "  concupiscence,"  "tradition,"  "tribulation,"  "  salute,"  &c., 
were  in  the  older  versions.  They  have  also  a  special  merit  in 
preserving  uniformity  of  rendering — the  want  of  which  is  a 
peculiar  and  pervading  blemish  in  the  Authorized  Version. 
Many  examples  will  afterwards  be  adduced  under  the  head  of 
Revision.  When  Gregory  Martin  remarked  on  the  absence  of 
uniformity,  Fulke  says  little  more  in  reply  than  this :  "  For 
my  part  I  was  never  of  counsel  with  any  that  translated  the 
Scriptures  into  English,  and  therefore  it  is  possible  that  I 
cannot  sufficiently  express  what  moved  the  translators  so  to 
vary  in  the  exposition  of  one  and  the  same  word."  l  So 
closely  do  the  Rhemists  adhere  to  their  text  that,  as  they  say 
themselves,  they  do  not  in  the  titles  to  the  Gospels  call  the 
evangelists,  St.  Matthew,  St.  Mark,  &c.,  though  they  do  so 
"  on  the  tops  of  the  leaves  following  to  satisfie  the  reader." 
Had  these  scholarly  Englishmen  not  been  warped  by  their 
ecclesiastical  prejudices,  they  would  have  issued  a  translation 
of  the  Vulgate  greatly  more  exact  and  felicitous  than  any  of 
those  which  their  predecessors  had  given  of  the  Greek  text. 
The  Rheims  New  Testament  was  once  appealed  to  and  re 
jected  in  very  tragic  circumstances.  On  the  evening  before 
her  execution  in  Fotheringay  Castle,  the  unfortunate  Queen  of 
Scots,  laying  her  hand  solemnly  on  a  copy  that  happened  to  be 
on  her  work  table,  took  a  solemn  oath  of  innocence,  when  the 
Earl  of  Kent  at  once  interposed  that  the  book  on  which  she 
had  sworn  was  false,  and  that  her  oath  was  therefore  of  no 
value.  Her  answer  was  prompt  and  decided — "  Does  your 
lordship  suppose  that  my  oath  would  be  better,  if  I  swore  on 
your  translation  in  which  I  do  not  believe  ?  " 

1  Defence,  p.  89.  Douairiere  cle  France,"  reprinted  in 

2  La  Mort  de  la  Beyne  d'Escosse,    Jebb's  Collection,  vol.  IT,  p.  616. 


HHHE  Old  Testament  was  at  length  published  at  Douai  in 


"  The  Holie  Bible  Faithfully  Translated  into  English  out  of 
The  Avthentical  Latin.  Diligently  conferred  with  the  Hebrew, 
Greeke,  and  other  Editions  in  diners  languages.  With  Argv- 
msnts  of  the  Bookes,  and  Chapters  :  Annotations:  Tables:  and 
other  helpes,  for  better  vnderstanding  of  the  text  ;  for  dis- 
coverie  of  Corruptions  in  some  latter  translations :  and  for 
clearing  controuersies  in  Religion.  By  the  English  College 
of  Do  way.  Spiritu  Sancto  inspirati,  locuti  sunt  sancti 
Dei  homines.  2  Pet.  i.  The  holie  men  of  God  spake, 
inspired  with  the  Holy  Ghost.  Printed  at  Doway  by 
Lawrence  Kellam,  at  the  signe  of  the  holie  Lambe. 
M.D.C.X."  Two  volumes.  This  Bible  has  neither  maps  nor 
plates.  A  brief  address  on  the  last  page  says :  "  We  have 
already  found  some  faults  escaped,  but  fearing  there  be 
more,  and  the  whole  volume  being  ere  long  to  be  examined 
again,  we  pray  the  courteous  reader  to  pardon  all  and  amend 
them  as  they  occur."  After  the  second  book  of  Maccabees  it  is 
stated:  "The  prayer  of  Manasses,  with  the  second  and  third 
books  of  Esdras,  extant  in  most  Latin  and  Vulgare  Bibles,  are 
here  placed  after  al  the  Canonical  books  of  the  old  Testament : 
because, they  are  not  received  into  the  canon  of  Diuine  Scrip 
tures  by  the  Catholique  Church."  The  translation  had  been 
prepared  many  years  previously,  even  before  the  appearance 
of  the  New  Testament,  but  it  was  not  published  "  for  lack  of 
good  meanes,"  and,  as  is  confessed,  "  our  poor  estate  in  banish 
ment."  It  had  also  been  finished  before  corrected  editions  of 


the  Vulgate  were  published  under  Pope  Sixtus  V  (1590)  and 
Pope  Clement  VIII  (1592),  and  therefore  it  was  again  conferred 
before  publication  "  and  conformed  to  the  most  perfect  Latin 
edition."  The  translators  refer  incidentally  to  our  Authorized 
Bible  "  as  a  new  edition  which  we  have  not  yet  seen."  In  the 
address  "to  the  right  well-beloved  English  reader"  topics 
akin  to  those  discussed  in  the  preface  to  the  New  Testament 
are  briefly  referred  to.  The  Annotations  and  Tables  were 
prepared  by  Dr.  Thomas  Worthingtoii,  elected  president  of 
the  college  in  1599,  but  he  resigned  office  to  Kellison  in 
1G13,  and  died  an  Oratorian  in  1626.  The  notes  are  not  so 
numerous  as  those  in  the  New  Testament,  with  the  exception 
of  Genesis  and  Psalms.  A  few  sentences  of  the  address  pre 
fixed  to  the  Old  Testament  are  subjoined,  since,  as  in  the  case 
of  the  preface  to  the  Rheiins  New  Testament,  it  has  fallen  out 
of  view. 

"  To  the  right  wel  beloved  English  reader  grace  and  glory 
in  lesvs  Christ  Everlasting.  At  last  through  Gods  goodness 
(most  dearely  beloued)  we  send  you  here  the  greater  part  of  the 
Old  Testament,  as  long  since  you  receiued  the  New,  faithfully 
translated  into  English.  The  residue  is  in  hand  to  be  finished : 
and  your  desire  thereof  shal  not  now  (God  prospering  our  in 
tention)  be  long  frustrate.  As  for  the  impediments,  which 
hitherto  haue  hindered  this  worke  they  al  proceeded  (as  many 
doe  know)  of  one  general  cause,  our  poore  estate  in  banish 
ment.  Wherein  expecting  better  meanes,  greater  difficulties 
rather  ensued.  Neuertheles  you  wil  hereby  the  more  perceiue 
our  feruent  good  wil,  euer  to  serue  you,  in  that  we  haue 
brought  forth  this  Tome,  in  the  hardest  times,  of  aboue  fourty 
yeares,  since  this  College  was  most  happily  begun.  Wherefore 
we  nothing  doubt,  but  you  our  dearest,  for  whom  we  haue 
dedicated  our  Hues,  wil  both  pardon  the  long  delay,  which  we 
could  not  preuent,  and  accept  now  this  fruit  of  our  labours, 
with  like  good  affection,  as  we  acknowledge  them  due,  and 
offer  the  same  vnto  you.  .  . 

"  But  here  another  question  may  be  proposed :  Why 
we  translate  the  Latin  text,  rather  then  the  Hebrew,  or 
Greeke,  which  Protestants  preferre  as  the  fountaine  tongs, 


wherin  holie  Scriptures  were  first  written  ?  To  this  we 
answer  that  if  indeed  those  first  pure  Editions  were  now 
extant,  or  if  such  as  be  extant  were  more  pure  then  the  Latin, 
we  would  also  preferre  such  fountaines  before  the  riuers,  in 
whatsoeuer  they  should  be  found  to  disagree.  But  the  ancient 
best  learned  Fathers  and  Doctours  of  the  Church,  doe  much  com- 
plaine,  and  testifie  to  vs,  that  both  the  Hebrew  and  Greeke 
Editions  are  fouly  corrupted  by  lewes,  and  Heretikes,  since 
the  Latin  was  truly  translated  out  of  them,  whiles  they  were 
more  pure  ;  and  that  the  same  Latin  hath  been  farre  better 
conserued  from  corruptions.  So  that  the  old  Vulgate 
Latin  Edition  hath  been  preferred  and  vsed  for  most 
authentical  aboue  a  thousand  and  three  hundred  yeares. 

.  .  .  Neither  doe  wTe  fly  vnto  this  old  Latin  text  for 
more  aduantage :  For  besides  that  it  is  free  from  partiality, 
as  being  most  ancient  of  al  Latin  copies,  and  long  before  the 
particular  Controuersies  of  these  dayes  began,  the  Hebrew  also 
and  the  Greek  when  they  are  truly  translated,  yea  and  Eras 
mus  his  Latin,  in  sundry  places  proue  more  plainly  the 
Catholike  Roman  doctrine,  then  this  which  we  rely  vpon. 
So  that  Beza  and  his  followers  take  also  exception  against 
the  Greeke,  when  Catholikes  alledge  it  against  them.  Yea  the 
same  Beza  preferreth  the  old  Latin  Version  before  al  others 
and  freely  testifieth,  that  the  old  Interpreter  translated 
religiously.  What  then  doe  our  countrimen,  that  refuse  this 
Latin,  but  depriue  themselues  of  the  best,  and  yet  al  this 
while,  haue  set  forth  none,  that  is  allowed  by  al  Protestants 
for  good  or  sufficient  ? 

"How  wel  this  is  done  the  learned  may  iudge,  when  by  mature 
conference  they  shal  haue  made  trial  thereof.  And  if  any  thing 
be  mistaken,  we  will  (as  stil  we  promise)  gladly  correct  it.  Those 
that  translated  it  about  thirty  yeares  since,  were  wel  knowen 
to  the  world,  to  haue  been  excellent  in  the  tongs,  sincere  men, 
and  great  Diuines.  Only  one  thing  we  haue  done  tovching 
the  text,  whereof  we  are  especially  to  giue  notice  :  That 
whereas  heretofore  in  the  best  Latin  Editions  there  remained 
many  places  differing  in  words,  some  also  in  sense,  as  in  long 
process  of  time  the  writers  erred  in  their  copies,  now  lately  by 


the  care  and  diligence  of  the  Church,  those  diuers  readings 
were  maturely  and  iudiciously  examined  and  conferred  with 
sundry  the  best  written  and  printed  books,  and  so  resolued 
vpon,  that  al  which  before  were  left  in  the  margent,  are 
either  restored  into  the  text,  or  els  omitted  ;  so  that  now  none 
such  remain  in  the  margent.  For  which  cause  we  have  againe 
conferred  this  English  translation,  and  conformed  it  to  the 
most  perfect  Latin  Edition.  Where  yet  by  the  way  we  must 
giue  the  vulgar  reader  to  vnderstand,  that  very  few  or  none 
of  the  former  varieties  touched  Controuersies  of  this  time.  So 
that  this  recognition  is  no  way  suspicious  of  partiality,  but 
is  meerly  done  for  the  more  secure  conseruation  of  the  true 
text,  and  more  ease  and  satisfaction  of  such,  as  otherwise 
should  haue  remained  more  doubtful. 

"  Now  for  the  strictness  obserued  in  translating  some  words, 
or  rather  the  not  translating  of  some,  which  is  in  more 
danger  to  be  disliked,  we  doubt  not  but  the  discrete  learned 
reader,  deeply  weighing  and  considering  the  importance  of 
sacred  words,  and  how  easily  the  translatour  may  misse  the 
sense  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  wil  hold  that  which  is  here  done 
for  reasonable  and  necessary.  We  have  also  the  example  of 
the  Latin  and  Greek,  where  some  words  are  not  translated, 
but  left  in  Hebrew,  as  they  were  first  spoken  and  written  ; 
which  seeing  they  could  not,  or  were  not  conuenient  to  be 
translated  into  Latin  or  Greeke,  how  much  lesse  could  they 
or  was  it  reason  to  turne  them  into  English  ?  S.  Augustin 
also  yieldeth  to  a  reason,  exemplifying  in  the  words  '  amen  ' 
and  '  alleluia,  for  the  more  sacred  authoritie  thereof/  which 
doubtless  is  the  cause  why  some  'names  of  solemne  feasts,  sacri 
fices,'  and  other  holie  things  are  '  reserued  in  sacred  tongs,' 
Hebrew,  Greeke,  or  Latin.  Againe  for  necessitie,  English  not 
hauing  a  name  or  sufficient  terrne,  we  either  keep  the  word  as 
we  find  it,  or  only  turne  it  to  our  English  termination,  because 
it  would  otherwise  require  manie  words  in  English  to  signifie 
one  word  of  another  tongue.  In  which  cases,  we  commonly 
put  the  explication  in  the  margent.  Briefly  our  Apologie  is 
easie  against  English  Protestants ;  because  they  also  reserue 
some  words  in  the  original  tongues,  not  translated  into  English, 


as  '  Sabbath,  Ephod,  Pentecost,  Proselyte,'  and  some  others. 

.  .  .  It  more  importeth,  that  nothing  be  wittingly  and 
falsly  translated  for  aduantage  of  doctrine  in  matter  of  faith. 
Wherein  as  we  dare  boldly  auouch  the  sinceritie  of  this  Trans 
lation,  and  that  nothing  is  here  either  vntruly  or  obscurely 
done  of  purpose,  in  fauour  of  Catholike  Roman  Religion,  so  we 
can  not  but  complaine,  and  challenge  English  Protestants  for 
corrupting  the  text,  contrarie  to  the  Hebrew  and  Greeke,  which 
they  profess  to  translate  for  the  more  shew  and  maintening  of 
their  peculiar  opinions  against  Catholikes :  As  is  proued  in  the 
'  Discouerie  of  manifold  corruptions.'  .  .  . 

"  With  this  then  we  wil  conclude  most  deare  (we  speake  to 
you  al,  that  vnderstand  our  tongue,  whether  you  be  of  con 
trarie  opinions  in  faith,  or  of  mundane  feare  participate  with 
an  other  Congregation,  or  professe  with  vs  the  same  Catholike 
Religion)  to  you  al  we  present  this  worke :  daily  beseeching 
God  Almiffhtie.  the  Diuine  Wisedom,  Eternal  Goodnes.  to 

O  ' 

create,  illuminate,  and  replenish  your  spirits,  with  his  Grace, 
that  you  may  attaine  eternal  Glorie,  euery  one  in  his  measure, 
in  those  many  Mansions,  prepared  and  promised  by  our 
Sauiour  in  his  Fathers  house.  Not  only  to  those  which  first 
received  and  followed  his  Diuine  doctrine,  but  to  all  that 
should  afterwards  belieue  in  him,  and  keep  the  same  precepts. 

"  From  the  English  College  in  Do  way,  the  Octaues  of  Al 
Saints.  1609.  '  The  God  of  patience  and  comfort  give  you 
to  be  of  one  mind,  one  towards  an  other  in  lesvs  Christ  ;  that 
of  one  mind,  with  one  mouth  you  may  glorifie  God.'  " 

Latinized  English  in  imitation  of  the  Vulgate,  pervades 
this  Old  Testament  as  fully  as  it  does  the  New  Testament, 
and  there  are  renderings  so  obscure  as  to  be  nearly  unin 
telligible.  A  few  examples  may  be  given  from  the  earlier 
Psalms.  The  Psalter,  however,  had  been  sadly  trifled  with. 
Originally  the  Latin  psalter  was  a  translation  not  from  Hebrew 
but  from  Greek,  and  that  translation  from  Greek  being  cursorily 
revised  by  Jerome,  at  the  request  of  Pope  Damasus,  became  the 
Roman  psalter,  and  a  second  and  more  thorough  revision,  under 
taken  at  the  request  of  Paula  and  Eustochium,  and  made  by 
the  help  of  Origen's  Hexaplar  text,  became  the  Gallican  psalter. 


These  revisions  are  very  different  in  merit  from  Jerome's  own 
direct  translation  of  the  original  Hebrew,  which,  however,  was 
not  allowed  to  find  a  place  in  the  Vulgate,  much  in  the  same  way 
as  the  Psalms  of  the  Great  Bible  keep  their  position  still  in  the 
Book  of  Common  Prayer.  Many  of  the  extraordinary  render 
ings  are  in  this  way  accounted  for.1  The  following  are  speci 
mens  ;  and  to  facilitate  comparison  on  the  part  of  those  who 
have  not  a  Douai  Bible  at  hand,  the  notation  of  chapters  and 
verse  is  given  not  according  to  it,  but  according  to  our  common 
version.  After  the  ninth  Psalm,  the  notation  of  Psalms  differs 
by  one  in  the  Douai  version,  but  coalesces  again  at  Psalm 
cxlvii,  and  the  title  of  the  psalm  is  usually  reckoned  the  first 
verse  of  it. 

Psalms  ii,  12,  "apprehend  discipline  ";  iv,  6,  "the  light  of 
thy  countenance,  O  Lord,  is  signed  upon  us  " ;  viii,  5,  "  thou  hast 
minished  him  a  little  less  than  angels  " ;  xvi,  3,  "  he  hath  made 
all  my  willes  mervelous  in  them"  ;  11,  "  delectations  on  thy 
right  hand"  ;  xvii,  5,  "perfite  my  passes  in  thy  pathes  "  ;  14, 
"  their  belly  is  filled  of  thy  secrets  "  ;  xviii,  45,  "the  children  of 
aliens  are  inueterated  "  ;  xxiii,  5,  "  thou  hast  fatted  my  head 
with  oil,  and  my  chalice  inebriating  how  goodlie  is  it "  ;  6,  "  in 
longitude  of  days  " ;  xxxv,  1,  "  overthrow  them  that  impugne 
me  "  ;  1C,  "  they  were  dissipated  and  not  compunct  " ;  xxxviii, 
8,  "my  loins  are  filled  with  illusions";  xxxix,  12,  "  I  have 
fainted  in  reprehensions";  xlvii,  9,  "strong  gods  of  the  earth  are 
exceedingly  advanced"  ;  xl,  12,  "there  was  no  multitude  in  the 
exchanges  of  them  "  ;  Ixiv,  7,  "children's  arrows  are  made  their 
wounds";  Ixv,  11,  "  inebriate  her  rivers;  in  her  dropps  she  shall 
rejoice  springing" ;  14,  "  which  did  take  sweet  meats  together 
with  me  "  ;  Ivi,  14,  "  from  the  height  of  the  day  I  shall  fear  "  ; 
Ixviii,  10,  "voluntarie  rayne  shalt  thou  seperate " ;  16,  "amoun- 
tane  crudded  as  cheese, a  fatte  mountane";  27,"Benjamin,ayoung 
man  in  excess  of  mind  " ;  Ixxii,  16,  "  there  shall  be  a  firmament 
in  the  earth,  in  the  tops  of  the  mountains " ;  Ixxvi,  10,  "  the 
cogitation  of  man  shall  confess  to  thee,  and  the  remains  of  the 
cogitation  shall  keep  festival  day  to  thee "  ;  Ixxxvi,  6,  "  our 
Lord  will  declare  in  Scriptures  of  peoples." 

1  Kaulen,  Geschichte  cler  Vulgata,  Mainz,  1868. 



Isaiah  xiii,  22,  "  and  the  Syrach  owls  shall  answer,  and  mer 
maids  in  the  temples  of  pleasure." 

There  are  swarms  of  other  instances  : — 

Numbers  xx,  24,  "  he  was  incredulous  to  my  mouth  " ;  26, 
"  and  when  thou  hast  unvested  the  father  of  his  vesture,  thou 
shalt  revest  therewith  Eleazar  his  son." 

Deut.  xvi,  2,  "  thou  shalt  immolate  the  Phase  to  our  Lord 
thy  God";  xvii,  18,  "he  shall  copie  to  himselfe  the  Deuterono- 
mie  of  this  law  "  ;  xxvii,  7,  "  thou  shalt  immolate  pacifique 
hostes  "  ;  xxxiii,  14,  "  of  the  pomes  of  the  fruits  of  the  sunne 
and  moone." 

Idiomatic  and  pithy  renderings  are,  however,  to  be 
found — 

Gen.  ii,  22,  "  built  the  rib  into  a  woman  " ;  v,  24,  "  Enoch 
was  seen  no  more  "  ;  vii,  24,  "  the  waters  held  on  above  the 
earth  an  150  days." 

Exod.  iii,  14,  "  I  am  which  am." 

Num.  xx,  19,  "  we  will  go  by  the  beaten  way." 

Judges  viii,  34,  " called  his  esquire  "  ;  xix,  17,  "saw  the  man 
sitting  with  his  fardels." 

Job  viii,  12,  "or  a  seggie  place  grow  without  water?"  ix,  17, 
"  in  a  hurle  wind  shal  he  break  me  " ;  xii,  18,  "  he  looseth  the 
belt  of  kings  ";  xv,  27,  "fatnes  hath  covered  his  face,  and  from 
his  sides  there  hangeth  tallow  " ;  xl,  13,  "  his  bones  are  as  pipes 
of  brass  "  ;  xli,  15,  "compact  as  the  smith's  stithie." 

Psalms  Ixvi,  15,  "  oxen  with  bucke  goats  "  ;  Ixvii,  4,  "  let  the 
just  make  merrie  ";  Ixviii,  11,  "our  Lord  shall  give  the  word 
to  them  that  evangelize  with  great  power  " — power,  as  the 
Hebrew  shows,  meaning  host  or  army — but  the  Rhemists  took 
it  as  signifying  "  ability  to  work  miracles." 

Isaiah  liii,  5,  "  with  the  waile  of  his  stripe  we  are  healed." 

Jerem.  viii,  22,  "  is  there  noe  rosen  in  Galaad  ?  " 

Amos  ii,  13,  "behold  I  will  screake  under  you  as  a  wayne 
screaketh  loden  with  hay." 

The  note  to  Psalm  xlvi,  3,  is  "  Therefore  all  Catholics  may 
assuredly  know  that  the  whole  church  cannot  fail,  though 
very  many  as  now  in  England  and  very  eminent  persons, 
as  some  noblemen  and  some  priests,  have  revolted." 


There  are  some  translations  beyond  common  comprehension, 
but  so  are  the  common  Latin  text  and  the  Greek  version 
which  it  represents  : — 

2  Chron.  i,  13,  "  King  Solomon  came  from  the  excelse  of 
Gabaon  " ;  xxxiii,  3,  "  he  reedified  the  excelses  "  ;  6,  "  through 
fire  to  the  Valebennom." 

Job  ix,  13,  "  under  whom  they  stoop  that  carry  the  world  "  ; 
xxi,  33,  "  he  hath  been  sweet  to  the  gravel  of  Cocytus "  ; 
xxvi,  13,  "his  spirit  has  adorned  the  heavens,  and  his  hand 
being  the  midwife"  ;  xxxiv,  18,  "  Apostata,  that  calleth  dukes 

Psalms  1,  5,  "his  saints,  .  .  .  which  ordaine  his  testa 
ment  above  sacrifices " ;  Iviii,  10,  "  before  your  thorns  did 
understand  the  old  briar "  ;  xc,  9,  "  our  years  shall  be  con 
sidered  as  a  spyder.  .  .  .  because  mildness  is  come  upon 
us,  and  we  shall  be  chastised " ;  xci,  6,  "  thou  shalt  not  be 
afraid  of  business  walking  in  darkness,  of  invasion  and  the 
midday  devil " — all  according  to  the  Yulgate. 

Many  verses  in  the  Psalter,  singly  or  in  groups,  have  a  com 
ment  after  them,  and  at  Psalm  liv,  3,  we  read,  "  barbarous 
highland  men  have  betrayed  the  place." 

A  revision  of  the  Psalms  (Psalms  of  David  translated 
from  the  Vulgate,  1700)  was  made  by  John  Caryl,  secretary 
at  St,  Germains  to  the  queen  of  James  II;  and  the  volume 
has  the  approbation  of  Dr.  Betham,  serenissimi  principis 
Walliae  Preceptor — that  is,  tutor  to  the  Pretender.  The 
reason  and  nature  of  his  work  are  thus  given  by  him : — 
"  So  it  is  that  in  some  places  the  Latine  Text  of  the  Psalms 
rigorously  translated  word  by  word  would  yeeld  a  scarse  in 
telligible  sense  in  the  language  into  which  it  is  translated :  and 
wher  that  happens,  it  seems  reasonable  that  such  a  latitude  and 
liberty  should  be  allow'd  as  is  necessary  to  make  the  sense  of 
the  Text,  as  it  is  generally  understood  by  the  most  approv'd 
authors,  intelligible  to  the  reader,  especially  in  a  Translation 
intended  only  for  the  privat  devotions  of  Lay  persons." 

The  theological  notes  of  the  entire  version — Old  and  New 
Testament — are  Romish  without  disguise  : — 

Matt,  xxv,  "  Heaven  is  the  reward  of  good  works." 


2  Tim.  iv,  "  The  parable  also  of  the  men  sent  into  the  vine 
yard  proveth  that  heaven  is  our  own  right,  bargained  for  and 
wrought  for,  and  accordingly  paid  unto  us  as  our  hire  at  the 
day  of  judgment." 

Heb.  x,  21,  "  Adoration  may  be  done  to  creatures  or  to  God  at 
and  before  a  creature,"  the  rendering  in  the  text  being,  "adored 
the  top  of  his  rod." 

Luke  xi,  "  Alms  extinguish  sin — they  deliver  from  death  "  -r 
xii,  21,  "  By  goods  bestowed  upon  the  poor,  he  hath  store  of 
merit,  many  alms-men's  prayers  procuring  mercy  for  him  at 
the  day  of  his  death  " ;  xvi,  28,  "  If  the  damned  had  care  of 
their  friends  .  .  .  much  more  have  the  saints  and  saved 
persons.  And  if  those  in  hell  have  means  to  express  their 
cogitations  and  desires,  and  be  understood  by  Abraham,  much 
rather  may  the  living  pray  to  the  saints,  and  be  heard  of  them." 

Rev.  vi,  "  Saints  be  present  at  their  tombs  and  reliques  "  -f 
xvii,  "  putting  heretics  to  death  is  not  to  shed  the  blood  of  the 
saints  " ;  "  Heresy  and  apostacy  from  the  Catholic  faith  punish 
able  by  death."  The  woman  touching  the  hem  of  Christ's, 
garment  is  held  out  as  a  warrant  for  the  "  devout  touching  of 
holy  relikes,"  Mark  v.  The  note  to  Matt,  vi,  24,  explains  the 
"  two  masters  "  to  be  God  and  Baal,  Christ  and  Calvin,  Masse 
and  Communion,  &c. 

There  is  appended  to  the  New  Testament  a  list  of  fifty-five 
words  "  not  familiar  to  the  vulgar  reader,"  but  many  of  them 
are  now  in  common  use,  as  abstracted,  acquisition,  adulterate, 
advent,  allegory,  calumniate,  catechize,  condign,  evangelize^ 
eunuch,  holocaust,  gratis,  invocate,  issue,  prescience,  resuscitate, 
victims.  Some  of  the  other  terms  have  not  become  familiar 
as,  assist  in  a  sacerdotal  sense  ;  assumption  for  Christ's  ascen 
sion,  dominical,  donary,  gratified  meaning  made  gracious,  hosts- 
for  sacrifices.  There  are  other  Latin  terms  in  the  list  which 
have  occurred  in  the  specimens  already  given,  and  these  have 
not  been  naturalized.  To  prove  that  St.  Peter  was  in  Rome,, 
they  hold  that  by  Babylon,  in  his  first  Epistle,  v,  13,  is  meant 
the  Italian  capital,  and  they  shut  their  eyes  to  the  consequences 
of  such  an  interpretation.  But  they  notify  that  Protestants, 
und  Calvinists  are  the  forerunners  of  Antichrist. 

VOL.  II.  K 


How  this  Catholic  Bible,  with  its  version  and  its  notes, 
struck  shrewd  and  hostile  observers,  may  be  seen  in  these  sen 
tences  of  Fulke's  Dedication  of  his  Defence  to  the  Queen: 
"Among  the  inestimable  benefits,  wherewith  Almighty  God 
hath  wonderfully  blessed  this  your  majesty's  most  honourable 
and  prosperous  government,  it  is  not  to  be  numbered  among 
the  least,  that  under  your  most  gracious  and  Christian  pro 
tection  the  people  of  your  highness'  dominions  have  enjoyed 
the  most  necessary  and  comfortable  reading  of  the  holy  scrip 
tures  in  their  mother  tongue  and  native  language.  Which 
exercise,  although  it  hath  of  long  time,  by  the  adversaries  of 
him  that  willeth  the  scriptures  to  be  searched  (especially  those 
of  our  nation)  been  accounted  little  better  than  an  heretical 
practice  ;  and  treatises  have  been  written,  pretending  to  shew 
great  inconvenience  of  having  the  holy  scriptures  in  the  vulgar 
tongue ;  yet  now  at  length  perceiving  they  cannot  prevail  to 
bring  in  that  darkness  and  ignorance  of  God's  most  sacred 
word  and  will  therein  contained,  whereby  their  blind  devotion, 
the  daughter  of  ignorance,  as  they  themselves  profess,  was 
wont  to  make  them  rulers  of  the  world,  they  also  at  the  last 
are  become  translators  of  the  New  Testament  into  English. 
In  which,  that  I  speak  nothing  of  their  insincere  purpose,  in 
leaving  the  pure  fountain  of  the  original  verity,  to  follow  the 
crooked  stream  of  their  barbarous  vulgar  Latin  translation, 
which  (beside  all  other  manifest  corruptions)  is  found  defective 
in  more  than  an  hundred  places,  as  your  majesty,  according  to 
the  excellent  knowledge  in  both  the  tongues  wherewith  God 
hath  blessed  you,  is  very  well  able  to  judge ;  and  to  omit  even 
the  same  book  of  their  translation,  pestered  with  so  many 
annotations,  both  false  and  undutiful,  by  which,  under  colour 
of  the  authority  of  holy  scriptures,  they  seek  to  infect  the 
minds  of  the  credulous  readers  with  heretical  and  superstitious 
opinions,  and  to  alienate  their  hearts  from  yielding  due 
obedience  to  your  majesty  and  your  most  Christian  laws  con 
cerning  true  religion  established ;  and  that  I  may  pass  over  the 
very  text  of  their  translation,  obscured  without  any  necessary 
or  just  cause  with  such  a  multitude  of  so  strange  and  unusual 
terms,  as  to  the  ignorant  are  no  less  difficult  to  understand 


than  the  Latin  or  Greek  itself:  yet  is  it  not  meet  to  be  con 
cealed,  that  they  which  neither  truly  nor  precisely  have  trans 
lated  their  own  vulgar  Latin  and  only  authentical  text,  have 
nevertheless  been  bold  to  set  forth  a  several  treatise,  in  which 
most  slanderously  and  unjustly  they  accuse  all  our  English 
translations  of  the  Bible,  not  of  small  imperfections  and  over 
sights  committed  through  ignorance  or  negligence,  but  of  no 
less  than  most  foul  dealing  in  partial  and  false  translations, 
wilful  and  heretical  corruptions." 

On  the  other  hand,  Gregory  Martin  attacked  the  rendering 
of  the  proper  names  in  the  English  version  in  these  terms  :— 

"  Of  one  thing  we  can  by  no  means  excuse  you,  but  it  must 
savour  vanity,  or  novelty,  or  both.  As  when  you  affect  new 
strange  words,  which  the  people  are  not  acquainted  withal, 
but  it  is  rather  Hebrew  to  them  than  English.  '  Against  him 
came  up  Nabuchadnezzar,  king  of  Babel,'  2  Par.  xxxvi.  6,  for 
'  Nabuchodonosor,  king  of  the  Chaldees ' ;  '  Saneherib,'  for 
'  Sennacherib ' ;  '  Michaiah's  prophecy,'  for  '  Michaea's  ' ; 
'  Jehoshaphat's  prayer,'  for  '  Josaphat's  ' ;  '  Uzza  slain,'  for 
'Oza';  'when  Zerubbabel  went  about  to  build  the  temple,'  for 
'  Zorobabel ' ;  '  remember  what  the  Lord  did  to  Miriam/  for 
'  Marie,'  Deut.  xxxiv. :  and  in  your  first  translation,  '  Elisa,' 
for  '  Elisseus ' ;  '  Pek-ihia  '  and  '  Pekah,'  for  '  Phaceia  '  and 
'Phacee';  'Uziahu,'  for  'Ozias';  '  Thiglath-peleser,'  for 
'  Teglath-phalasar ' ;  '  Ahaziahu,'  for  '  Ochozias ' ;  '  Peka,  the 
son  of  Remalialm,'  for  '  Phacee,  the  son  of  Romelia.'  And 
why  say  you  not  as  well  '  Shelomoh,'  for  '  Salomon ' ;  and 
'  Coresh,'  for  '  Cyrus,'  and  so  alter  every  word  from  the 
known  sound  and  pronunciation  thereof?  Is  this  to  teach  the 
people,  when  you  speak  Hebrew  rather  than  English  ?  Were 
it  a  goodly  hearing  (think  you)  to  say  for  'Jesus,'  '  Jeshuah'; 
and  for  '  Marie,'  his  mother,  '  Miriam  ' ;  and  for  '  Messias,' 
'  Messiach ' ;  and  '  John,'  '  Jachannan  ' ;  and  such  like  mon 
strous  novelties  ?  which  you  might  as  well  do,  and  the  people 
would  understand  you  as  well,  as  when  your  preachers  say. 
'  Nabucadnezer,  king  of  Babel.' " 

Fulke's  simple  answer  is,  "  Seeing  the  most  of  the  proper 
names  of  the  Old  Testament  were  unknown  to  the  people  before 


the  Scripture  was  read  in  English,  it  was  better  to  utter  them 
according  to  the  truth  of  their  pronunciation  in  Hebrew,  rather 
than  after  the  common  corruption  which  they  had  received  in 
the  Greek  and  Latin  tongues.  But  as  for  those  names  which 
were  known  unto  the  people  out  of  the  New  Testament,  as 
Jesus,  John,  Mary,  &c.,  it  had  been  folly  to  have  taught  men 
to  sound  them  otherwise  than  after  the  Greek  declination,  in 
which  we  find  them."1 

The  Rheims  translators  and  divines  attack  all  the  English 
versions.  Robert  Parsons,  alias  John  Hewlett,  in  giving 
"  Reasons  why  Catholics  refuse  to  go  to  Church,"  alleges  that 
"  the  Scripture  is  read  there  in  false  and  shameless  translations 
conteyning  manifest  and  wilful  corruptions."  Standish,  a 
reformer  under  Edward  VI,  and  rector  of  Wigan,  having  dis 
missed  his  wife,  and  gone  over  to  Rome,  published,  in  1554,  a 
book  of  characteristic  virulence,  "  A  Treatise  against  the  trans 
lation  of  the  Bible  into  the  vulgar  language."  Cardinal  Allen, 
too,  brands  the  English  Bible  as  "  falsely  corrupted  and  deceit 
fully  translated."  Gregory  Martin  calls  it  "  not  indeed  God's 
book,  word,  or  scripture,  but  the  devil's  worde,"  and  sums  up 
his  charges  against  the  Protestant  versions  thus :  "  Now  then  to 
come  to  our  purpose,  such  are  the  absurd  translations  of  the 
English  Bibles,  and  altogether  like  unto  these :  namely,  when 
they  translate  '  congregation '  for  '  church/  '  elder '  for  '  priest/ 
'  image  '  for  '  idol,'  '  dissension '  for  '  schism,'  c  general '  for 
'  catholic,'  '  secret '  for  '  sacrament,'  '  overseer '  for  '  bishop,' 
'  messenger '  for  '  angel,'  '  ambassador '  for  '  apostle,'  '  minister  ' 
for  '  deacon,'  and  such  like :  to  what  other  end  be  these 
deceitful  translations,  but  to  conceal  and  obscure  the  name  of 
the  church  and  dignities  thereof,  mentioned  in  the  holy  scrip 
tures;  to  dissemble  the  word  'schism'  (as  they  do  also  'heresy' 
and  'heretic')  for  fear  of  disgracing  their  schisms  and  heresies; 
to  say  of '  matrimony,'  neither  '  sacrament,'  which  is  the  Latin, 
nor  '  mystery,'  which  is  the  Greek,  but  to  go  as  far  as  they  can 
possibly  from  the  common  usual  and  ecclesiastical  words, 
saying,  *  This  is  a  great  secret,'  in  favour  of  their  heresy,  that 
matrimony  is  no  sacrament  ? "  2  Matthew  Kellison  utters  the 
1  Reply,  &a,  pp.  588,  589.  2  Fulke,  pp.  218,  219. 


same  language  as  Martin — his  prime  reason  being  that  the 
Scripture  in  the  English  tongue  is  not  according  to  the  sense 
of  ancient  interpreters,  nor  under  the  Church  of  Rome.  The 
reply  is  easy,  and  needs  not  to  be  formally  given.  Cart- 
wright,  under  the  patronage  of  the  Earl  of  Leicester,  and 
of  Walsingham  who  gave  him  a  hundred  pounds  to  purchase 
books,  and  at  the  request  of  many  heads  of  Houses  in  Cam 
bridge,1  began  an  assault  on  the  Rheims  New  Testament  the 
year  after  its  publication ;  but  Whitgift,  in  the  plenitude 
of  his  prerogative,  interdicted  him.  Whitgift  had  always 
opposed  Cartwright  with  unsleeping  hostility,  and  in  this  case 
he  allowed  ecclesiastical  politics  and  antipathies  to  suppress  a 
work  of  national  benefit.  The  press  was  not  free,  and  episcopal 
supervision  could  put  down  what  was  not  relished,  and  con 
demn  a  book  on  account  of  its  author's  unlucky  antecedents. 
A  portion  of  this  Reply,  from  which  an  extract  has  been 
already  given,  was  published  at  Edinburgh  in  1602.  Cart- 
wright  died  in  the  following  year,  and  the  full  volume  was 
published  in  1618.  Fulke  not  only  wrote  a  "  Defence  of 
Translations  of  the  Bible," 2  with  overwhelming  and  unan 
swerable  criticism  and  argument,  but  also  "  The  Text  of  the 
New  Testament  of  Jesus  Christ,  translated  out  of  the  vulgar 
Latino  by  the  Papists  of  the  traiterous  Seminarie  at  Rhemes,"  K 
in  which  he  tartly  and  truthfully  criticises  the  translation, 
verse  by  verse.  Bulkeley  also  took  part  in  the  controversy 
in  an  "  Answer  to  the  Rhemish  preface,"  &c.,  1588 ;  and 
Whitaker,  who  had  no  sympathy  with  Cartwright,  published 
against  Bellarmine,  in  1610,  his  well  known  "Disputation  on 
Holy  Scripture."  2  "  In  1615,  Kellison  ventured  to  publish  'A 
Gagg  for  the  Reformed  Gospel,'  which  was  answered  by  Dr. 
Richard  Montagu,  afterwards  Bishop  of  Chichester,  in  his  '  A 
Gagg  for  the  New  Gospel  ?  No :  a  new  Gagg  for  an  old  Goose, 
who  would  needes  undertake  to  stop  all  Protestants'  mouths 
for  ever  with  276  places  out  of  their  own  English  Bibles.' 
Bernard,  rector  of  Batcombe,  in  Somersetshire,  and  author  of  a 
t  Thesaurus  Biblicus,'  published  in  1626  '  Rhemes  against  Rome  : 

1  He  had  been  Lady  Margaret's        -  Reprinted  by  the  Parker  Society. 
Professor  of  Divinity.  3  London,  1589- 


or,  the  removing  of  "  The  Gag  of  the  New  Gospel,"  and  rightly 
placing  it  in  the  mouthes  of  the  Romists  by  the  Rhemists,  in 
their  English  translation  of  the  Scriptures.'  '  The  Rhemist 
priestes,'  he  wrote,  'for  making  any  translation  at  all  of  the 
Bible  into  the  English  tongue  (though  out  of  the  Vulgav  Latine, 
though  obscured  by  affected  phrases,  and  distorted  by  their  cor 
rupt  Annotations),  yet  are  said  to  have  bin  beshrewed  by  their 
own  more  subtile  Masters  and  Superiors,  as  having  thereby 
layed  open  to  the  people  the  nakednesse  and  deformitie  of 
their  Romish  doctrines.  And  thereby  have  I  the  more  willingly 
produced  the  same  against  themselves ;  the  power  and  lustre 
of  God's  Word,  though  clouded  and  disguised  by  their  pur 
posed  obscurite  and  improprieties,  yet  competently  shining 
forth,  for  their  conviction,  by  this  unwilling  wounding  of  Rome 
by  the  out-workes  of  Rhemes."  x 

The  Catholic  translators,  while  they  speak  of  following  the 
most  perfect  Latin  edition,  do  not  seem  to  have  made  use  of 
Wycliffe.  But  their  renderings  are  now  and  then  coincident 
with  the  Genevan  version,  and  they  quote  Hebrew  words  in  the 
margin  of  the  Old  Testament.  On  the  margin  of  almost  every 
page  of  the  translation,  and  in  the  notes,  the  heretics  are 
attacked  as  Protestants  or  bigots,  and  a  fragment  of  the 
following  Table  will  show  the  frequency  of  the  allusions — 
"  A  table  of  certaine  places  of  the  New  Testament,  corrvptly 
translated  in  favour  of  heresies  of  these  dayes  in  the  English 
editions:  especially  of  the  yeares  1562-77-79  and  80,  by  order 
of  the  bookes,  chapters,  and  verses  of  the  same.  Wherein 
we  do  not  charge  our  aduersaries  for  disagreeing  from  the 
authentical  Latin  text  (wherof  much  is  saide  in  the  preface) 
but  for  corrupting  the  Greek  it  selfe,  which  they  pretende  to 

"S.  Matt.,  chap,  i,  19,  For' a  iust  man,'  they  translate  'a 
righteous  man ' :  because  this  word  '  iust '  importeth  that  a  man 
is  iust  in  deede  and  not  only  so  reputed.  And  so  generally 
where  '  iust '  or  '  iustice  '  is  ioyned  with  good  workes,  they  say 
'righteous'  and  'righteousness':  yet  being  joined  with  faith, 
they  keepe  the  olde  termes  '  iust '  and  '  iustice.' 

1  Cotton's  Ehemes  and  Doway,  Oxford,  1855. 


"  Chap,  ii,  6,  For  '  rule '  or  '  gouerne '  they  translate  '  feede ' 
to  diminishe  ecclesiastical  authoritie,  which  the  Greeke  word 
signifieth;  as  also  the  Hebrewe,  Mich,  v,  whence  this  is 

"  Chap,  iii,  2,  8,  For  '  do  penance '  and  '  fruite  worthie  of 
penance '  (which  signify  painful  satisfaction  for  sinne),  they 
translate  '  repent  and  repentance ' :  or  '  amendment  of  life.' 

"Chap,  xvi,  18,  For 'church'  they  translate  'congregation,' 
and  that  so  continually  euery  where  in  Tiudals  Bible,  printed 
againe  Ann.  1562,  that  the  worde  '  Church',  is  not  once  there  to 
be  founde.  Which  the  other  Editions  correcting  in  other 
places,  yet  in  this  place  it  remayneth  corrupted,  reading  still 
'  upon  this  rocke  I  wil  build  my  congregation,'  so  loath  they 
are  it  should  appeare  how  firmly  the  Church  of  Christ  is 

"  Chap,  xviii,  17,  The  same  corruption  in  Tind.  Bib.,  '  Tel 
the  congregation '  and  '  If  he  wil  not  heare  the  congregation,' 
for  '  Tel  the  Church/  and  '  If  he  wil  not  hear  the  Church.' 

"Chap,  xix,  11,  Our  Sauiour  speaking  of  continencie  saith : 
'  Not  al  take  this  word '  which  they  peruert  thus,  '  Al  men 
can  not  take  this  word ' :  against  free- wil,  and  vow  of  chas- 

"  Chap,  xxvi,  26,  For  '  blessed '  they  translate  '  gaue  thanks ,' 
against  the  operation  and  efficacie  of  Christes  blessing. 

"  S.  Mark,  chap,  x,  52,  For  '  thy  faith  had  made  thee  safe ' 
speaking  of  corporal  sight  geuen  to  the  blind,  they  translate 
'  thy  faith  hath  saued  thee,'  to  make  it  seeme  that  iustification 
and  saluation  is  by  only  faith. 

"  Chap,  xiv,  22,  For  '  blessing,'  they  saye  '  geuing  thanks',  as 
Matt,  xxvi,  26. 

"  S.  Luke,  chap,  i,  6,  For  '  iust '  and  '  justifications '  they 
translate,  '  righteous '  and  '  ordinances.' 

"  i.  6,  For  '  Haile  ful  of  grace,'  they  translate  '  Haile  thou 
that  art  in  high  fauour,'  and  '  Haile  thou  that  art  freely  be- 
loued ' :  though  Tindal  said  '  Haile  ful  of  grace,'  the  '  Aue 
Marie '  being  not  then  banished  as  since  it  is. 

"  Chap,  iii,  8,  For  '  penance,'  they  say  '  repentance,'  as  before, 
Mat.  iii,  2,  and  8. 


"  Chap,  viii,  48,  For  '  thy  faith  hath  made  thee  safe '  (to  wit 
from  corporal  infirmitie)  they  translate,  '  thy  faith  hath  saued 

"  viii,  50,  For  '  beleeue  only  and  she  shal  be  safe,'  they  say 
*  beleeue  only  and  she  shal  be  saued ' :  in  fauour  of  the  forsaid 
heresie  of  only  faith :  neither  marking  that  this  safe  tie  per- 
taineth  to  the  bodie,  nor  that  it  is  attributed  to  the  faith  of  an 
other,  and  not  of  the  partie  restored. 

"  Chap,  xviii,  42,  For  '  thy  faith  hath  made  thee  whole '  or 
'  safe,'  they  saie,  as  in  the  former  places,  '  thy  faith  hath  saued 

"  Chap,  xxii,  20,  Beza  (whom  the  English  Protestantes  herein 
defend)  condemneth  the  Greeke  text  (which  he  confesseth  to 
be  the  same  in  al  copies)  because  by  it  the  relatiue,  'which,' 
must  needes  be  referred  to  the  Chalice,  and  so  proueth  the  real 
presence  of  Christs  bloude  in  the  Chalice. 

"S.  John,  chap,  i,  12,  For  'he  gave  them  powre  to  be  made 
the  sonnes  of  God,'  Beza  and  his  folowers  translate  '  he  gaue 
them  the  dignitie'  (others  say 'the  prerogatiue')  to  be  the 
sonnes  '  of  God ' :  against  free-wil. 

"  Chap,  ix,  22  and  35,  For  '  put  out  of  the  Synagogue '  they 
translate  '  excommunicate ' :  as  though  the  Catholike  Churches 
excommunication  of  heretikes,  from  the  societie  and  participa 
tion  of  the  faithful,  were  like  to  that  exteriour  putting  out  of 
the  Synagogue,  of  such  as  confessed  Christ. 

"Chap,  xiii,  16,  For  'Apostle'  they  translate  'messenger': 
turning  an  Ecclesiastical  word,  into  the  original  and  prophane 

The  second  edition  of  the  New  Testament  was  "  set  forth  " 
in  1600,  "by  the  same  college  now  returned  to  Doway," 
Antwerp,  Daniel  Yeruliet.  It  contains  a  table  of  heretical 
corruptions,  and  at  the  end  of  it  stands  the  remark — "  The 
blessed  confessor,  Bishop  Tunstal,  noted  no  less  than  two  thou 
sand  corruptions  in  Tindal's  translation,  in  the  New  Testament 
only.  Thereby,  as  by  these  few  here  cited  for  example,  the  in 
different  reader  may  see,  how  untruly  the  English  Bibles  are 
commended  to  the  people  for  the  pure  Word  of  God."  A  third 
edition  appeared  at  the  same  place  in  1621,  and  a  fourth  in  1633 

XLII.]         CHANGES  IN  RHEIMS  AND  DOUA1   VERSIONS.          153 

— probably  at  Rouen — a  reprint  of  the  edition  of  1 600.  A  second 
edition  of  the  Old  Testament  was  published  in  1635,  and  no 
other  edition  of  it  was  printed  for  115  years.  Later  editions 
were  revised  by  Hay  dock,  Lingard,  Ken  rick,  Withan,  Nary, 
Challoner,  and  others ;  and  the  copies  now  in  use  have  been 
toned  down  and  brought  into  considerable  harmony  with  our 
current  Bibles.  The  greatest  changes  were  introduced  in  Dr. 
Challoner's  edition.  Nary  explains  his  motive  in  his  preface  : 
"  We  have  no  Catholick  translation  of  the  Scripture  in  the 
English  tongue,  but  the  Doway  Bible,  and  the  Rhemish  Testa 
ment,  which  have  been  done  now  more  than  an  hundred  years 
since  :  the  language  whereof  is  so  old,  the  words  in  many  places 
so  obsolete,  the  orthography  so  bad,  and  the  translation  so  very 
literal,  that  in  a  number  of  places  it  is  unintelligible,  and  all  over 
so  grating  to  the  ears  of  such  as  are  accustomed  to  speak,  in  a 
manner,  another  language,  that  most  people  will  not  be  at  the 
pains  of  reading  them.  Besides,  they  are  so  bulky,  that  they 
cannot  conveniently  be  carried  about  for  publick  devotion  ; 
and  so  scarce  and  dear,  that  the  generality  of  people  neither 
have,  nor  can  procure  them  for  their  private  use.  To  supply 
all  these  defects,  I  have  endeavoured  to  make  this  New 
Testament  speak  the  English  tongue  now  used,  as  near  as 
the  many  Hebraisms  wherewith  it  abounds,  and  which  (in 
my  opinion)  ought  never  to  be  altered  where  they  can  be 
rendered  so  as  to  be  intelligible,  would  allow.  I  have  taken 
all  the  care  imaginable  to  keep  as  close  to  the  letter  as  the 
English  will  permit ;  and  where  the  Latin  phrase  would  prove 
unintelligible  in  the  English,  a  word,  or  two  or  more,  must 
be  added  to  make  the  sense  clear."1  "A  New  Version  of 
the  Four  Gospels,"  "by  a  Catholic,"  was  published  in  1836 
anonymously — the  author  being  the  well-known  historian  Dr. 
Lingard.  The  volume  has  no  dedication  prefixed,  and  is 
not  accompanied  or  commended  by  any  approbation  granted  by 
the  ecclesiastical  authorities  of  the  translator's  own  church. 
It  is  not,  however,  a  revision  of  the  Rheims,  as  it  cuts  deeply 
into  its  English,  and  is  apparently  in  many  places  taken  from 
the  Greek,  and  not  from  the  Latin  Vulgate.  Though  his 

1  Cotton,  p.  299. 


"  History  "  shows  that  the  author  was  a  very  decided  Catholic, 
he  has  in  the  translation  given  "  repent,"  for  "  do  penance " ; 
"bondman,"  for  "servant";  "Messiah,"  for  "Christ";  "Good- 
tidings,"  for  "  Gospel "  ;  "  tax-gatherer,"  for  "  publican  "  ; 
"  fiends,"  for  "  devils  " ;  "  figures,"  for  "  proverbs  "  ;  "  an 
nounce/'  for  "  preach  "  ;  "  verily,"  for  "  amen  " ;  "  causes  of 
offence,"  for  "scandals";  and  "righteousness,"  for  "justice." 
About  his  notes  Dr.  Lingard  warns:  "It  may  be  proper  to  inform 
the  reader,  that  the  notes,  which  are  appended  to  the  text  in 
the  following  pages,  are  not  of  a  controversial  character.  Their 
object  is  the  elucidation  of  obscure  passages,  or  the  explica 
tion  of  allusions  to  national  customs,  or  the  statement  of  the 
reasons  which  have  induced  the  translator  to  differ  occasionally 
from  preceding  interpreters.  Many  of  these  he  has  consulted, 
though  he  has  not  thought  proper  to  load  his  pages  with  re 
ferences  to  their  works." 1  The  translation  was  reviewed  by 
Cardinal  Wiseman,  and  faintly  praised ;  though  in  the  article 
the  whole  subject  of  revision  is  discussed  with  great  ability, 
and  his  judgment  about  the  Bible  of  his  church  is  not  ex 
treme  :  "  To  call  it  any  longer  the  Doway  or  Rhemish  version 
is  an  abuse  of  terms.  It  has  been  altered  and  modified  till 
scarcely  any  verse  remains  as  it  was  originally  published ;  and 
so  far  as  simplicity  and  energy  of  style  are  concerned,  the 
changes  are  in  general  for  the  worse  " — the  truly  papal  con 
clusion  being  2 :  "  The  impression  on  the  reader's  mind,  after 
having  perused  this  edition,  must  be,  that  Christianity  never 
depended,  for  its  code  or  evidences,  upon  the  compilation  of 
these  documents  [the  Gospels],  and  that  they  never  could  have 
been  intended  for  a  rule  of  faith."  3 

The  old  Latin  Bible  or  Yulgate  still  lives  in  the  midst  of  us, 
for  we  owe  to  it  all  our  Christian  terms  ending  in  "ation," 
and  nearly  all  the  distinctive  words  of  our  theological  voca 
bulary — as  person,  essence,  scripture,  lecture,  sermon,  text, 

1  Cotton,    Rhemes    and    Doway,  3  Collations  of  these  editions  may 
p.  137.  be    seen     in    Archdeacon  Cotton's 

2  Dublin    Review,    April,     1837.  "  Rhemes    and    Doway, "   Oxford, 
Reprinted  in  Wiseman's  Essays,  vol.  1855. 

1,  p.  73-75,  London,  1853. 


grace,  adoption,  repentance,  spirit,  glory,  satisfaction,  conver 
sion,  sacrament,  regeneration,  justification,  sanctification,  re 
demption,  privilege,  election,  eternity,  predestination,  com 
munion,  congregation,  discipline,  missionary.1 

The  influence  of  the  Latin  church  is  also  very  apparent  still  in 
the  nomenclature  of  even  Protestant  Presbyterian  Scotland.  The 
chairman  of  a  presbytery  or  synod  is  called  its  "  moderator  ";  he 
who  presides  when  a  minister  is  chosen  "  moderates  "  in  a  call ; 
he  who  executes  a  commission  given  him  by  a  church  court 
"  obtemperates "  their  decision ;  the  elders  in  a  church  form 
its  "  session " ;  the  chairman  of  the  board  of  secular  manage 
ment  is  the  "  preses  "  ;  the  Lord's  Supper  is  the  "  sacrament," 
the  previous  discourse  is  the  "  Action  sermon,"  and  the  bread 
and  wine  the  "  elements  " ;  the  leader  of  the  psalmody  is  the 
'•'precentor";  the  collection  was  in  days  not  long  past  the 
"offering";  the  pastor  is  the  ''minister,"  and  in  olden  times 
the  "  Instrument,"  his  house  is  the  "  manse,"  he  is  "  licensed  " 
to  preach  and  becomes  a  "  probationer  "  till  he  is  "  ordained  " 
over  a  charge;  a  bad  report  about  him  is  a  "fama,"  which,  on 
being  proved,  may  lead  to  his  "suspension"  or  "deposition"; 
presence  at  worship  is  "attendance  upon  ordinances";  the 
decisions  of  a  synod  or  assembly  are  its  "Acts  " ;  a  minister's 
income  is  his  "  stipend  " ;  "  purgation  of  scandal "  is  not  ob 
solete — and  there  are  many  other  familiar  technical  terms  and 

1  For  some  renderings,  the  result  1686  ;    and    reprinted    in    Cotton's 

of  deplorable  ecclesiastical  bias,  re-  "  Memoir  of  a  French  New  Testa- 

ference  may  be  made  to  Bishop  Kid-  nient,"  in  which  the  "  Mass  "  and 

der's  "  Eeflections  on  a  French  New  "  Purgatory  "     are     found     in    the 

Testament "  printed    at    Bordeaux,  "  Sacred  Text."    London,  1863. 

It  may  be  mentioned  that  Parsons,  already  referred  to  on  p.  148,  wrote 
under  the  name  of  Doleman  a  "  Conference,"  in  which  he  maintained,  witli 
considerable  ingenuity,  the  right  of  the  Spanish  Infanta  to  the  English 
crown.  A  reply  was  made  by  the  great  Scottish  jurist,  Sir  Thomas  Craig, 
in  1602. 


"  IF  the  Arian  heresy  was  propagated  and  rooted  by  means  of  beautiful 
vernacular  hymns,  so  who  will  say  that  the  uncommon  beauty  and  mar 
vellous  English  of  the  Protestant  Bible  is  not  one  of  the  great  strongholds 
of  heresy  in  this  country  1  It  lives  on  in  the  ear  like  a  music  that  never 
can  be  forgotten,  like  the  sound  of  church  bells,  which  the  convert  hardly 
knows  how  long  he  can  forego.  Its  felicities  seem  often  to  be  almost 
things  rather  than  mere  words.  It  is  part  of  the  national  mind,  and  the 
anchor  of  national  seriousness.  Nay,  it  is  worshipped  with  a  positive 
idolatry;  in  extenuation  of  whose  grotesque  fanaticism,  its  intrinsic  beauty 
pleads  availingly  with  the  man  of  letters  and  the  scholar.  The  memory 
of  the  dead  passes  into  it.  The  potent  traditions  of  childhood  are  stereo 
typed  in  its  verses.  The  power  of  all  the  griefs  and  trials  of  a  man  is 
hidden  beneath  its  words.  It  is  the  representative  of  his  best  moments  ; 
and  all  that  there  has  been  about  him  of  soft,  and  gentle,  and  pure,  and 
penitent,  and  good,  speaks  to  him  for  ever  out  of  his  English  Bible.  It  is 
his  sacred  thing,  which  doubt  never  dimmed,  and  controversy  never  soiled. 
It  has  been  to  him  all  along  as  the  silent,  but  O  how  intelligible,  voice  of 
his  guardian  angel ;  and  in  the  length  and  breadth  of  the  laud  there  is  not 
a  Protestant,  with  one  spark  of  religiousness  about  him,  whose  spiritual 
biography  is  not  in  his  Saxon  Bible." 

F.  W.  FABER. 


QUEEN  ELIZABETH,  after  a  reign  of  more  than  forty-four 
^  years,  died  on  the  24th  of  March,  1603;  and  on  the  5th 
April,  James  VI  of  Scotland  left  Edinburgh,  and  proceeded  to 
London,  to  take  possession  of  the  English  crown  as  the  great- 
grandson  of  Margaret  Tudor,  and  he  had  the  good  fortune  to 
quash  the  claims  of  several  rivals  without  public  disturbance.1 
Though  he  was  now  thirty-seven  years  of  age,  he  made  the 
journey  with  all  the  glee  of  a  schoolboy  released  for  a  holiday, 
and  scattered  honours  about  him  in  indiscriminate  profusion. 
Utterly  devoid  of  those  graces  of  form  and  manner  which 
characterized  his  mother,  wanting  also  the  dignity  and  gal 
lant  bearing  of  his  great  kinswoman  and  predecessor,  he 
yet  received  a  frank  and  harmonious  welcome  from  his  new 

Strange  and  romantic  incidents  had  marked  his  infantine 
years.     Born  in  the  Castle  of  Edinburgh  on  the  19th  of  June, 

1  After  the  death  of  James  IV  at  was    righteous    heir    to    the    Scot- 

Flodden,  his  widow,  Margaret  Tudor,  tish  crown,  so  he  was    "  righteous 

married  the  Earl  of  Angus,  and  by  and    more  righteous  "  heir  to  the 

this  union  Lady  Arabella  Stewart,  English  crown — as  if  he   had  sur- 

cousin  of  King  James,  was  her  great-  mised   that  this  last  title   was,  or 

grand-daughter.      King  Henry,  in  might  be,  called  in  question.     The 

his  will,  put  aside  the  Scottish  line,  dedication  prefixed  to  our  present 

the  descendants  of  his  elder  sister  Bible  throws  in   an  assertion  ever 

Margaret,  and   gave  preference   to  dear  to  its  royal  patron,  when   it 

the  line  of  Suffolk,  the  descendants  speaks  of  "  the  government   estab- 

of  his  younger  sister  Mary.     James  lished  in  your  Highness,  and  your 

said,    in    his  parting    harangue  to  hopeful    seed,    by    an     undoubted 

his    northern    people,  that    as    he  title." 


1566,  he  was  baptized  in  the  chapel  of  Stirling  Castle  on  the 
15th  December  of  the  same  year.  His  father,  Darnley,  though 
he  was  living  at  the  time  in  the  Fort,1  was  not  present  at  the 
service  which  was  held  by  torch  light,  but  the  Protestant 
Bothwell,  so  soon  to  be  wedded  to  his  mother  after  the  Kirk- 
o'-Field  tragedy  of  which  he  was  a  chief  promoter,  did  the 
honours  on  the  occasion.  His  baptismal  font  of  gold  weigh 
ing  330  ounces,  and  a  present  from  Queen  Elizabeth,  was  sent 
shortly  after  by  his  mother  to  the  mint,  to  be  turned  into 
cash,  in  order  to  provide  payment  to  "  the  bloody  cut-throats  " 
that  formed  her  body-guard  at  the  time  of  her  marriage  to 
that  worthless  and  desperate  ruffian  by  whom  she  was  so 
bewitched  as  for  his  sake  to  renounce  the  Catholic  faith, 
and  renew  the  prohibition  of  the  Mass,  according  to  the 
enactment  of  1560.  She  was  wedded  in  her  "  dule  weeds  "  as 
a  widow,  and  the  marriage  was  celebrated,  not  in  the  chapel, 
but  in  the  council-chamber  of  Holyrood,  none  of  the  lords 
living  in  Edinburgh  at  the  time  deigning  to  be  present  at  the 
fatal  nuptials.  Political  events  were  rushing  with  tremen 
dous  rapidity ;  and  Mary  having,  in  her  islet  prison,  signed 
her  abdication  on  the  24th  of  July,  1567,  her  son  was,  four 
days  afterwards,  solemnly  consecrated  king  at  Stirling  when 
he  was  thirteen  months  old,  his  head  being  put  for  a  moment 
into  the  great  Bruce's  crown,  and  his  hand  made  to  touch  the 
sword  and  sceptre,  while  through  his  sponsors,  Lord  Hume  and 
the  Earl  of  Morton,2  he  took  the  oath,  "  I,  James,  Prince  and 
Steward  of  Scotland  . .  .  ."  The  mystic  ceremonial  being  over, 
the  Earl  of  Mar  carried  the  anointed  babe  back  to  its  nursery. 
Before  he  was  two  years  old  he  was,  by  another  representative 
—the  Regent  Murray — fighting  against  his  mother ;  and  her 
defeat  at  Langside  by  her  son,  through  her  half-brother,  sent 
her  a  swift  fugitive  across  the  Border,  to  a  long  imprisonment 
and  a  terrible  end. 

The  earliest  memories  of  James  were  those  of  a  boyish 

1  He  was  at  the  moment  a  doomed        "  John    Knox    preached    on    the 

man,    the    "  bond "    being    already  occasion,  though  it  is  said  that  he 

signed  for  the  destruction  "  of  sic  an  objected  to  the  anointing, 
young  fool  and  proud  tyran." 


kinglet.  On  assuming  the  government,  at  the  age  of  twelve, 
he  presided  in  royal  robes  at  a  meeting  of  Council  at  Stirling, 
and  spoke  the  words  put  into  his  mouth ;  but  during  the  dis 
cussion  he  was  specially  exercised  about  a  hole  in  the  cloth 
which  covered  the  table.  His  first  visit  in  state  to  Edinburgh 
was  typical  of  his  subsequent  career.  On  his  arrival  at  the 
West  Port,  the  pageant  presented  before  him  was  the  decision 
of  the  wise  king,  the  actors  being  the  two  women  with  the 
child,  and  a  servant  with  the  sword.  When  he  drew  nigh  to 
the  "  Great  Kirk  "  "  Dame  Religion  "  asked  him  to  enter ;  and, 
dismounting  "  at  the  lady's  steps,"  he  complied  with  the  invi 
tation.  But  when  he  came  out,  and  moved  down  toward  the 
cross,  he  was  saluted  by  a  "jolly  Bacchus,"  who,  seated  on  a 
barrel,  drank  again  and  again  to  his  majesty's  welcome,  while 
puncheons  were  running  wine  for  the  mob. 

James  was  indeed  made  up  of  contrasts,  and  his  character 
presents  a  species  of  dualism.  Nature  had  apparently  intended 
him  to  be  the  greatest  of  his  race  in  person  and  mind,  but  from 
the  shock  which  his  mother  had  received  at  the  assassination  of 
Rizzio,  "  he  was  a  spoiled  child,  in  a  deplorably  literal  sense, 
before  he  was  born,"  and  the  weakling  was  seven  years  old 
before  he  could  stand  upright,  so  that  often  in  after  life  it  was 
his  wont  to  poise  himself  by  leaning  on  the  shoulders  of 
others.  His  physical  weakness  was  very  visible,  and  when 
he  engaged  in  the  chase  he  had  to  be  trussed  into  his  saddle ; 
but  when  "  in  the  kirk,"  on  Sunday,  3rd  April,  1603,  he  delivered 
his  last  address  to  his  Scottish  subjects,  and  promised  to  visit 
them  every  three  years,  his  boast  was,  "  Ye  mister  not  doubt, 
for  I  have  a  bodie  als  able  as  anie  king  in  Europe."  In  early 
life  he  was  an  "  old  young  man."  The  descendant  of  a  long 
line  of  kings — Plantagenets,  Tudors,  and  Stewarts — he  was 
awkward  in  gait,  and  uncouth  in  person  and  manner,  while 
"  he  ate  and  drank,  dressed  and  played  like  a  boor." l  His 
tongue  being  too  large  for  his  mouth,  his  loquacity  was  a 
continuous  sputter.  While  he  "wallowed  in  filth,  moral  and 
physical,"2  it  was  his  joy  to  regard  himself  as  the  "Lord's. 

1  Despatch  of  M.  Fontenay — Fronde,  History,  vol.  XI,  p.  664. 

2  Burton,  History  of  Scotland,  vol.  VI,  161. 
VOL.  II.  L 


anointed."  As  he  never  washed  his  hands,  the  honour  of 
kissing  them  must  have  exceeded  the  pleasure.  Boasting 
of  his  tenacious  hold  of  his  sceptre,  as  if  he  had  been  a 
"  mortal  god "  on  earth,  he  was  ever  tossing  it  to  unworthy 
favourites,  as  a  bauble  to  play  with — such  favourites  as  Esme 
Stewart  in  Scotland,  and  Buckingham  in  England,  the  latter  of 
whom,  in  vulgar  familiarity,  used  to  name  his  sovereign  "  dear 
Dad  and  Gossip."  His  hatreds  were  as  unaccountable  as  his 
likings  which  might  vary,  but  his  prejudices  always  tended  to 
ripen  into  lasting  antipathies.  When  he  suspected  that  people 
imagined  him  to  be  facile,  he  sank  into  fits  of  sullenness  and 
obstinacy,  lest,  to  use  his  own  words,  he  should  be  regarded  as 
"  led  by  the  nose,"  or  thought  to  be  "  ane  irresolute  ass." 
Though  timid  in  temperament,  he  could  be  scared  into 
momentary  bravery.  It  has  now  been  proved  that  the  famous 
Gowrie  conspiracy,  in  1600,  was  a  reality,  but  few  of  the  king's 
contemporaries  believed  his  account  of  it.  His  solitary  adven 
ture — the  one  romance  of  his  life — was  his  voyage  to  Norway, 
to  bring  home  his  Danish  bride.  He  had  told  his  council  that 
this  matrimonial  step  was  taken  after  asking  the  "Divine  direc 
tion  for  fifteen  days  to  move  his  heart  the  meetest  way,"  and 
the  General  Assembly  ordered  a  fast  every  Sabbath,  and  public 
prayers  for  his  safety  during  his  absence  in  Denmark.  But 
while  these  loyal  intercessions  for  him  were  going  on  in  Edin 
burgh,  he  wrote  to  a  friend  a  letter  which  begins,  "From  the 
Castle  of  Cronberg,  where  we  are  drinking  and  driving  over 
in  the  auld  manner."  His  shrewdness  was  barren  and  un 
practical,  and  men  of  far  less  talent  easily  outwitted  him.  His 
possession  of  great  good  sense  and  humour,  and  his  power  of 
clothing  a  thought  in  a  pithy  and  pregnant  clause  equal  often 
to  one  of  Bacon's,  did  not  save  him  from  being  an  oracular 
simpleton.  He  often  meant  well,  but  his  best  resolves  died 
away  in  helpless  and  ludicrous  indecision.  Courtiers  hood 
winked  him  by  praising  his  subtlety.  Coke,  his  surly  attorney- 
general,  was  perfectly  aware  of  the  process  by  which  the  Gun 
powder  Plot  had  been  detected,  but,  hungering  for  preferment, 
he  ascribed  the  discovery  to  the  king  himself,  and  extolled  him 
as  "divinely  illuminated  by  Almighty  God,  and  like  an  angel  of 


God."     He  had  the  best  head  in  his  Council,  but  his  sagacity 

O  v 

rarely  served  him  in  ordinary  business,  and  when  he  tried  a 
Machiavellian  policy,  he  was  ever  like  a  mole,  blundering  into 
light.  He  was  cunning  and  indiscreet  by  turns,  his  gravity 
and  levity  being  about  as  nearly  balanced  as  were  his  hours  of 
hunting  and  study.  He  raised  Carr  to  the  peerage,  and  sent 
Raleigh  to  the  block.  He  wrote  on  theology  and  on  tobacco. 
He  acted  like  a  child  in  matters  of  moment,  but  was  awed  into 
solemnity  about  trifles — as  when  he  formally  charged  the  head 
of  the  King's  Bench  with  the  crime  of  allowing  his  servant  to 
ride  bare-headed  before  him.  Nor  was  he  guileless ;  he  corres 
ponded  with  the  pope  on  the  one  hand,  and  with  the  queen  of 
England  on  the  other,  and  thought  that  he  was  doing  a  clever 
piece  of  diplomacy  in  trying  to  ingratiate  himself  with  two 
such  masters.  According  to  the  English  queen,  who  stigma 
tized  him  as  "  a  double-tongued  villain,"  he  had  been  in  the 
habit  of  calling  Lord  Morton  "his  father,"  up  to  the  time 
when  he  contrived  to  have  that  nobleman  seized,  tried,  and 
executed.  He  could  not  bear  the  sight  of  a  drawn  sword, 
and  he  was  a  sincere  lover  of  peace,  but  his  love  of  peace  was 
sometimes  allowed  to  degenerate  into  pusillanimity,  as  when  he 
permitted  his  own  son-in-law  to  be  beaten  out  of  his  kingdom 
by  the  Imperial  troops.  In  his  desire  to  please,  he  occasionally 
allowed  his  subjects  to  fight  under  opposing  standards.  The 
assassination  of  Henry  IV  of  France,  the  Armada,  and  the 
Gunpowder  Plot,  were  fresh  in  the  nation's  memory,  as  events 
but  of  yesterday,  and  the  king  showed  some  desire  to  guard 
against  such  perils.  But  he  subsided  at  length  into  a  Catholic 
policy,  as  he  longed  for  a  Spanish  alliance.  His  common  talk 
was  a  continuous  infringement  of  the  Third  Commandment, 
though  he  often  expressed  penitence  for  his  lapses;  and  his  Book 
of  Sports  was  an  attempt  to  induce  a  national  violation  of  another 
Commandment,  though  it  was  curiously  enacted  in  the  royal 
wisdom,  that  none  should  share  in  the  Sunday  games  but  such 
as  had  attended  church.  He  prided  himself  on  his  profound 
skill  in  kingcraft,  which  was  too  often  but  another  name  for 
insincerity  and  absolutism,  and  yet  was  hailed  as  the  "  wisest 
fool  in  Christendom."  His  belief  in  kingly  supremacy  was 


only  excelled  by  his  belief  in  himself,  and  the  immorality  of 
his  court  was  equalled  by  the  imbecility  of  his  government. 
Parliament  had  settled  the  amount  of  taxation  on  a  certain 
import,  but  he  had,  of  his  own  authority,  and  quite  uncon 
stitutionally,  tripled  the  sum.      When  the  case  came  to   be 
heard   in   the  Court   of  Exchequer,   and   when  Chief  Baron 
Fleming  had  decided  in  favour  of  the  crown,  James  saluted 
him  as  "a  judge  to  his  heart's  content."     He  held  that  as  it  was 
"  blasphemy  for  divines  to  dispute  what  God  might  do,"  so  it 
was  sedition  for  subjects  to  discuss  "what  a  king  may  do  in 
the  height  of  his  power ;  "  but  his  senseless  notions  of  pre 
rogative  daily  inculcated  on  his  family,  and  so  fully  imbibed 
by  them,  brought  in  due  time  his  son  and  successor  to  the 
scaffold  before  Whitehall.     He  strove  hard  to  get  royal  procla 
mations  identified  in  validity  with  statutes,  as  had  been  the 
case  for  a  time  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII    and  by  virtue  of  a 
proclamation  he  took  the  style  and  title  of  King  of  Great 
Britain.     At  the  instigation  of  Bancroft,  he  claimed  the  right 
to  sit  in  a  court  of  law,  and  decide  in  person  causes  brought 
before   him.      Indeed,    during  his   progress   through  England 
up  to  his  new  capital,   he   had   sent  a  thief  to  the  gallows 
without  trial.     He  was  so  vain  as  to  discuss  legal  questions 
with   Lord   Coke,   "  the    incarnation  of  the  common   law   of 
England,"  and   so  unjust   as   to   dismiss   the   brave  and   un 
bending  judge  from  his  office  of  Chief  Justice.     When  he  chose 
St.  James's  day  as  the  day  of  his  coronation,  he  honoured  his 
own  name  in  that  of  the  patron  apostle ;  and  a  portion  of  the 
Ritual  was  altered,  for  to  the  words  "  laws  which  the  king  pro 
mised  to  observe"  was  added  the  clause,   "agreeable  to  the 
king's  prerogative."   Tenacious  of  his  own  money,  he  was  a  lavish 
promisor   of    that   of  others,   and    his   generous   deeds   were 
often  sullied  by  subsequent  acts  of  selfishness.      It  cost  him 
nothing   to  visit  Tycho   Brahe  and   grant  him   a  license   of 
copyright  in  "  his  auld  kingdom,"  or  to  give  a  prebendal  stall 
to  Isaac  Casaubon ;  but  he  allowed  old  Archbishop  Adamson, 
both  a  scholar  and  a  poet,  to  languish  and  die  in  penury, 
— cowering  on  the  one  side  of  the  fire  and  his  cow  stationed  on 
the  other — even  though  he  had  in  his  depression  tried  to  stir 


the  royal  sympathy  by  translating  into  Latin  verse  the  Lamen 
tations  of  Jeremiah.  He  also  gave  Casaubon  an  annual  salary 
of  £300,  for  which  he  was  expected  to  fetch  and  carry  in 
the  king's  polemical  feuds.  The  patent  conferring  the  salary, 
which  is  dated  19th  January,  1611,  speaks  of  the  great 
scholar  as  coming  to  England,  "  to  be  used  by  us  as  we  shall 
see  cause,  for  the  service  of  the  Church."  In  the  preparation 
of  the  reply  to  Cardinal  Du  Perron,  the  king  supplied  the 
argument,  and  Casaubon  provided  the  Latin.  James,  however, 
has  the  credit  of  suggesting  to  Father  Paul  the  compilation  of 
his  "  History  of  the  Council  of  Trent,"  and  of  urging  Ussher  to 
write  his  "Antiquities  of  the  British  Churches"  ;  but  he  seems 
to  have  thought  that  such  royal  counsel  was  sufficient  reward 
for  literary  labour. 

Though  his  household  was  early  noted  for  its  profligacy,  and 
though  he  himself  was  very  far  from  being  a  pattern  of  sobriety 
or  of  sanctity  of  speech,  James  was  a  great  frequenter  of  ser 
mons  ;  and  though  he  was  an  "  irreverent  hearer," l  he  had 
acquired  a  wonderful  knowledge  of  Scripture  and  theology. 
His  precocious  acquaintance  with  the  Bible  was  noted  in  his 
eighth  year,  and  Killigrew,2  the  English  Ambassador,  heard 
him  in  the  presence  of  his  "preceptor,"  Buchanan,  and  his 
"  master,"  Young,  read  off  any  chapter  selected  out  of  Latin  into 
French,  and  out  of  French  after  into  English,  as  well  as  few  men 
could  have  added  anything  to  his  translation.  James  Melville 
records  in  his  "Diary"3  that  when  he  visited  Stirling,  in  1574, 
he  saw  the  young  king,  and  he  describes  him  as  "  the  sweitest 
sight  in  Europe  that  day,  for  strange  and  extraordinar  gifts 
of  ingyne,  judgment,  memorie,  and  language;"  and  he  thus 
proceeds,  "I  heard  him  discours,  walking  up  and  doune  in 
the  auld  Lady  Mar's  hand — of  knowledge  and  ignorance,  to 
my  grait  mervell  and  estonishment."  He  had  a  special  ecstacy 
in  theological  disputations,  and  when,  in  his  twenty-first  year, 

1  In  1596  the  General  Assembly  2  Burton,  History  of  Scotland,  vol. 

sent  a  deputation  to  him,  to  warn  V,  p.  389. 

him  not  to  talk  during  sermon,  and  3  P.    48,    "Woodrow    Society  edi- 

to  abstain    from    swearing,   "  with  tiou. 
which  he  was  blotted." 


he  held  a  solemn  debate  at  Holyrood  with  the  Jesuit  Gordon, 
a  cadet  of  the  house  of  Huntly,  he  bore  himself  bravely 
through  the  controversy.  Grotius  sang  the  praises  of  his 
learned  youth,  and  to  him,  in  his  fourteenth  year,  Beza 
dedicated  his  "  Icones."  He  was  under  twenty  when  he  pro 
duced  his  "  Paraphrase  upon  the  Revelation  of  St.  John,"  and 
little  more  than  twenty  when  he  published  "Ane  Fruitful 
Meditatione,"  &c.,  on  some  verses  of  the  twentieth  chapter 
of  the  same  Book — "  By  the  maist  Christian  king  and  syncere 
professour,  and  chief  defender  of  the  faith,  James  the  Sixth, 
King  of  Scottis."  In  1584  he  published  "The  Essayes  of  a 
Prentise  in  the  divine  arte  of  Poesie."  In  his  manhood,  as  in 
his  earlier  years,  Biblical  studies  had  an  irresistible  charm 
for  him,  and  he  composed  commentaries  and  translated 
Psalms.1  Quotations  from  Scripture  in  illustration  of  some 
argument,  or  to  give  point  to  some  statement,  were  on  all 
occasions  flowing  from  his  tongue ;  his  common  talk  was 
characterized  by  allusions  to  the  Bible,  in  season  and  out 
of  season.  He  "wondrously  coveted  learned  discussions," 
and  during  such  discussions  he  delighted  in  pouring  out  his 
erudition  in  full  flood.  "As  he  had  been  deprived  by  the 
accident  of  birth  of  his  true  position  as  a  theological  pro 
fessor,  he  lost  no  opportunity  of  turning  his  throne  into  a 
pulpit,  and  his  sceptre  into  a  controversial  pen."2  "Having," 
as  he  confessed,  "  a  natural  and  salmon -like  affection  to  see 
the  place  of  his  breeding,"  he  came  down  to  Edinburgh  in 
1617,  and  was  inundated  not  only  with  Latin  harangues, 
but  when  he  went,  on  his  fifty-first  birthday,  up  to  the  Castle 
to  visit  the  room  he  was  born  in,  a  boy  was  stationed  at  the 
gate  to  salute  him  with  an  address  in  Hebrew.  He  held 
disputations  also  at  St.  Andrews  and  Stirling,  during  which, 
and  especially  after  which,  he  played  the  part  of  a  pedant 
and  buffoon.  It  was  profound  satisfaction  to  him,  in  the  prime 

1  "  His  translation  of  the  Psalter,"        2  Motley,  Life  and  Death  of  John 
as  Bishop  William  intimates,  "  was     of  Barneveld,  vol.  I,  p.  54,  London, 
stayed  in  the  one-and-thirty  Psalm,"     1874. 
and  his  coadjutor  was  the  Earl  of 


of  life,  when  he  stirred  up  such  antagonists  as  Bellarmine  and 
Scioppius,  and  it  was  "bliss  beyond  compare  "  when  a  pamphlet 
of  a  hundred  pages  which  he  had  written  in  a  week,  brought 
out  from  Cardinal  Du  Perron  a  reply  of  a  thousand  folio  pages. 
He  wrote  at  this  time  a  "Monitory  Epistle  to  all  Christian 
Monarchs,  free  Princes,  and  States,"  and  republished  his  Triplici 
nodo  triplex  cuneus,  to  which  Bellarmine  replied  with  no 
small  craft  and  power.  The  question  concerned  Garnett,  one  of 
the  conspirators  who  suffered  for  his  connection  with  the 
Gunpowder  Plot,  and  whom  the  Catholics  were  canonizing  as 
a  martyr  to  the  inviolability  of  the  secrets  of  the  confessional. 
Bishop  Andrewes  replied  to  Fronto  Ducaeus  in  his  Tortura 
Torti,  and  Casaubon  also  composed  an  Epistola  which  brought 
upon  him  a  Eesponsio  from  Andreas  Eudsemon- Johannes1 
(L'Heureux),  second  in  virulence  and  effrontery  only  to  Sciop 
pius  himself.  To  these  polemical  efforts  of  the  king  flattering 
allusions  are  made  in  the  Dedication  prefixed  to  our  Bibles : — 
"  To  go  forward  with  the  confidence  and  resolution  of  a  man 
in  maintaining  the  truth  of  Christ,  and  propagating  it  far  and 
near,  is  that  which  hath  so  bound  and  firmly  knit  the  hearts 
of  all  your  majesty's  loyal  and  religious  people  unto  you,  that 
your  very  name  is  precious  among  them :  their  eye  doth  behold 
you  with  comfort,  and  they  bless  you  in  their  hearts,  as  that 
sanctified  person  who,  under  God,  is  the  immediate  author  of 
their  true  happiness.  And  this  their  contentment  doth  not 
diminish  or  decay,  but  every  day  increaseth  and  taketh 
strength,  when  they  observe  that  the  zeal  of  your  majesty 
toward  the  house  of  God  doth  not  slack  or  go  backward,  but 
is  more  and  more  kindled,  manifesting  itself  abroad  in  the 
farthest  parts  of  Christendom,  by  writing  in  defence  of  the 
truth  (which  hath  given  such  a  blow  unto  that  man  of  sin  as 
will  not  be  healed),  and  every  day  at  home,  by  religious  and 
learned  discourse,  by  frequenting  the  house  of  God,  by  hearing 
the  Word  preached,  by  cherishing  the  teachers  thereof,  by  car 
ing  for  the  Church,  as  a  most  tender  and  loving  nursing  father." 
But  his  love  of  orthodoxy  was  overborne  by  his  worship  of 

1  Life  of  Casaubon,  by  Mark  Pattison,  Eector  of  Lincoln  College,  p.  351, 
London,  1875. 


prerogative,  as  when  he  ordered  the  Calvinistic  work  of  Pareus 
on  Romans  to  be  burned  by  the  hangman  in  Oxford  and  Lon 
don,  because  a  preacher  had  vindicated  some  notions  on  the 
liberty  of  the  subject  out  of  that  erudite  commentary.  In  the 
same  spirit  he  opposed  and  wrote  against  Conrad  Vorstius  as 
an  anti-St.  John,  and  dictated  to  their  High  Mightinesses  of 
Holland  that,  in  the  case  of  such  a  heretic,  they  should  not 
"  bear  the  sword  in  vain."  He  ordered  his  works  to  be 
burned,  and  he  inscribed  a  treatise  against  him,  thus :  "  To 
the  honour  of  our  Lord  and  Saviour  Jesus  Christ,  the  eternall 
Sonne  of  the  eternall  Father,  to  whom  His  most  humble  and 
most  obliged  servant,  James,  by  the  grace  of  God,  king  of 
Great  Britaine,  France,  and  Ireland,  Defender  of  the  faith, 
doth  dedicate  and  consecrate  this  his  Declaration."  His 
interest  in  the  controversies  raging  in  the  Low  Countries  was 
so  intense  and  personal  that,  in  1618,  he  sent  Hall,  Davenant, 
and  Balcanquhal  as  representatives  to  the  Synod  of  Dort,  and 
loaded  them  with  numerous  charges  as  to  their  duties  and 
aims.1  But  tolerance  of  divergent  opinion  was  distasteful 
to  him,  and  when  his  voluble  logic  and  learning  failed  to 
convert  Bartholomew  Legget  from  Arianism,  he  sent  him  to 
be  burnt  at  Smithfield,  18th  March,  1611.  And  a  month 
later,  Edward  Wightman,  for  a  combination  of  heresies,  was 
burnt  in  the  market  place  of  Lichfield — dark  spots  of  fire  and 
blood  staining  the  year  that  witnessed  the  happy  publication 
of  the  version  which  the  royal  humour  had  originated  and 
patronized.  It  was  a  work  after  his  own  heart  when,  in 
1623,  he  tried  to  enjoin  certain  topics  for  treatment  in  ser 
mons,  and  to  proscribe  others,  as  Predestination,  Election, 
Reprobation,  and  the  Universality,  Efficacy,  Resistibility 
and  Irresistibility  of  God's  grace.  To  this  marvellous  famil 
iarity  with  Scripture, — a  familiarity  which  grew  with  his 
growth,  and  became  at  length  as  distinctive  of  him  as  his 

1  Yet  John  Hales  of  Eton,  "  the  in  his  theology,   being  induced  by 

ever  memorable,"  who,  as  chaplain  what  he  heard  and  saw  at  the  Dutch 

to  Sir  Dudley  Carlton,  ambassador  Assembly,    to    "  bid    John    Calvin 

at  the  Hague,  attended  the  Synod  of  good  night." 
Dort,  came  back  to  England  changed 


circular  hobble1  or  his  thickly  quilted  hose  and  doublet — 
are  we  largely,  if  not  solely,  indebted  for  our  Authorized 
Version,  which  is  dedicated  "To  the  most  high  and  mighty 
prince,  James." 

The  people  in  England  had  been  at  some  loss  to  conjecture 
what  the  ecclesiastical  leanings  of  the  expected  sovereign  might 
be.  The  Catholics  hoped  to  get  some  relaxation  of  the  penal  laws 
from  the  son  of  her  whom  they  idolized  as  a  martyr.  But  he 
had  written  a  hard,  unfilial  letter  to  his  mother,  refusing  to 
accord  her  any  present  or  prospective  royal  title,  and  his  selfish 
love  for  his  own  interests  had  overpowered  his  anxieties  about 
her  life;  for  a  few  honeyed  words  and  the  present  of  some  couples 
of  English  buckhounds,  sealed  his  desertion  of  her  cause,  while 
she,  in  her  turn,  had  cursed  him, disinherited  him, and  bequeathed 
her  kingdom  to  Philip  of  Spain.  The  Puritans  had  naturally 
some  high  anticipations,  for  in  1590  the  king,  "with  bonnet  off 
and  hand  lifted  up  to  heaven,"  had  said  in  Edinburgh  to  the 
General  Assembly  at  its  eighth  session  "  that  he  thanked  God 
for  being  born  king  in  such  a  kirk,  the  sincerest  kirk  in  the 
world — the  kirk  of  Geneva  keepe  pasche  and  yuile ;  what  have 
they  for  them  ?  as  for  our  neighbour  kirk  in  England,  it  is  an 
evil  said  mass  in  English,  wanting  nothing  but  the  liftings. 
I  charge  you,  my  good  ministers,  doctors,  elders,  nobles,  gentle 
men,  and  barons,  to  stand  to  your  purity  and  to  exhort  the 
people  to  do  the  same,  and  I  forsooth,  so  long  as  I  bruik  my 
life,  shall  maintain  the  same."  He  had  also  written  to  Elizabeth 
in  favour  of  some  of  the  stout  Puritans  who  suffered  under 
her  reign.  No  wonder  that  Archbishop  Whitgift,  knowing  the 
vacillation  of  the  king,  and  though  he  must  have  read  the 
Basilicon  Doron  published  in  1599 — had  some  terror  of  what 
he  called  "  a  Scottish  mist "  settling  down  on  Canterbury.  For 
the  king,  after  his  great  change  of  opinion  on  church  government, 
was,  as  might  be  expected  from  his  temperament,  visited  with 
occasional  qualms — the  clouds  threatened  to  return  after  the 

1£'When  the   king  came  to  the  as    his    custom  was.      Mr.   Eobert 

chamber  in  Holyrood,"  where  persons  (Bruce)  casteth  himself  to  meet  him." 

were  waiting  for  him,  "  he  walked  Calderwood,  History  of  the  Church 

in  a  circle  round  about  the  house,  of  Scotland,  vol.  VI,  p.  218. 


rain.  When  he  had  read  Calderwood's  Altare  Damascenum1 
he  was  observed  to  be  somewhat  pensive,  and  on  one  of  his 
Episcopal  courtiers  telling  him  that  they  would  answer  it,  he 
replied  tartly — "  What  will  you  answer,  man  ?  There  is  nothing 
here  but  Scripture,  reason,  and  the  Fathers."  There  had  also 
been  previous  fluctuations.  Though  the  Convention  of  Leith,  in 
1572,  had  brought  in  the  elements  of  Episcopacy,  the  National 
Covenant  was  subscribed  by  the  king  and  his  household  in 
1580,  and  the  Second  Book  of  Discipline,  adopted  in  1581,  set 
out  a  full  Presbyterian  platform.  But,  by  a  reactionary  process, 
Episcopacy  was  re-introduced  — "  bishops,  abbots,  and  other 
prelates  were  authorized  to  sit  and  vote  in  Parliament";  and 
in  1610  the  bishops  got  from  the  General  Assembly  meeting 
in  Glasgow  the  right  or  power  to  ordain.2  Such  changes, 
in  some  of  which  the  king  was  personally  prominent  as  usual, 
could  not  but  raise  suspicious  and  anxious  forecastings  in 

But  the  flatteries  heaped  upon  James  in  England  would  have 
turned  a  stronger  head.  When  at  the  Hampton  Court  Conference, 
he  had  said  of  the  Puritans,  "  I  will  make  them  conform  them 
selves,  or  I  will  harry  them  out  of  the  land,  or  yet  do  worse,"  one 
lord  exclaimed  that  his  majesty  "  spoke  by  the  instinct  of  the 
spirit  of  God."  His  Grace  of  Canterbury,  swallowing  the  "sugared 
bait,"  ascribed  the  royal  words  "  to  the  special  assistance  of 
God's  spirit,"  and  Bancroft,  on  his  knees,  gave  thanks  to  God 
for  "  the  singular  mercy  of  such  a  king,  as  since  Christ  the  like, 
he  thought,  had  not  been  seen."  When  Selden  was  challenged 
by  the  king  for  applying  such  phrases  as  "  unlimited  liberty  " 
and  "  confident  daring  "  to  his  exposition  of  some  parts  of  the 
Apocalypse,  the  accomplished  critic  and  scholar  could,  in  reply 
ing,  bring  himself  to  speak  of  the  royal  interpretation  as  "  the 
clearest  sun  among  the  lesser  lights,  and  to  call  it  a  performance 
most  divine  and  kingly."  One  may  contrast  Bacon's  adulation3 

1  Calderwood  was  banished  by  the  the  statement  made  in  2  Ki.  xvi,  10. 

king  for  his  stout  defence  of  Presby-  3  Works,  vol.  XII,  p.  70,  ed.  Mon- 

tery,  and  during  his  six  years'  exile  tague. 

in  Holland  he   composed  the  book  2  Grubb's    Ecclesiastical  History, 

referred  to — its  name  being  based  on  vol.  II,  p.  293. 


with  the  honest  and  pointed  words  of  George  Buchanan  in  his 
Dedication  to  his  royal  pupil  of  his  "Baptistes."  Yet  there  must 
have  been  no  small  amount  of  learning  in  the  man  who  was  so 
highly  praised,  not  only  by  courtly  churchmen  like  Bancroft, 
Williams,  and  Abbot,  but  by  Bacon  and  Casaubon.  The  king's 
influence  told  even  on  Hugh  Broughton,  whose  stiff  knees  were 
suppled  in  the  royal  presence. 

There  had  been  handed  to  the  monarch,  on  his  way  through 
the  "  promised  land  "  to  London,  the  millenary  petition — a 
petition  signed  by  seven  hundred  and  fifty  clergymen  of  the 
Church  of  England  "  groaning  under  a  common  burden  of 
human  rites  and  ceremonies."  These  points  were  rather  sub 
ordinate  in  character,  especially  as  compared  with  these  great 
principles  which  contending  parties  had  fought  for  in  Scot 
land  with  sacred  fury.  James  was  now  in  no  danger  of 
being  confronted  by  a  "  beardless  boy,"  or  of  being  roughly 
held  by  the  sleeve,  defied  and  scolded  to  his  face  as  "God's 
silly  vassal  "  ;  nor  was  there  any  chance  of  a  sermon  being 
preached  before  him  inveighing  against  the  power  or  person 
that  would  bring  in  the  "  bludie  gullie "  of  despotism.  He 
ran  no  risk  of  being  detained  by  force  in  any  baronial  mansion 
as  he  had  been  in  his  sixteenth  year  at  the  Castle  of  Ruthven 
when,  bursting  into  tears  at  the  insult,  he  had  been  saluted 
with  the  gruff  utterance  of  the  Master  of  Glamis,  "  Better 
bairns  greet  than  bearded  men."  The  question  was  not  as  be 
tween  prelacy  and  presbytery,  or  between  organized  societies 
struggling  for  supremacy  as  for  life,  but  between  members  and 
office-bearers  of  the  same  established  church.  Therefore, 
neither  a  council  nor  an  assembly  was  convened  to  consider 
the  millenary  petition,  but  simply  a  Conference.  A  royal  pro 
clamation  was  issued  on  the  24th  of  October,  "touching  a  meet 
ing  for  hearing  and  for  the  determining  things  pretended  to 
be  amiss  in  the  church."  The  day  originally  fixed  was  the 
first  of  November,  but  as  the  plague  was  raging  at  the  time, 
there  was  a  postponement  for  a  few  weeks.  Though  Parlia 
ment  had  not  met  and  James  had  not  been  crowned,  the  meet 
ing  was  ultimately  held  in  the  Drawing-room  of  Hampton 
Court  Palace  on  Saturday,  Monday,  and  Wednesday,  the  14th, 


16th,  and  18th,  of  January  1604.1  There  came,  as  summoned,  to 
the  conference  nine  bishops — Whitgift,  Archbishop  of  Canter 
bury  ;  Bancroft,  Bishop  of  London  ;  Matthew,  of  Durham  ; 
Bilson,  of  Winchester  ;  Babington,  of  Worcester  ;  Rudd,  of  St. 
David's  ;  Watson,  of  Chichester ;  Robinson,  of  Carlisle  ;  Dove, 
of  Peterborough :  Five  deans — Montague,  Dean  of  the  Chapel 
Royal ;  Andrewes,  of  Westminster ;  Overall,  of  St.  Paul's ; 
Barlow  of  Chester  ;  Bridges,  of  Salisbury  ;  with  King,  Arch 
deacon  of  Nottingham ;  Field,  afterwards  Dean  of  Gloucester. 
There  were  also  at  the  Conference  some  members  of  the  Privy 
Council  and  five  ecclesiastical  lawyers,  Sir  Daniel  Dunne,  Sir 
Thomas  Cornpton,  Sir  Richard  Swale,  Sir  John  Bennet,  and 
Dr.  Drury ;  Galloway,  the  king's  Scottish  chaplain  (admitted 
by  courtesy) ;  Reynolds,  President  of  Corpus  Christi  College, 
Oxford;  Sparke,  Prebendary  of  Lincoln ;  Chaderton  and  Knew- 
stubbs,  two  Fellows  and  Divines  from  Cambridge.  The  last 
four,  who  appeared  in  "  Turkey  gowns,"  represented  the  plain 
tiffs  or  Puritan  clergy.  Reynolds,2  who  had  been  Dean  of 
Lincoln,  was  perhaps  the  most  learned  divine  of  the  period.  He 
was  not  chosen  in  any  way  by  his  own  party,  but  he  obeyed  the 
royal  summons.  His  friends  thought  that  he  had  not  risen  to 
the  occasion,  but  the  king  snubbed  him  unceremoniously,  or,  as 
Harrington  reports,  "  used  with  him  upbraidings  rather  than 
arguments,  .  .  .  bad  the  petitioners  awaie  with  their 
snivellings,  &c."3  Bancroft  was  as  surly  and  rude  to  him  as  the 
king,  who  could,  however,  sometimes  be  playful.  Reynolds 
had  objected  to  the  term  "worship"  in  the  Marriage  Service, 
and  the  king  merrily  replied,  "  I'm  thinking  that  if  you 
had  a  gudewife  yoursel,  Doctor,  you  wouldria  think  any 
worship  or  reverence  too  much  for  her.  Many  a  man 
speaks  of  Robin  Hood  who  never  shot  in  his  bow."  These 
persons  were  never  all  present  on  one  day.  The  four  "  com 
plaints  "  presented  to  the  king  referred  to  the  church  and 
its  service,  to  its  ministers  and  their  living  and  maintenance, 

1  On  October  21,  1603,  there  had  2  Sometimes,  if  not  usually,  given 
been  issued    a    royal  proclamation  as    Remolds,  occasionally    as    Ray- 
forbidding  all  petitioning  on  religious  nolds  or  Raiuolds. 
questions.  3  Nugse  Antiquse,  vol.  II,  p.  228. 


and  to  discipline.  Heylin  remarks,  "  The  complainants,  how 
ever,  sped  no  better  in  relation  to  the  forms  of  worship,  than 
they  had  done  in  reference  unto  points  of  doctrine.  And  some 
what  also  was  observed  touching  some  errors  in  the  old  trans 
lation  of  the  English  Psalter,  as  also  in  the  Gospels  and 
Epistles,  as  they  stood  in  the  liturgy.  But  their  objections  were 
so  stale,  and  so  often  answered,  that  the  bishops  and  conform 
able  party  went  away  with  an  easy  victor}^."  1  Thus  the 
object  for  which  the  meeting  was  ostensibly  summoned  failed, 
and  another  great  opportunity  was  lost  for  healing  and  har 
monizing  the  divisions  in  the  English  Church.  The  Bishop  of 
London  lost  his  temper  very  early  in  the  discussion,  and  did 
not  recover  it  again.2  Bancroft,  Barlow,  and  the  king  were 
apparently  quite  unqualified  in  tact  and  temper  to  interfere 
in  so  delicate  an  adjustment.  But  at  the  meeting  on  Monday, 
when  other  matters  had  been  disposed  of,  a  new  translation 
of  the  Bible  was  abruptly  proposed.  There  had  been  some 
conversation  on  a  portion  of  the  Apocryphal  Books,  "which  was 
answered  by  the  Bishops  of  London  and  Winchester,  but  more 
pointedly  by  his  majesty  himself3  who,  finding  there  had 
been  great  questioning  amongst  the  lords  at  that  place  of 
Ecclesiasticus  (xlviii,  10)  with  which,  as  if  it  had  been  their 
rest  and  upshot,  they  (who  objected  to  it)  began  afresh;  and 
seeing  them  so  to  urge  it,  and  stand  upon  it,  called  for  a  Bible  ; 
first,  showed  the  author  of  that  book,  who  he  was ;  then  the 
cause  why  he  wrote  that  book  ;  next  analysed  the  chapter 
itselfe  ;  arguing  and  demonstrating  that,  whatsoever  Ben  Sirach 
had  said  there  of  Elias,  Elias  had,  in  his  own  person,  while 
he  lived,  performed  and  accomplished  :  concluding,  first,  with 
a  serious  checke  to  Dr.  Remolds  that  it  was  not  good  to  im 
pose,  upon  a  man  that  was  dead,  a  sense  never  meant  by  him ; 
secondly,  with  a  pleasant  apostrophe  to  the  lords,  '  What,  trow 
ye,  make  these  men  so  angry  with  Eccksiasticus  ?  By  my 

1  History  of  Presbyterianism,p.  373.  3  Sum  and  substance  of  the  con- 
Cartwright  might  probably,  had  he  ference      .      .      .      contracted     by 
survived,  been  a  member  of  the  con-  William  Barlow,  Doctor  of  Divinity 
ference.  and  Dean  of  Chester,  London,  1604, 

2  Bluut's  Plain  Account,  p.  74.  reprinted  in  1625  and  1638. 


soule,  I  think  he  was  a  bishop  or  else  they  would  never  use 
him  so  ! '  But  for  the  generall,  it  was  appointed  by  his  majesty, 
that  Dr.  Remolds  should  note  those  chapters  in  the  Apocrypha 
Booke,  where  those  offensive  places  were,  and  should  bring 
them  unto  the  Lord  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  against  Wed 
nesday  next."  There  was  a  good  deal  of  by-play  on  the 
part  of  the  king,  to  whom  silence  was  impossible  in  such  a 
scene,  and  he  had  never  had  so  grand  an  opportunity.  He 
had  a  lively  recollection  of  some  Scottish  scenes,  and  when  the 
Puritans  hinted  at  district  meetings  for  conference,  the  king 
cried — "  No  ;  then  Jack  and  Tom  and  Will  and  Dick  shall  meet 
and  censure  me  and  my  government.  .  .  .  Stay,  I  pray  you," 
he  said  to  Dr.  Reynolds,  "  for  one  seven  years  before  you  ask  that 
of  me,  and  if  you  find  me  pursy  and  fat,  and  my  windpipe 
stuffed,  I  may  listen  to  you.  .  .  .  Scottish  Presbytery 
agreeth  as  well  with  a  monarchy  as  God  and  the  Devil." 

According  to  Dr.  Barlow's  account,1  Dr.  Reinolds,  after  speak 
ing  upon  several  subjects,  moved  his  majesty,  "that  there  might 
be  a  new  translation  of  the  Bible  because  those  which  were 
allowed  in  the  reigne  of  King  Henry  the  eight  and  Edward 
the  sixt  were  corrupt  and  not  answerable  to  the  truth  of  the 
originall.  For  example,  first,  Galat.  iv,  25,  the  Greeke  word 
a-va-roix^  is  not  well  translated  as  it  now  is,  '  bordereth ' 
neyther  expressing  the  force  of  the  word,  nor  the  Apostle's 
sense,  nor  the  situation  of  the  place.  Secondly,  Psal.  cv,  28, 
'  they  were  not  obedient '  ;  the  original  being,  '  they  were 
not  disobedient.'  Thirdly,  Psal.  cvi,  30,  '  Then  stood  up 
Phineas  and  prayed':  the  Hebrew  hath  '  executed  judgment.' 
To  which  motion  there  was  at  the  present  no  gainsaying,  the 
objections  being  triviall,  and  old,  and  already  in  print,  often 
answered ;  only  my  lord  of  London  well  added,  that  if  every 
man's  humor  should  be  followed,  there  would  be  no  end  of 
translating.  Whereupon  his  highness  wished  that  some  especiall 
paines  should  be  taken  in  that  behalfe  for  one  uniform  transla 
tion  ;  professing  that  he  could  never  yet  see  a  Bible  well  trans- 

1    Reprinted  also  from  the  Har-     well,  History  of  Conferences,  p.  167, 
leian  Miscellany  in  the  Phoenix,  vol.     3d  ed.,  Oxford,  1849. 
I,  p.  139,  London,  1707,and  by  Card- 


lated  in  English,  but  the  worst  of  all  his  majesty  thought  the 
Geneva  to  be;  and  this  to  be  done  by  the  best  learned  in  both  the 
universities,  after  them  to  be  reviewed  by  the  bishops  and  the 
chief  learned  of  the  church ;  from  them  to  be  presented  to  the 
Privy  Council ;  and  lastly  to  be  ratified  by  his  royal  authority  ; 
and  so  this  whole  church  to  be  bound  unto  it  and  none  other. 
Marry  withal  he  gave  this  caveat,  upon  a  word  cast  out  by 
my  lord  of  London,  that  no  marginal  notes  should  be  added, 
having  found  in  them  which  are  annexed  to  the  Geneva  trans 
lation,  which  he  saw  in  a  Bible  given  him  by  an  English  lady, 
some  notes  very  partial,  untrue,  seditious,  and  savouring  too 
much  of  dangerous  and  traitorous  conceits,  supporting  his 
opinion  by  the  section  of  the  first  chapter  of  Exodus  and  the 
nineteenth  verse,  where  the  marginal  note  alloweth  disobedience 
unto  the  king  ;x  and  2  Chronicles  xv,  16,  the  note  taxeth  Asa  for 
deposing  his  mother  only ;  and  not  killing  her." 

The  account  given  by  the  translators  themselves  in  their  own 
preface  differs  in  some  respect  from  that  of  Dr.  Barlow  :  "  The 
very  historical  truth  is,  that  upon  the  importunate  petitions  of 
the  Puritans  at  his  majesty's  coming  to  this  crown,  the  conference 
at  Hampton  Court  having  been  appointed  for  hearing  their  com 
plaints,  when  by  force  of  reason  they  were  put  from  all  other 
grounds  they  had  recourse  at  the  last  to  this  shift,  that  they  could 
not  with  good  conscience  subscribe  to  the  communion-book,  since 
it  maintained  the  Bible  as  it  was  there  translated,  which  was,  as 
they  said,  a  most  corrupted  translation.  And  although  this  was 
judged  to  be  but  a  very  poor  and  empty  shift,  yet  even  here 
upon  did  his  majesty  begin  to  bethink  himself  of  the  good  that 
might  ensue  by  a  new  translation,  and  presently  gave  order  for 
this  translation  which  is  now  presented  unto  thee.  This  much  to 
satisfy  our  scrupulous  brethren."  It  is,  however,  chiefly  to  Dean 
Barlow's  report  that  we  owe  our  knowledge  of  what  was  said 
and  done  at  the  conference.  Barlow  wrote  at  the  request  of 
Whitgift,  and  refers  in  the  preface  to  the  "  untimely  death  of 
him  who  first  imposed  it  on  me,  with  whom  is  buried  the 
farnousest  glory  of  our  English  Church."  As  Reynolds  com- 

1  But  his  own  revisers,  undeterred  Heading  to  Exodus  ii, "  the  godliness 
by  the  royal  censure,  prefix  this  of  the  midwives." 


plained  of  the  unfairness  of  Barlow's  account,  one  is  tempted 
to  quote  the  characteristic  remark  of  Fuller  on  this  point — 
"  when  the  Israelites  go  down  to  the  Philistines  to  whet  all  their 
iron  tools,  no  wonder  if  they  set  a  sharp  edge  on  their  own  and 
a  blunt  one  on  their  enemies'  weapons."1  Barlow  does  not  pro 
fess  a  full  report,  for  his  words  to  the  reader  are — "  The  vigour 
of  every  objection  with  the  sum  of  each  answer,  I  guess,  I  miss 
not."  Reports  had  been  sent  abroad,  he  tells  us,  "  some  partial, 
some  untrue,  some  slanderous."  But  it  will  not  be  found  in  Bar 
low  that  the  king  spoke  strongly  against  the  corruptions  of 
the  church  for  five  hours  together,  though  Galloway's  account 
implies  that  the  bishops  were  alarmed  by  his  language,  and 
Bishop  Andre wes  is  reported  to  have  said  that  "on  that  day  his 
majesty  did  wonderfully  play  the  Puritan,"2  the  shrewd  prelate 
apparently  taking  it  to  be  only  a  histrionic  display.  The  king 
himself  wrote  a  vainglorious  account  of  the  conference  to  some 
body  in  Scotland  whom  he  calls  "  honest  Blake,"  telling  how 
he  "  had  kept  such  a  revel  with  the  Puritans  and  peppered 
them  soundly,"  adding  some  rather  indecent  expressions.  In 
this  letter  he  alludes  to  another  person  whom  he  calls  the 
"  Beagle."  He  was  fond  of  giving  nicknames,  and  he  begins  an 
epistle  to  Lord  Cranbourne  with  "  my  dear  little  Beagle."  3 

Now,  from  these  narratives,  it  is  evident  that  defects  in  the 
current  versions  were  not  among  the  things  complained  of,  and 
they  had  no  place  in  the  millenary  petition.  Nor  had  there 
been  any  agitation  on  the  subject ;  no  body  felt  aggrieved,  and 
there  had  been  no  consultation  and  arrangement  among  the  Puri 
tan  members.  The  proposal  seems  to  have  been  a  momentary 
thought  on  the  part  of  Reynolds  who  spoke  only  for  himself,  if 
Barlow's  account  is  to  be  credited  ;  and  if  his  party  afterwards 
acquiesced  in  the  proposal,  their  consent  may  have  been  based 
on  the  renderings  in  the  prayer-book  version  of  the  Psalms,  for 

1  Church  History,  vol.  Ill,  p.  193,  fereuce"  may  be  seen  in  a  letter  of 
London,  1837.  Matthew    Hutton,    Archbishop    of 

2  Calderwood,  History,  vol.  VI,  p.  York,  and  there  is  "  an  Account "  by 
421.  Toby  Matthew,  Bishop  of  Durham — 

3  One  brief  account  of  some  points  both  printed  in  Cardwell's  Coufer- 
"  like  to  be  brought  up  at  the  con-  euces,  p.  151,  &c. 


the  discussion  referred  to  it,  and  two  of  the  instances  adduced  by 
Reynolds  are  from  the  psalter.  The  deliberations  about  a  new 
revision,  so  suddenly  introduced,  seem  to  have  occupied  but  a 
very  brief  period — a  few  minutes  of  the  second  day's  confer 
ence — and  as  suddenly  they  closed.  No  one  present  dreamed 
that  this  light  off-handed  talk  would  produce  the  book  which 
for  more  than  two  centuries  and  a  half  has  been  the  cherished 
treasure  of  all  the  millions  speaking  the  English  tongue. 

But  there  are  also  some  assertions  in  these  statements  which 
cannot  be  accepted.  The  words  put  in  the  king's  mouth  in 
reference  to  the  Genevan  translation  and  notes  "which  he 
saw  in  a  Bible  given  him  by  an  English  lady,"  are  wholly 
incredible.  The  language  implies  that  he  had  been  till  very 
recently  a  stranger  to  the  Genevan  version,  and  had  only  been 
brought  into  a  brief  and  accidental  acquaintance  with  it  since 
his  arrival  in  England.  James  was,  indeed,  one  of  those  men 
who  are  consistent  in  inconsistency,  and  of  whom  very  contra 
dictory  things  may  be  believed ;  for  the  confidence  with  which 
he  pronounced  the  Genevan  version  the  worst  which  he  had  ever 
seen  implies  that  he  was  really  no  stranger  either  to  it  or  to  other 
translations.  Laud,  on  his  trial,  quotes  this  royal  disparagement 
without  any  misgiving  as  to  its  accuracy.  But  if  Barlow  did  not 
misunderstand  the  king  on  a  point  with  which,  as  an  English 
dignitary,  he  might  not  be  very  familiar,  if  James  has  not 
been  in  some  way  mis-reported,  his  virtual  disclaimer  of  all 
knowledge  up  to  a  late  period  of  the  Genevan  notes  and  ver 
sion  was  simply  a  bold  unblushing  falsehood,  a  clumsy  attempt 
to  sever  himself  from  his  earlier  Scottish  beliefs  and  usages 
that  he  might  win  favour  with  his  English  churchmen.  His 
affectation  of  ignorance  could  scarcely  impose  on  some  of  his 
audience.  For  from  his  boyhood  he  had  known  no  other 
Bible.  It  had  been  read  to  him  often  till  he  must  have  been 
very  weary,  and  he  had  often  been  made  to  read  it  in  terror  of 
mispronouncing  any  words  in  it.  It  had  been  set  before  him  as 
punctually  as  his  daily  meals,  and  it  had  been  scourged  into 
him  by  his  stern  pedagogues  :  the  texts  of  all  the  sermons 
he  had  ever  listened  to  were  selected  out  of  it,  and  the  long 
discourses  under  which  he  had  yawned  and  shut  his  eyes  were 

VOL.   II.  M 


thickly  garnished  with  quotations  taken  from  it.1  It  had  been 
printed  in  his  own  kingdom  and  dedicated  to  him  in  1576-79, 
the  dedication  solemnly  warning  him  "  to  remember  dili 
gently  how  the  setting  forth  and  authorizing  of  this  book 
pertains  to  his  charge."  The  divines,  both  Prelatic  and  Presby 
terian,  among  whom  he  mingled  and  with  whom  he  often  con 
tended,  cited  the  Genevan  version  with  great  profusion.  Nay, 
more,  he  had  himself  published  some  expositions  of  Scripture 
before  he  came  up  to  England,  and  he  uses  without  disguise  the 
Genevan  version,  as  in  his  Meditation  on  2  Chron.  xv,  25,  and 
on  Rev.  xx,  25,  29.  Even  in  the  collected  edition  of  his 
works,  edited  by  the  Bishop  of  Winchester  in  1616,  the  text 
of  these  treatises  has  not  been  conformed  to  the  Authorized 
Version,  though  the  royal  Scotch  has  been  turned  into  English. 
Other  pieces  in  the  same  volume — "  Meditation  on  the  Lord's 
Prayer" — "a  Paterne  for  a  king's  inauguration"  (1617),  follow  the 
present  translation.  Some  of  his  prelates  might  have  told 
him  that  the  obnoxious  note  attached  to  Exodus  i,  19,  of  which 
he  complained,  was  to  be  found  in  their  own  Bishops'  Bible 2  in 
a  briefer  form — "  it  was  better  to  obey  God  than  man,"  and 
that  the  note  to  2  Chron.  xv,  16,  occurs  also  in  several  editions 
of  the  same  version.  He  might  have  been  further  informed 
that  the  note  to  Romans  xiii,  and  especially  to  Titus  iii,  1, 
in  the  disparaged  translation  might  satisfy  even  a  Stewart  in 
its  inculcation  of  obedience  and  loyalty,  and  in  its  investiture 
of  the  civil  magistrate  with  the  sword  of  persecution,  for  it 
declares  that  as  his  "  office  is  to  maintain  God's  glorie  in  His 
church,  he  ought  to  cut  off  all  such  rotten  and  infectuous 
members  from  the  bodie."  Besides,  in  the  three  passages  put 
forward  by  Dr.  Reynolds  as  arguments  for  a  revision,  the 
Genevan  version  is  correct.  Whatever  might  be  the  ex 
tent  of  the  king's  knowledge  of  the  Genevan  Bible,  he  had 

1  The  person  of  the  prince  was  at  being  meant  to  appal  the  heart  of 

length   deemed  too    sacred  for  the  the  royal  pupil, 
unsparing   application  of  the  birch,         2  There  is  no  note  in  the  editions 

and   a  substitute   was  procured  to  of  1568,  1572,  1575,  or  1578,  but  the 

bear  the  penalties — the  writhing  and  Genevan  note  occurs  in  the  editions 

howling    of    the    "whipping  boy"  of  1573,  1585,  and  1602. 


a  genuine  horror  of  some  of  its  notes.  In  the  account  of 
the  conference  given  by  Galloway,  his  Scottish  chaplain,  to 
the  Presbytery  of  Edinburgh — an  account  revised  by  the  king 
himself — he  says  "  Sundry,  as  they  favoured,  gave  out  copies 
of  things  here  concluded,  whereupon  myself  took  occasion, 
as  I  was  an  ear  and  eye  witness,  to  set  them  down,  and  pre 
sented  them  to  his  majesty,  who  with  his  own  hand  mended 
some  things,  and  eked  other  things  which  I  had  omitted  : 
which  corrected  copy  with  his  own  hand  I  have,  and  of  it 
have  sent  you  herein  the  just  transumpt  word  by  word." 
Then  we  find  the  following  as  the  second  of  the  articles,  "  On 
the  heads  which  his  majesty  would  have  reformed  at  this  time." 
" .  .  .  That  a  translation  be  made  of  the  whole  Bible,  as 
consonant  as  can  be  to  the  original  Hebrew  and  Greek  ;  and 
this  to  be  set  out  and  printed  without  any  marginal  notes,  and 
only  to  be  used  in  all  churches  of  England  in  time  of  divine 
service.  London,  this  10th  Februar,  1604." 

Few  of  the  clergy  assembled  had  any  reputation  as  Biblical 
scholars,  and  the  majority  of  the  bishops  present  at  the  meeting 
were  not  even  employed  as  translators.  Such  a  "comitial  con 
ference  "  was  neither  qualified  nor  prepared  to  entertain  and  dis 
cuss  the  momentous  question  ;  but  debate  was  needless,  for  the 
king  assented  to  the  proposal  of  Reynolds,  and  thus  was 
originated  the  present  version.  The  clergy  had  no  desire  for  a 
new  translation,  or  indeed  for  any  changes.  But  the  king  had 
a  morbid  liking  for  such  subjects,  and  he  at  once  took  up  the 
project  as  far  as  his  nature  could  earnestly  occupy  itself  with 
a  single  pursuit.  Biblical  lore  and  theological  subjects  had,  as 
we  have  said,  a  special  interest  for  him,  and  it  may  be  affirmed 
that  his  Biblical  erudition,  and  his  irrepressible  desire  to  show 
it  on  all  possible  occasions,  saved  the  proposal  of  Reynolds 
from  falling  into  the  same  tomb  as  did  all  the  other  topics  of 
conference.  Bancroft  spoke  truly,  when  he  afterwards  said, 
"  I  am  persuaded  his  royal  mind  rejoiceth  more  in  the  good 
hope  which  he  hath  for  the  happy  success  of  that  work,  than  of 
his  peace  concluded  with  Spain." 

Some  months  had  passed  after  the  conference ;  Parliament 
and  Convocation  had  met,  and  nothing  more  was  said  of  the 


new  translation.     But  the  project  of  a  new  translation  had  not 
been  allowed  to  drop. 

The  king  could  have  little  personal  knowledge  of  English 
scholars ;  but  a  careful  selection  of  them  was  made  by  some 
unknown,  but  very  competent  authority.  In  the  preface,  Ban 
croft  is  virtually  connected  with  the  nomination,  for  it  is  said 
of  him,  "  to  whom  not  only  we,  but  our  whole  church  was 
much  bound.  He  knew  by  his  wisdom,  that  it  is  a  preposter 
ous  order  to  teach  first,  and  to  learn  after ;  yea,  that  to  learn 
and  practice  together  is  neither  commendable  for  the  work 
man,  nor  safe  for  the  work.'  Therefore,  such  were  thought 
upon  as  could  modestly  say  with  St.  Hierome,  '  but  we  have 
learned  the  Hebrew  tongue  in  part,  and  in  the  Latin  we 
have  been  exercised  almost  from  our  very  cradle.' "  The  names 
of  the  persons  chosen  were  presented  for  the  royal  approbation, 
and  by  the  30th  of  June,  Bancroft  wrote  to  the  translators  at 
Cambridge,  that  it  was  the  king's  pleasure  that  they  should  with 
all  possible  speed  meet  together  in  their  university,  and  begin 
the  work.  On  the  22nd  of  July,  the  king  wrote  to  Bancroft, 
then  representing  the  See  of  Canterbury,  vacant  by  the  death 
of  Whitgift,  announcing  that  he  had  appointed  certain  learned 
men,  to  the  number  of  four-and-fifty,  for  the  translating 
of  the  Bible,  and  requiring  him  to  take  measures  whereby 
he  might  be  able  to  recompense  the  translators  by  church 
preferment.  "  Furthermore,  we  require  you  to  move  all  our 
bishops  to  inform  themselves  of  all  such  learned  men  within 
their  several  dioceses,  as  having  special  skill  in  the  Hebrew 
and  Greek  tongues,  have  taken  pains  in  their  private  studies 
of  the  Scriptures,  for  the  clearing  of  any  obscurities  either 
in  the  Hebrew  or  in  the  Greek,  or  touching  any  difficulties  or 
mistaking  in  the  former  English  translation,  which  we  have 
now  commanded  to  be  thoroughly  viewed  and  amended  ;  and 
thereupon,  to  write  unto  them,  earnestly  charging  them,  and 
signifying  our  pleasure  therein,  that  they  send  such  their 
observations  either  to  Mr.  Lively  our  Hebrew  reader  in 
Oxford,  or  to  Dr.  Andrewes,  Dean  of  Westminster,  to  be  im 
parted  to  the  rest  of  their  several  companies ;  that  so  our 
said  intended  translation  may  have  the  help  and  furtherance 


of  all  our  principal  learned  men  within  this  our  kingdom." 
Bancroft  wrote  again  to  the  Bishop  of  Norwich  as  follows : 
"  There  are  many,  as  your  lordship  perceiveth,  who  are  to  be 
employed  in  this  translation  of  the  Bible,  and  sundry  of  them 
must  of  necessity  have  their  charges  borne ;  which  his 
majesty  was  very  ready,  of  his  most  princely  disposition^ 
to  have  borne,  but  some  of  my  lords,  as  things  now  go,  did 
hold  it  inconvenient.  Whereupon  it  was  left  to  me,  to  move 
all  my  brethren,  the  bishops,  and  likewise  every  several  dean 
and  chapter,  to  contribute  to  this  work.  According,  therefore, 
to  my  duty,  I  heartily  pray  your  lordship,  not  only  to  think 
yourself  what  is  meet  for  you  to  give  for  this  purpose,  but 
likewise,  to  acquaint  your  dean  and  chapter,  not  only  with 
the  said  clause  in  his  majesty's  letter,  but  likewise  with  the 
meaning  of  it,  that  they  may  agree  on  such  a  sum  as  they 
mean  to  contribute.  I  do  not  think  that  a  thousand  marks 
will  finish  the  work  to  be  employed  as  aforesaid.  Whereof 
your  lordship,  with  your  dean  and  chapter,  having  due  con 
sideration,  I  must  require  you,  in  his  majesty's  name,  according 
to  his  good  pleasure,  in  that  behalf,  that  as  soon  as  possibly 
you  can  send  me  word  what  shall  be  expected  from  you, 
and  your  said  dean  and  chapter.  For  I  am  to  acquaint 
his  majesty  with  every  man's  liberality  towards  this 
most  godly  work.  From  Fulham,  this  31st  of  July,  1604." 
Bancroft  makes  another  explanation,  "  After  my  hearty  com 
mendations  unto  your  lordship,  I  have  received  letters  from 
his  most  excellent  majesty,  the  tenor  whereof  folio  we  th. 
'  Right  trusty  and  well  beloved,  we  greet  you  well.  Whereas 
we  have  appointed  certain  learned  men,  to  the  number  of  four- 
and-fifty,  for  the  translating  of  the  Bible,  and  that  in  this 
number  divers  of  them  have  either  no  ecclesiastical  preferment 
at  all,  or  else  so  very  small,  as  the  same  is  far  unmeet  for  men 
of  their  deserts,  and  yet,  we  of  ourself  in  any  convenient  time 
cannot  well  remedy  it:  therefore  we  do  hereby  require  you, 
that  presently  you  write,  in  our  name,  as  well  to  the  Arch 
bishop  of  York,  as  to  the  rest  of  the  bishops  of  the  province 
of  Canterbury,  signifying  unto  them  that  we  do  will,  and 
straitly  charge  every  one  of  them,  as  also  the  other  bishops 


of  the  province  of  York,  as  they  tender  our  good  favour  towards 
them,  that  (all  excuses  set  apart)  when  any  prebend  or  par 
sonage  being  rated  in  our  book  of  taxations,  the  prebend  to 
twenty  pounds  at  least,  and  the  parsonage  to  the  like  sum 
and  upwards,  shall  next  upon  any  occasion  happen  to  be  void, 
and  to  be  either  of  their  patronage,  or  of  the  patronage  and 
gift  of  any  person  what  ever,  they  do  make  stay  thereof, 
and  admit  none  unto  it,  until  certifying  us  of  the  avoidance 
of  it,  and  of  the  name  of  the  patron,  if  it  be  not  of  their  own 
gift,  that  we  may  commend  for  the  same  some  such  of  the 
learned  men,  as  we  shall  think  fit  to  be  preferred  unto  it;  not 
doubting  of  the  bishops'  readiness  to  satisfy  us  herein,  or  that 
any  of  the  laity,  when  we  shall  in  time  move  them  to  so  good 
and  religious  an  act,  will  be  unwilling  to  give  us  the  like  due 
contentment  and  satisfaction  ;  we  ourselves  having  taken  the 
same  order  for  such  prebends  and  benefices  as  shall  be  void  in 
our  gift.' "  And  he  naively  adds — "Your  Lordship  may  see  how 
careful  his  majesty  is  for  the  providing  of  livings  for  these 
learned  men.  I  doubt  not,  therefore,  but  your  Lordship  will 
have  a  due  regard  of  his  majesty's  request  herein,  as  it  is  fit 
and  meet ;  and  that  you  will  take  such  order,  both  with  your 
Chancellor,  Register,  and  such  of  your  Lordship's  officers  who 
shall  have  intelligence  of  the  premises,  as  also  with  the  Dean 
and  Chapter  of  your  Cathedral  Church,  whom  his  majesty 
likewise  requireth  to  be  put  in  mind  of  his  pleasure  herein  ; 
not  forgetting  the  latter  part  of  his  majesty's  letter,  touching 
the  informing  yourself  of  the  fittest  linguists,  &c.  I  could 
wish  your  Lordship  would,  for  my  discharge,  return  me  in 
some  few  lines  the  time  of  the  receipt  of  these  letters,  that  I 
may  discharge  that  duty  which  his  majesty,  by  these  his 
letters,  hath  laid  upon  me.  And  so  I  bid  your  Lordship  right 
heartily  farewell.  From  Fulham  this  xxxi  day  of  July,  1G04 — 
R.  LONDON."  The  royal  words  about  remuneration  are  very  kind 
and  considerate,  still  they  were  but  words.  The  disbursements 
were  not  made  from  the  royal  purse — for  it  was  empty,  and  Cecil 
had  already  complained  that  the  monarch's  household  expenses 
were  double  those  of  his  predecessors,  £100,000  instead  of 
£50,000.  James  had  been  always  warring  with  poverty  in 


Scotland,  and  he  at  once  leapt  into  extraordinary  prodigality 
in  England.1  The  proposed  plan  of  ecclesiastical  preferments 
cost  nothing  to  his  majesty,  who  sank  so  low  as  to  sell 
ninety-three  baronetcies  for  £1000  each,  and  to  grant  several 
peerages  for  a  handsome  price.  Printers  and  publishers  were 
aware  of  the  royal  impecuniosity,  and  were  very  cautious  in 
dealing  with  the  royal  "  bookmaker."  Lydiat,  in  a  letter 
of  22nd  August,  1611,  tells  Ussher,  that  Norton  swore  to  him 
that  he  would  not  print  the  king's  Latin  book  against  Vorstius, 
"  unless  he  might  have  the  money  " — unless  he  had  the  payment 
before  the  treatise  went  to  press.  When  a  library  was  to  be 
furnished  for  Prince  Henry,  Bancroft  sent  out  a  begging  cir 
cular  asking  books  or  money  from  the  bishops,  and  the  "  abler 
sort  of  double^beneficed  men,"  and  "the  richer  sort  of  commis 
saries,"  it  being  also  dictated  that  some  should  give  twenty 
marks,  some  £10,  and  the  least  twenty  nobles.  But  the  plan 
proposed  for  remunerating  the  translators,  though  it  menaced 
the  king's  personal  inspection  of  the  contributors,  did  not 
succeed ;  neither  bishop  nor  dean  replied,  so  far  as  is  known. 
The  sum,  according  to  Bancroft's  calculation,  was  not  large, 
only  a  thousand  marks  or  about  £700,  so  that  the  proportion 
from  each  diocese  was  really  little. 

Cecil,  Earl  of  Salisbury,  chancellor  of  the  University  of 
Cambridge,  wrote  also  a  sensible  letter  to  the  vice-chancellor 
and  heads,  asking  that  any  poor  scholar  from  the  country  be 
entertained  "  in  any  college  they  make  choice  of,  free  of  charge 
for  their  entrance,  their  chambers,  or  their  commons."  But 
very  few  people  had  any  great  interest  in  the  work.  They 
were  quite  satisfied  with  the  two  current  versions,  as  was  also 

1  Soon  after  his  accession  to  the  income  by  .£81,000  a  year.     He  in- 

throne  of  England,  a  proclamation  vented  the  order  of  baronet,  and  sold 

was  issued,  forbidding  his  northern  many  baronetcies.     Of    the    ninety 

subjects  to  come  as  suitors  for  pay-  lay  peers  in  the  House  of  Lords  at 

ment  of  "  auld  debts  due  to  them  by  his  death,  nearly  a  half  were  the 

the    king,   .  .  .    which     is    of     all  result  of  pecuniary  bargaining.     He 

kinds  of  importunity  most  unpleas-  held  firmly  by  the  wardship  of  heirs 

ing  to  his  majesty."     In  1610,  his  and   heiresses,  and  made   money  by 

debts  were  half  a  million,  and  his  this  old  feudal  right, 
ordinary  expenditure   exceeded  his 


amply  shown  in  the  slow  reception  of  the  one  which  was  now 
in  preparation.  Indeed,  the  next  Convocation,  ignoring  the 
purpose  of  a  new  Bible,  or  doubting  if  it  would  be  carried 
out,  ordered  in  its  eighty -first  article  that  every  parish  unfur 
nished  with  a  Bible  of  the  largest  volume,1  should  at  once 
provide  the  same.  Still,  according  to  the  chancellor's  sugges 
tion,  the  translators  assembled  at  the  Universities  had  enter 
tainment  free  of  charge, "  eating  their  commons  "2  at  the  college 
table,2  and  at  the  final  revision  the  six  or  twelve  revisers  re 
ceived  each,  according  to  one  statement,  thirty  shillings  a  week 
from  the  Company  of  Stationers,  "though  before  they  had 
nothing  but  the  self-rewarding  ingenious  industry."  King 
James's  version  never  cost  King  James  a  farthing.  Robert 
Barker  had  indeed,  as  royal  printer,  a  salary  from  the 
king  of  £6,  13s.  4d. ;  but  he  had  also,  in  consideration  of  £300 
paid  to  the  crown,  a  grant  of  the  manor  of  Upton,  near  Wind 
sor,  for  twenty-two  years,  for  the  small  rent  of  £20,  to  be 
doubled  two  years  afterward.3  The  argument,  therefore,  is  not 
based  on  fact,  that  the  crown  may  grant  the  sole  printing  of 
the  English  translation,  because  it  was  made  at  the  king's 
charge.  Yet  Lord  Mansfield  said,  against  all  proof,  "The  English 
translation  the  king  bought,  therefore  it  has  been  concluded  to 
be  his  property.  His  whole  right  rests  on  the  foundation  of 
property  in  the  copy,  by  the  common  law."  4 

Some  mystery  yet  hangs  over  the  number  of  translators 
appointed,  as  the  king  mentions  fifty-four,  while  only  forty- 
seven  took  part  in  the  work.  In  the  interval  there  were 
some  changes.  Mr.  Lively  having  died  in  1605,  his  place 
was  filled  by  Dr.  Spalding ;  Dr.  Richard  Eades  died  in  1604 ; 

1  Amplissimi  voluminis.  similar  to  those  sent  to  Cambridge, 

2  John  Bois  or  Boyes,  whose  notes  though  they  do  not  seem  to  have 
of  the   proceedings  have  unfortun-  been  preserved. 

ately  fallen  out  of  existence,  at  least  3  The  salary  of  the  Chief  Justice 

out  of    view,   "ate   his   commons"  of    the    King's     Bench     was    then 

first  at  one  college  table,  and  then  at  £224,  19s.  6d.  a  year, 

another.  —  Walker's    Life   of    Bois,  4  Lee's  Memorial,  p.  216.     Black- 

Harleian  MSS.        Communications  stone's  Commentaries,  vol.  II,  p.  410, 

must    have    been  sent    to    Oxford  London,  1809. 


Dr.  Aglionby,  appointed  in  his  room,  died  in  February,  1610,  and 
Mr.  Dakins  died  in  February,  1607.  The  proposer,  Dr.  Reynolds, 
died  in  May,  1607,  and  Dr.  Thomas  Ravis,  bishop  of  London, 
died  in  1609,  and  there  may  have  been  some  resignations  and 
substitutions.  Dr.  Leonard  Hutton  was  appointed  for  Dr. 
Ravens,  whose  place  had  been  vacated.  The  preparations 
seem  to  have  been  completed  by  the  end  of  1604  ;  but  the 
work  was  not  formally  taken  in  hand  by  all  the  companies  till 
about  1607.  The  translators  themselves  intimate  that  their 
work  occupied  them  "about  two  years  and  three  quarters." 
They  were  divided  into  six  companies,  two  of  which  met  at 
Westminster,  two  at  Oxford,  and  two  at  Cambridge.1 

"  The  following  is  an  account  of  the  places  and  persons  agreed 
upon  for  the  Hebrew  Scriptures,  with  the  particular  books  by 
them  undertaken  :  Pentateuch  on ;  the  story  from  Joshua  to 
the  first  book  of  Chronicles,  exclusive,  to  the  company  at  West 
minster,  consisting  of  Mr.  Dean  of  Westminster,  Mr.  Dean  of 
Paul's,  Mr.  Dr.  Saravia,  Mr.  Dr.  Clark,  Mr.  Dr.  Leifield,  Mr.  Dr. 
Teigh,  Mr.  Buiieigh,  Mr.  King,  Mr.  Thompson,  Mr.  Bead  well. 
From  the  first  of  the  Chronicles  with  the  rest  of  the  story 
and  the  Hagiography;  videlicet,  Job,  Psalms,  Proverbs, 
Canticles,  Ecclesiastes,  to  the  company  at  Cambridge,  con 
sisting  of  Mr.  Lively,  Mr.  Richardson,  Mr.  Chatterton,  Mr. 
Dillingham,  Mr.  Harrison,  Mr.  Andrewes,  Mr.  Spalding,  Mr. 
Binge.  The  four  or  greater  prophets,  with  the  Lamentations, 
and  the  twelve  lesser  prophets,  to  the  company  at  Oxford, 
consisting  of  Dr.  Harding,  Dr.  Reynolds,  Dr.  Holland,  Dr. 
Kilbye,  Mr.  Smith,  Mr.  Brett,  Mr.  Fairclough.  The  prayer  of 
Manasse,  and  the  rest  of  the  Apocrypha,  to  the  company  at 
Cambridge,  consisting  of  Dr.  Duport,  Dr.  Bran th wait,  Dr. 
Radcliffe,  Mr.  Ward,  Mr.  Downes,  Mr.  Boyes,  Mr.  Ward. 

"  The  places  and  persons  agreed  upon  for  the  Greek,  with 
the  particular  books  by  them  undertaken  : — The  four  Gospels, 
Acts  of  Apostles,  Apocalypse,  to  the  company  at  Oxford,  con 
sisting  of  Mr.  Dean  of  Christ  Church,  Mr.  Dean  of  Winchester, 
Mr.  Dean  of  Worcester,  Mr.  Dean  of  Windsor,  Mr.  Savile,  Dr, 
Perne,  Dr.  Ravens,  Mr.  Harmer.  The  epistles  of  St.  Paul,  to 
1  Cardwell's  Documentary  Annals,  vol.  II,  p.  106. 


the  company  at  Westminster,  consisting  of  Dean  of  Chester, 
Dr.  Hutchison,  Dr.  Spencer,  Mr.  Fenton,  Mr.  Rabbett,  Mr. 
Sanderson,  Mr.  Dakins."1 

Many  of  the  men  employed  in  this  noble  enterprise  were 
famous  for  their  ability  and  learning.  Andrewes,  "  a  right 
Godly  man,"  was  "a  prodigious  student,"  "a,  great  gulph 
of  learning,"  and  might  have  been  "  interpreter  general 
at  Babel."  "  The  world  wanted  learning  to  know  how  learned 
this  man  was."  2  His  Manual  of  Private  Direction  was  composed 
in  Greek.  He  sent  Beadwell  to  Leyden,  to  study  Arabic,  and 
promised  to  defray  the  expense  of  printing  his  Thesaurus 
Arabicus.  Casaubon  writes  to  Heinsius,  "  I  am  attracted  to  the 
man  by  his  profound  learning,"  "  one  of  a  few  whose  society 
enables  me  to  bear  my  separation  from  De  Thou."  Andrewes 
was  in  great  favour  with  the  king  at  this  time,  on  account  of 
his  "Tortura  Torti " — his  clever  and  telling  reply  to  Bellarmine, 
published  in  1609,  when  he  was  bishop  of  Chichester. 
Overall  is  styled  by  Camden,  "a  prodigious  learned  man," 
possessed,  as  Fuller  says,  "  of  a  strong  brain  to  improve  his 
great  reading,"  "a  man  learned  all  round,"  and  Casaubon 
who  had  enjoyed  his  hospitality,  styles  him  vir  longe  doctis- 
simus.3  Hadrian  Saravia,  prebendary  of  Canterbury,  born  at 
Hedin  in  Artois,  his  father  being  a  Spaniard,  and  his  mother  a 
Belgian,  was  a  D.D.  of  Leyden,  and  was  educated,  according  to 
Wood,  in  all  kinds  of  literature,  especially  "in  several  languages," 
and  was  noted  for  his  Hebrew  learning.  Tighe  or  Teigh  was 
an  "excellent  textuary  and  profound  linguist."  King  suc 
ceeded  Spalding  as  Kegius  Professor  of  Hebrew  at  Cambridge. 
Thompson,  born  in  Holland,  of  English  parents,  and,  by 
report,  a  most  admirable  philologer,  though  desultory  in  his 
studies,  belonged  to  Clare  Hall,  Cambridge.  "  Dutch  Thom 
son,"  as  he  was  familiarly  called  at  Cambridge,  supplied 
suggestions  to  his  friend  Casaubon  for  an  edition  of  Suetonius 
and  Polybius,4  and  was  a  familiar  correspondent  of  Scaliger 

1  The  list  was  taken  by  Cardwell  2  Pattison's  Life  of  Casaubon,  p. 

from    Burnet's    History,    vol.    II,  330. 

Append.,  p.  366,  who  copied  it  from  3  Ibid,  p.  391. 

the  papers  of  Bishop  Eavis.  4  Ibid,  p.  333. 


and  other  scholars,  who  set  a  high  value  on  his  critical  sug 
gestions.  Beadwell,  or  Bedwell,  was  the  great  Arabic  scholar 
of  his  time,  the  friend  of  Erpenius  and  tutor  of  Pococke. 
His  MSS.  of  a  prepared  Arabic  Lexicon  were  used  in  the 
preparation  of  Castell's  Lexicon  Heptaglotton.  Edward  Lively 
was  "  one  of  the  best  linguists  in  the  world,"  and,  according 
to  Dr.  Pusey,  was,  next  to  Pococke,  "  the  greatest  of  Hebraists." 
Richardson,  Professor  of  Divinity,  was  "  a  most  excellent  lin 
guist."  Chaderton,  or  Chatterton,  "grave,  godly,  learned,  familiar 
with  the  Greek  and  Hebrew  tongues,  and  the  numerous  writings 
of  the  Rabbis,"  was  one  of  the  four  Puritan  divines  that  took 
part  in  the  Hampton  Court  Conference.  He  was  the  first  head 
of  Emmanuel  College,  and  lived  to  a  very  great  age.  Dilling- 
ham  was  called  "  the  great  Grecian."  Harrison  had  "  exquisite 
skill  in  Hebrew  and  Greek  idioms,"  and  was  one  of  the  chief 
examiners  in  the  University.  Spalding  was  reckoned  worthy 
to  succeed  Lively  as  Regius  Professor  of  Hebrew  at  Cam 
bridge,  and  Byng  was  a  successor  of  Spalding  in  the  Hebrew 
chair.  Harding  was  Regius  Professor  of  Hebrew.  Reynolds 
was  president  of  Corpus  Christi  College,  and  in  Bishop  Hall's 
words,  "  his  memory  and  reading  were  near  to  a  miracle,  for 
he  was  himself  a  well  furnished  library,  full  of  all  faculties,  all 
studies,  and  all  learning,"  and  though,  according  to  Wood,  he 
was  the  pillar  of  Puritanism,  yet  he  calls  him  "  the  very  trea 
sury  of  erudition,  as  being  most  prodigiously  seen  in  all  kinds 
of  learning,  most  excellent  in  all  tongues."  Holland,  King's 
Professor  of  Divinity,  and  Rector  of  his  College,  is  declared  to 
be  "  a  most  learned  divine."  Kilbye,  who  preached  his  funeral 
sermon,  said  of  him  that  he  had  "  a  wonderful  knowledge  of  all 
the  learned  languages,"  and  was  mighty  in  the  Scriptures,  while, 
according  to  Wood,  he  was  "  another  Apollos,  a  most  learned 
divine."  Kilbye  himself  was  Professor  of  Hebrew,  and  Rector 
of  his  College,  and  left  a  commentary  on  Exodus,  chiefly  drawn 
from  rabbinical  sources.  He  also  continued,  though  he  did 
not  publish,  Jean  Mercier's  commentaries  on  Genesis.  He  was 
ever  absorbed  in  Hebrew  study,  and  Casaubon  saw  at  his 
lodging  the  Lexicon  Arabicum  of  Raphelengius,  the  only  other 
copy  in  the  country  being  that  in  possession  of  the  Bishop  of 


Ely.  Izaak  Walton,  in  his  life  of  Sanderson,  tells  the  following 
story  of  Kilbye :  "  I  must  here  stop  my  reader,  and  tell  him 
that  this  Dr.  Kilby  was  a  man  of  so  great  learning  and  wisdom, 
and  so  excellent  a  critic  in  the  Hebrew  tongue,  that  he  was 
made  professor  of  it  in  this  University ;  and  was  also  so  per 
fect  a  Grecian,  that  he  was  by  King  James  appointed  to  be  one 
of  the  translators  of  the  Bible  ;  and  that  this  doctor  and  Mr. 
Sanderson  had  frequent  discourses,  and  loved  as  father  and 
son.  The  doctor  was  to  ride  a  journey  into  Derbyshire,  and 
took  Mr.  Sanderson  to  bear  him  company ;  and  they,  resting 
on  a  Sunday  with  the  doctor's  friend,  and  going  together  to 
that  parish  church  where  they  then  were,  found  the  young- 
preacher  to  have  no  more  discretion,  than  to  waste  a  great  part 
of  the  hour  allotted  for  his  sermon  in  exceptions  against  the 
late  translation  of  several  words  (not  expecting  such  a  hearer  as 
Dr.  Kilby),  and  showed  three  reasons  why  a  particular  word 
should  have  been  otherwise  translated.  When  evening  prayer 
was  ended,  the  preacher  was  invited  to  the  doctor's  friend's 
house,  where,  after  some  other  conference,  the  doctor  told  him, 
he  might  have  preached  more  useful  doctrine,  and  not  have 
filled  his  auditors'  ears  with  needless  exceptions  against  the  late 
translation;  and  for  that  word  for  which  he  offered  to  that 
poor  congregation  three  reasons  why  it  ought  to  have  been 
translated  as  he  said,  he  and  others  had  considered  all  of  them, 
and  found  thirteen  more  considerable  reasons  why  it  was 
translated  as  now  printed  ;  and  told  him,  '  If  his  friend  '  (then 
attending  him)  '  should  prove  guilty  of  such  indiscretion,  he 
should  forfeit  his  favor.'  To  which  Mr.  Sanderson  said,  '  He 
hoped  he  should  not.'  And  the  preacher  was  so  ingenuous  as 
to  say,  he  would  not  justify  himself.  And  so  I  return  to 
Oxford."  Miles  Smith,  one  of  the  translators,  then  one  of  the 
supervisors,  final  examiner  and  editor  along  with  Bilson,  and 
author  of  the  preface,  was  an  uncommon  scholar,  and  "had 
Hebrew  at  his  finger  ends,"  and  was  "  well  versed  in  patristic 
writings  and  rabbinical  glosses."  Richard  Brett  was  "  skilled 
and  versed  to  a  criticism  in  the  Latin,  Greek,  Chaldee,  Arabic, 
and  Ethiopic  tongues."  Thomas  Kavis,  the  president  of  his 
company  had  a  high  reputation,  for  he  was  Dean  of  Christ 


Church,  and  vice-chancellor  of  the  University.  George  Abbot 
is  described  by  Wood  as  "  a  learned  man,  having  his  learn 
ing  all  of  the  old  stamp."  Abbot  enjoyed  at  this  time 
the  full  lustre  of  the  royal  countenance,  for  he  had  written 
a  defence  of  the  truth  of  the  Gowrie  conspiracy.  George 
Sprott,  a  notary  at  Eyemouth,  had  been  executed  for  his 
connection  with  it;  and  Abbot,  who  had  been  present  at 
the  trial  and  execution,  published  an  account  of  them, 
with  the  notes  of  Sir  William  Hart,  the  presiding  judge. 
In  concert  with  the  Earl  of  Dunbar,  he  had  gratified  the 
heart's  desire  of  the  king,  by  helping  to  set  up  the  luckless 
Stewart  Episcopacy  in  Scotland,  so  that  when  Canterbury 
became  vacant,  he  was  promoted  over  the  head  of  Andrewes 
and  made  Archbishop.  Giles  Tomson  "  took  a  great  deal  of 
pains  of  translating."  John  Aglionby,  appointed  in  room  of 
Richard  Eades,  was  "accomplished  in  learning,  and  an  exact 
linguist."  John  Harmer  was  a  "  most  noted  Latinist,  Grecian, 
and  divine."  William  Barlow,  a  member  of  the  Hampton 
Court  Conference,  and  its  historian,  is  said  to  have  been  "  a 
thorough  bred  scholar."  John  Spencer,  the  intimate  friend 
of  Hooker,  succeeded  Reynolds  as  president  of  Corpus  Christi 
College.  Roger  Fenton's  eulogist,  Bishop  Felton,  says  of  him, 
"  Never  a  more  learned  man  hath  Pembroke  Hall,  with  but  one 
exception,"  probably  Bishop  Andrewes.  William  Dakins  was 
Greek  lecturer  at  Cambridge,  and  "had  great  skill  in  the 
original  languages."  Of  the  company  to  which  was  intrusted 
the  Apocrypha,  John  Duport  was  four  times  elected  vice- 
chancellor  of  his  University,  and  left  a  "  well  earned  reputa 
tion."  William  Branthwait  was  master  of  Gonville  and  Caius 
College.  Jeremiah  Redcliffe  was  made  a  doctor  of  divinity, 
both  at  Cambridge  and  Oxford.  Samuel  Ward,  Master  of 
Sidney  Sussex  College,  and  Lady  Margaret's  Professor  of 
Divinity,  was  "skilled  in  tongues,  though  slow  of  speech," 
and  was  a  valued  correspondent  of  Archbishop  Ussher,  on 
points  of  Oriental  and  Biblical  criticism.  Andrew  Downes, 
one  of  the  revising  committee,  Professor  of  Greek  at  Cam 
bridge,  is  highly  praised  by  Selden,  and  is  described  as  "  one 
composed  of  Greek  and  industry."  Casaubon  and  he  cor- 


responded  in  Greek,  and  his  letters  in  point  of  style  are  not 
inferior  to  those  of  the  great  foreign  scholar.1  John  Bois, 
prebendary  of  Ely,  was  a  favourite  pupil  of  Professor  Downes, 
and  "a  precocious  Greek  and  Hebrew  scholar."  After  the 
Apocrypha  was  finished,  he  joined,  at  their  own  earnest  request, 
the  Cambridge  compan}^  which  had  their  assigned  section 
from  Chronicles  to  Canticles,  and  he  was  one  of  the  delegates 
engaged  in  the  final  supervision ;  Sir  Henry  Savile  calls  him 
"  most  ingenious  and  most  learned,"  and,  according  to  another 
eulogist,  he  was  "  second  to  none  in  solid  attainments  in  the 

o         * 

Greek  tongue."  Thomas  Bilson,  who,  along  with  Miles  Smith, 
had  final  charge  of  the  translation,  and  prepared  the  summary 
of  contents  at  the  head  of  each  chapter,  was  Bishop  of  Win 
chester,  and  was  "well  skilled  in  languages."  Henry  Savile 
was  Warden  of  Merton  College,  Oxford,  Provost  of  Eton,  and 
editor  of  the  works  of  Chrysostom.  Of  Michael  Rabbet 
little  is  known,  save  that  he  was  Rector  of  St.  Vedast, 
Foster  Lane,  London.  Burleigh,  Clarke,  Leifield,  Sanderson, 
Tighe,  King,  Roger  Andrewes  are  in  similar  obscurity.2  The 
list  of  revisers  was  a  good  one,  but  men  like  Gataker  and 
Selden  had  no  place  in  it. 

The  king  had  intimated,  at  the  outset,  that  his  revisers  might 
be  compensated  by  ecclesiastical  preferments,  and  during  the 
work,  or  soon  after  1611,  the  following  preferments  were  made  : 
Andrewes,  Dean  of  Westminster,  became  Bishop  of  Chichester 
in  1605,  of  Ely  1609,  and  of  Winchester  in  1619 ;  Overall, 
Dean  of  St.  Paul's,  became  Bishop  of  Lichfield  and  Coventry 
in  1614,  and  of  Norwich  in  1618  ;  Saravia,  Canon  of  West 
minster,  became  Prebendary  of  Gloucester  and  Canterbury ; 
Roger  Andrewes,  Fellow  of  Pembroke  Hall,  became  Preben 
dary  of  Chichester  ;  Byng,  Fellow  of  St.  Peter's  College,  be 
came  in  1606  Sub-Dean  of  York,  and  in  1618  Archdeacon  of 
Norwich ;  Miles  Smith,  Canon  of  Hereford,  became  Bishop  of 
Gloucester  in  1612;  Ravis,  Dean  of  Christ  Church,  was  in  1605 

1  The  letters  of  Downes  are  pre-  &c.  Boterodami,  Fritsch  and  Bb'hn, 

served    in    the    British     Museum,  1709. 

Burney    MSS.    364,    and    five    of        2  The  names  vary  much  in  spell- 

Casaubon's    are    in  his   Epistolae,  ing. 

XLIII. ]  THE  R ULES  LAID  DO  WN.  191 

presented  to  the  Bishoprick  of  Gloucester,  and  in  1607  to  that 
of  London  ;  Abbot,  Dean  of  Winchester,  became  Bishop  of  Leich- 
field  and  Coventry  in  1600,  and  of  London  in  1610,  and  was 
preferred  to  the  Chair  of  Canterbury  in  1611 ;  Giles  Tomson 
became  in  1611  Bishop  of  Gloucester,  but  died  the  next  year  ; 
Barlow,1  Dean  of  Chester,  became  Bishop  of  Kochester  in  1605, 
and  of  Lincoln  in  1608  ;  Spencer  received  a  prebendal  stall  in 
St.  Paul's,  London,  in  1612;  Fenton,  Minister  of  St.  Stephen's 
Walbrook  received  the  prebend  of  Pancras  in  St.  Paul's  ; 
Duport  became,  in  1609,  Prebendary  of  Ely ;  Samuel  Ward 
received  several  preferments  ;  John  Bois  became  Prebendary  of 
Ely,  in  1615  ;  Henry  Savile  was  knighted. 

The  following  were  the  directions  given  for  the  revision  : — 1. 
"  The  ordinary  Bible  read  in  the  church,  commonly  called  the 
Bishops'  Bible,  to  be  followed  and  as  little  altered  as  the  truth  of 
the  original  will  permit."  2.  "  The  names  of  the  prophets  and 
the  holy  writers,  with  the  other  names  of  the  text,  to  be  retained 
as  nigh  as  may  be — accordingly  as  they  were  vulgarly  used."  3. 
"  The  old  ecclesiastical  words  to  be  kept — viz.,  the  word  church 
not  to  be  translated  congregation,2  &c."  4.  "  When  a  word 
hath  divers  significations,  that  to  be  kept  which  hath  been 
most  commonly  used  by  the  most  of  the  ancient  fathers,  being 
agreeable  to  the  propriety  of  the  place  and  the  analogy  of  the 
faith."  5.  "  The  division  of  the  chapters  to  be  altered  either 
not  at  all  or  as  little  as  may  be  if  necessity  so  require."  6.  "  No 
marginal  notes  at  all  to  be  afiixed,  but  only  for  the  explana 
tion  of  the  Hebrew  or  Greek  words  which  cannot  without  some 
circumlocution  so  briefly  and  fitly  be  expressed  in  the  text." 

7.  "  Such  quotations  of  places  to  be  marginally  set  down  as 
shall  serve  for  the  fit  reference  of  one  scripture  to  another." 

8.  "  Every  particular  man  of  each  company  to  take  the  same 
chapter  or  chapters,  and  having  translated  or 'am ended  them 
severally  by  himself  where  he  thinketh  good,  all  to  meet  to 
gether,  confer  what  they  have  done,  and  agree  for  their  parts 
what  shall  stand."     9.  "  As  any  one  company  hath  dispatched 

1  According  to  Le   Neve's   Fasti,        2  This  rule  is  referred  to  in  their 
Barlow  became  Dean  of  Chester  in     Preface. 
June,  1602. 


any  one  book  in  this  manner,  they  shall  send  it  to  the  rest  to 
be  considered  of  seriously  and  judiciously  ;  for  his  majesty  is 
very  careful  in  this  point."  10.  "  If  any  company,  upon  the 
review  of  the  book  so  sent,  doubt  or  differ  upon  any  place,  to 
send  them  word  thereof,  note  the  place,  and  withal  send  the 
reasons  ;  to  which  if  they  consent  not,  the  difference  to 
be  compounded  at  the  general  meeting,  which  is  to  be  of  the 
chief  persons  of  each  company  at  the  end  of  the  work."  11. 
"  When  any  place  of  special  obscurity  is  doubted  of,  letters  to 
be  directed  by  authority  to  send  to  any  learned  man  in  the 
land  for  his  judgment  of  such  a  place."  12.  "Letters  to  be 
sent  from  every  bishop  to  the  rest  of  his  clergy,  admonishing 
them  of  this  translation  in  hand,  and  to  move  and  charge  as 
many  as  being  skilful  in  the  tongues,  and  having  taken  pains 
in  that  kind,  to  send  his  particular  observations  to  the  com 
pany  either  at  Westminster,  Cambridge,  or  Oxford."  13.  "  The 
directors  in  each  company  to  be  the  Deans  of  Westminster  and 
Chester  for  that  place  and  the  king's  professors  in  the  Hebrew 
or  Greek  in  either  University."  14.  "  These  translations  to  be 
used  when  they  agree  better  with  the  text  than  the  Bishops' 
Bible  :  Tindale's,  Matthew's,  Coverdale's,  Whitechurch's, 

The  following  was  a  kind  of  byelaw:  "Besides  the  said 
directors  before  mentioned,  three  or  four  of  the  most  ancient 
and  grave  divines  in  either  of  the  Universities,  not  em 
ployed  in  translating,  to  be  assigned  by  the  Vice-Chancellor, 
upon  conference  with  the  rest  of  the  heads,  to  be  over 
seers  of  the  translations  as  well  Hebrew  as  Greek,  for  the 
better  observation  of  the  fourth  rule  above  specified."  This 
last  precept  seems  to  have  originated  in  some  doubts  which 
had  apparently  risen  at  Cambridge  about  the  meaning  or 
application  of  the  third  and  fourth  rules,  when  an  appeal  was 
made  to  Bancroft,  who  replied  to  the  Vice-Chancellor  in  these 
terms :  "To  be  suer,  if  he  had  not  signified  so  much  unto  them 
already,  it  was  his  Majestie's  pleasure,  that,  besides  the  learned 
persons  imployed  with  them  for  the  Hebrews  and  Greeke, 
there  should  be  three  or  four  of  the  most  eminent  and  grave 
divines  of  their  university,  assigned  by  the  Vice-Chancellour 


upon  conference  with  the  rest  of  the  heads,  to  be  overseers  of 
the  translations,  as  well  Hebrew  as  Greek,  for  the  better  obser 
vation  of  the  rules  appointed  by  his  Highness,  and  especially 
concerning  the  third  and  fourth  rule :  and  that  when  they  had 
agreed  uppon  the  persons  for  this  purpose,  he  prayed  them  to 
send  him  word  thereof."  x 

These  scholars  are  usually  called  Translators,  and  they 
appropriate  the  name  to  themselves  in  their  Dedication  to 
King  James.  But  it  is  to  be  borne  in  mind  that  the  first 
rule  set  before  them  shows  that  in  the  stricter  sense  they 
were  simply  revisers  of  the  Bishops'  Bible,  itself  a  revision 
of  the  Great  Bible,  and  it  again  a  revision  of  Matthew's 
Bible — that  is,  of  Tyndale  and  Coverdale.  In  one  of  the 
letters  already  quoted,  the  king  briefly  alludes  to  the  work 
as  concerned  with  "  the  former  English  translation,  which  we 
have  now  commanded  to  be  thoroughly  viewed  and  amended." 
Their  work  is  also  described  by  themselves  "  as  a  translation  so 
long  in  hand,  or  rather  perusal  of  translations  made  before." 
Wee  might  justly  feare  hard  censure,  if  generally  we  should 
make  verball  and  unnecessary  changings" — that  is,  specially 
upon  the  Bishops'  version.  "...  But  it  is  high  time  to  shew 
in  briefe  what  wee  proposed  to  our  selues,  and  what  course  we 
held  in  this  perusall  and  suruay  of  the  Bible.  Truly  (good 
Christian  reader)  we  never  thought  from  the  beginning,  that  we 
should  neede  to  make  a  new  translation,  nor  yet  to  make  of  a 
bad  one  a  good  one  ....  but  to  make  a  good  one  better,  or 
out  of  many  good  ones,  one  principall  good  one,  not  justly 
to  be  excepted  against ;  that  hath  bene  our  endeavour,  that 
our  marke."  And  Gell's  words  are,2  "Yet  is  not  all  the 
blame  to  be  laid  upon  the  translators,  but  part  of  it  is  to 
be  shared  with  them  also  who  set  them  at  work,  who  by 
reasons  of  state  limited  them  (as  some  of  them  have  much  com 
plained)  lest  they  might  be  thought,  not  to  set  forth  a  new 

1  In  the  "Brief  Account"  prefixed  died  in  1609,  and  Burnet  was  not 
to  Bagster's  Hexapla  it  is  said  that  born  till  1643. 

Burnet  received  the  rules  from  Dr.  2  Essay  toward  the  amendment  of 
Kavis,  one  of  the  translators.  This  the  late  English  translation  of  the 
could  scarcely  be,  for  Bishop  Eavis  Bible;  Preface,  p.  29.  London,  1659. 

VOL.  II.  N 


translation,  but  rather  a  new  Bible."  Nay  more,  in  justifying 
the  value  and  necessity  of  their  labours,  they  vindicate  at 
the  same  time  the  principle  of  revision.  "  Many  men's  mouths 
have  bene  open  a  good  while  (and  yet  are  not  stopped), 
.  .  .  and  aske  what  may  be  the  reason,  what  the 
necessitie  of  the  employment.  Hath  the  church  bene  de- 
ceiued,  say  they,  all  this  while  ?  Hath  her  sweet  bread  bene 
mingled  with  leauen,  her  silver  with  drosse,  her  wine  with 
water,  her  milke  with  lime  ?  Was  their  translation  good  before  ? 
Why  do  they  now  mend  it  ?  Was  it  not  good  ?  Why  then 
was  it  obtruded  to  the  people  ?  Wee  are  so  farre  off  from  con 
demning  any  of  their  la,bours  that  traueiled  before  us  in  this 
kinde,  either  in  this  land  or  beyond  sea,  either  in  King 
Henrie's  time,  or  King  Edward's  (if  there  were  any  translation 
or  correction  of  a  translation  in  his  time),  or  Queen  Elizabeth's 
of  ever-renowned  memorie,  that  we  acknowledge  them  to  haue 
beene  raised  vp  of  God,  for  the  building  and  furnishing  of  His 
church,  and  that  they  deserue  to  be  had  of  vs  and  of  posteritie 
in  euerlasting  remembrance.  Therefore  blessed  be  they,  and 
most  honoured  be  their  name,  that  breake  the  yce,  and  giue  the 
onset  vpon  that  which  helpeth  forward  the  sauing  of  soules. 
Now,  what  can  bee  more  auaileable  thereto,  then  to  deliuer  Gods 
book  vnto  Gods  people  in  a  tongue  which  they  vnderstand  ?" 

And  they  apologize  for  their  own  careful  revision  and  re-re 
vision  :  "  Nothing  is  begun  and  perfited  at  the  same  time,  and 
the  later  thoughts  are  thought  to  be  the  wiser:  so,  if  we  building 
vpon  their  foundation  that  went  before  vs,  and  being  holpen 
by  their  labours,  doe  endauour  to  make  that  better  which  they 
left  so  good  ;  no  man,  we  are  sure,  hath  cause  to  mislike  vs  ; 
they,  we  perswade  our  selues,  if  they  were  aliue,  would  thanke 
vs.  .  .  .  For  by  this  meanes  it  commeth  to  passe,  that  whatso 
ever  is  sound  alreadie  (and  all  is  sound  for  substance,  in  one  or 
other  of  our  editions,  and  the  worst  of  ours  farre  better  then 
their  authentike  vulgar)  the  same  will  shine  as  gold  more 
brightly,  being  rubbed  and  polished;  also,  if  any  thing  be  halt 
ing,  or  superfluous,  or  not  so  agreeable  to  the  originall,  the 
same  may  bee  corrected,  and  the  trueth  set  in  place. 
Yet  before  we  end,  we  must  answer  a  third  cauill  and  obiection 


of  theirs  against  vs,  for  altering  and  amending  our  Translations 
so  oft ;  whereein  truely  they  deale  hardly,  and  strangely  with 
vs.  For  to  whom  euer  it  was  imputed  for  a  fault  (by  such  as 
were  wise)  to  goe  ouer  that  which  hee  had  done,  and  to  amend 
it  wher  hee  saw  cause?  Saint  Augustine  was  not  afraide 
to  exhort  S.  Hierome  to  a  Palinodia  or  recantation  ;  the 
same  S.  Augustine  was  not  ashamed  to  retractate,  we  might 
say  reuoke,  many  things  that  had  passed  him,  and  doth 
euen  glory  that  he  seeth  his  infirmities.  If  we  will  be 
sonnes  of  the  Trueth,  we  must  consider  what  it  speaketh,  and 
trample  vpon  our  owne  credit,  yea  and  vpon  other  mens  too,  if 
either  be  any  way  an  hinderance  to  it.  This  to  the  cause  : 
then  to  the  persons  we  say,  that  of  all  men  they  ought  to  bee 
most  silent  in  this  case.1  For  what  varieties  haue  they,  and 
what  alterations  haue  they  made,  not  onely  of  their  Seruice 
bookes,  Portesses  and  Breuiaries,  but  also  of  their  Latine 
Translation  ?  The  Seruice  book  supposed  to  be  made  by  S. 
Ambrose  (Officium  Ambrosianuni)  was  a  great  while  in  speciall 
vse  and  request :  but  Pope  Hadrian  calling  a  Councill  with 
the  ayde  of  Charles  the  Emperour,  abolished  it,  yea,  burnt  it, 
and  commanded  the  Seruice-booke  of  Saint  Gregorie  vniuersally 
to  be  used.  Well  Offici/u,m  Gregorianum  gets  by  this  menes 
to  be  in  credit,  but  doeth  continue  without  change  or  altering  ? 
No,  the  very  Romane  Seruice  was  of  two  fashions,  the  New 
fashion,  and  the  Old  (the  one  vsed  in  one  Church,  the  other  in 
another),  as  is  to  bee  seene  in  Pamelius,  a  Romanist,  his  Pre 
face,  before  Micrologus.  The  same  Pamelius  reporteth  out  of 
Radulphus  de  Riuo,  that  about  the  yeere  of  our  Lord,  1277, 
Pope  Nicolas  the  third  remoued  out  of  the  Churches  of  Rome. 
the  more  ancient  bookes  (of  Seruice)  and  brought  into  vse  the 
Missals  of  the  Friers  Minorites,  and  commaunded  them  to  bee 
obserued  there;  insomuch  that  about  an  hundred  yeeres 
after,  when  the  aboue  named  Radulphus  happened  to  be  at 
Rome,  he  found  all  the  bookes  to  be  new  (of  the  new  stampe). 
Neither  was  there  this  chopping  and  changing  in  the  more 
ancient  times  onely,  but  also  of  late :  Pius  Quintus  himselfe 
confesseth,  that  euery  Bishopricke  almost  had  a  peculiar  kind 
1  The  Catholics  are  referred  to. 


of  seruice,  most  vnlike  to  that  which  others  had  :  which  moued 
him  to  abolish  all  other  Breuiaries,  though  neuer  so  ancient, 
and  priuiledged  and  published  by  Bishops  in  their  Diocesses, 
and  to  establish  and  ratifie  that  onely  which  was  of  his  owne 
setting  foorth,  in  the  yeere  1568.  Now,  when  the  father  of 
their  Church,  who  gladly  would  heale  the  soare  of  the  daughter 
of  his  people  softly  and  sleightly,  and  make  the  best  of  it, 
findeth  so  great  fault  with  them  for  their  oddes  and  iarring  ; 
we  hope  the  children  haue  no  great  cause  to  vaunt  of  their 
vniformitie.  But  the  difference  that  appeareth  betweene  our 
Translations,  and  our  often  correcting  of  them,  is  the  thing 
that  wee  are  specially  charged  with  ;  let  us  see  therefore 
whether  they  themselues  bee  without  fault  this  way  (if  it 
be  to  be  counted  a  fault  to  correct),  and  whether  they  bee 
fit  men  to  throw  stones  at  us."  "  Neither  did  we  run  ouer  the 
worke  with  that  posting  haste  that  the  Septuagint  did,  if  that  be 
true  which  is  reported  of  them,  that  they  finished  it  in  72  dayes ; 
the  worke  hath  not  bene  hudled  vp  in  72  dayes,  but  hath  cost 
the  workemen,  as  light  as  it  seemeth,  the  paines  of  twise  seuen 
times  seuentie  two  dayes  and  more  :  matters  of  such  weight 
and  consequence  are  to  bee  speeded  with  maturitie  :  for  in  a 
businesse  of  moment  a  man  feareth  not  the  blame  of  con- 
uenient  slacknesse."  Those  words,  somewhat  rhetorically  used, 
are  perhaps  not  to  be  taken  with  numerical  exactness,  at  least 
John  Bois  is  said  to  have  "  spent  four  years  in  this  service." 

They  thus  set  a  high  value  on  translations  of  Scripture,  and 
could  not  forget  that  Tyndale,  Rogers,  and  Cranmer  had  been 
martyrs.  Not  only  did  they  hold  the  earlier  translators  in 
grateful  veneration,  but  they  reckoned  a  translation  of  the 
Bible  to  be  a  work  of  necessity,  and  of  lasting  spiritual  benefit. 
In  utter  contrast  to  the  cold  and  niggardly  views  of  the 
Rhemish  versionists,  who  grudged,  hesitated,  and  trembled  to 
give  an  English  Bible  to  their  own  people,  they  exult  in  the 
open  unsealing  and  free  dispersion  of  the  inspired  records : — 

"But  how  shall  men  meditate  in  that  which  they  cannot 
vnderstand  ?  How  shall  they  vnderstand  that  which  is  kept 
close  in  an  vnknowen  tongue  ?  as  it  is  written,  Except  I  know 
the  power  of  the  voyce,  /  shall  be  to  him  that  speaketh,  a  Bar- 


barian,  and  he  that  speaketh,  shalbe  a  Barbarian  to  me.  The 
Apostle  excepteth  no  tongue ;  not  Hebrewe  the  ancientest,  not 
Greeke  the  most  copious,  not  Latine  the  finest.  Nature  taught 
a  naturall  man  to  confesse,  that  all  .of  vs  in  those  tongues 
which  wee  doe  not  vnderstand,  are  plainely  deafe ;  wee  may 
turne  the  deafe  eare  vnto  them.  The  Scythian  counted  the 
Athenian,  whom  he  did  not  vnderstand,  barbarous:  so  the 
Romane  did  the  Syrian,  and  the  lew,  (euen  S.  Hierome  him 
self  calleth  the  Hebrew  tongue  barbarous,  belike  because  it 
was  strange  to  so  many)  so  the  Emperour  of  Constantinople 
calleth  the  Latine  tongue,  barbarous,  though  Pope  Nicolas  do 
storme  at  it :  so  the  leives,  long  before  Christ,  called  all  other 
nations,  Logmazim,  which  is  little  better  than  barbarous. 
Therefore,  as  one  complaineth,  that  alwayes  in  the  Senate  of 
Rome,  there  was  one  or  other  that  called  for  an  interpreter : 
so  lest  the  Church  be  driuen  to  the  like  exigent,  it  is  neces 
sary  to  haue  translations  in  a  readinesse.  Translation  it  is 
that  openeth  the  window,  to  let  in  the  light ;  that  breaketh 
the  shell,  that  we  may  eat  the  kernel ;  that  putteth  aside  the 
curtaine,  that  we  may  look  into  the  most  Holy  place;  that 
remooueth  the  couer  of  the  well,  by  which  meanes  the  flockes 
of  Laban  were  watered.  Indeede  without  translation  into  the 
vulgar  tongue,  the  vnlearned  are  but  like  children  at  lacobs 
well  (which  was  deepe)  without  a  bucket,  or  some  thing  to 
draw  with :  or  as  that  person  mentioned  by  Esay,  to  whom 
when  a  sealed  booke  was  deliuered,  with  this  motion,  Reade 
this,  I  pray  thee,  hee  was  faine  to  make  this  answere,  /  cannot, 
for  it  is  sealed. 

"  While  God  would  be  knowen  onely  in  Jacob,  and  haue  his 
Name  great  in  Israel,  and  in  none  other  place,  while  the  dew 
lay  on  Gideons  fleece  onely,  and  all  the  earth  besides  was  drie ; 
then  for  one  and  the  same  people,  which  spake  all  of  them  the 
language  of  Canaan,  that  is,  Hebrewe,  one  and  the  same 
origiriall  in  Hebrew  was  sufficient.  But  when  the  fulnesse  of 
time  draw  neere,  that  the  Sunne  of  righteousnesse,  the  Sonne 
of  God  should  come  into  the  world,  whom  God  ordeined  to  be 
a  reconciliation  through  faith  in  his  blood,  not  of  the  leiv 
onely,  but  also  of  the  Greeke,  yea,  of  all  them  that  were  scat- 


tered  abroad;  then  loe,  it  pleased  the  Lord  to  stirre  vp  the 
spirit  of  a  Greeke  Prince  (Greeke  for  descent  and  language), 
euen  of  Ptoleme  Pliiladelpli,  King  of  Egypt,  to  procure  the 
translating  of  the  Booke  of  God  out  of  Hebrew  into  Greeke. 
This  is  the  translation  of  the  Seuentie  Interpreters,  commonly 
so  called,  which  prepared  the  way  for  our  Sauiour  among  the 
Gentiles  by  written  preaching,  as  Saint  John  Baptist  did 
among  the  lewes  by  vocall.  For  the  Grecians  being  desirous 
of  learning,  were  not  wont  to  suffer  bookes  of  worth  to  lye 
moulding  in  Kings  Libraries,  but  had  many  of  their  seruants, 
ready  scribes,  to  copie  them  out,  and  so  they  were  dispersed 
and  made  common.  Againe,  the  Greeke  tongue  was  well 
knowen,  and  made  familiar  to  most  inhabitants  in  Asia,  by 
reason  of  the  conquest  that  there  the  Grecians  had  made,  as 
also  by  the  Colonies,  which  thither  they  had  sent.  For  the 
same  causes  also  it  was  well  vnderstood  in  many  places  of 
Europe,  yea,  and  of  Affrike  too.  Therefore  the  word  of  God 
being  set  foorth  in  Greek,  becommeth  hereby  like  a  candle  set 
vpon  a  candlesticke,  which  giueth  light  to  all  that  are  in  the 
house,  or  like  a  proclamation  sounded  foorth  in  the  market 
place,  which  most  men  presently  take  knowledge  of;  and 
therefore  that  language  was  fittest  to  containe  the  Scriptures, 
both  for  the  first  Preachers  of  the  Gospel  to  appeale  vnto  for 
witnesse,  and  for  the  learners  also  of  those  times  to  make 
search  and  triall  by.  It  is  certaine,  that  that  Translation  was 
not  so  sound  and  so  perfect,  but  that  it  needed  in  many  places 
correction ;  and  who  had  bene  so  sufficient  for  this  worke  as 
the  Apostles  or  Apostolike  men  ?  Yet  it  seemed  good  to  the 
holy  Ghost  and  to  them,  to  take  that  which  they  found  (the 
same  being  for  the  greatest  part  true  and  sufficient)  rather 
than  by  making  a  new,  in  that  new  world  and  greene  age  of 
the  Church,  to  expose  themselues  to  many  exceptions  and 
cavillations,  as  though  they  made  a  translation  to  serue  their 
owne  turne,  and  therefore  bearing  witnesse  to  themselues,  their 
witnesse  not  to  be  regarded." 

"  There  were  also  within  a  few  hundreth  yeeres  after  CHRIST, 
translations  many  into  the  Latine  tongue :  for  this  tongue  also 
was  very  fit  to  conuey  the  Law  and  the  Gospel  by,  because  in 


those  times  very  many  Countreys  of  the  West,  yea  of  the 
South,  East  and  North,  spake  or  vnderstood  Latine,  being 
made  Prouinces  to  the  Romanes.  But  now  the  Latine  Trans 
lations  were  too  many  to  be  all  good,  for  they  were  infinite 
(Latini  Interpretes  nullo  modo  numerari  possunt,  saith  S. 
Augustine).  Againe,  they  were  not  out  of  the  Hebrew  foun 
tain  e  (wee  speake  of  the  Latine  Translations  of  the  Old  Testa 
ment)  but  out  of  the  Greeke  streame,  therefore  the  Greeke 
being  not  altogether  cleare,  the  Latine  deriued  from  it  must 
needs  be  muddie.  This  moued  S.  Hierome,  a  most  learned 
father,  and  the  best  linguist,  without  controuersie,  of  his  age, 
or  of  any  that  went  before  him,  to  vndertake  the  translating 
of  the  Old  Testament,  out  of  the  very  fountaines  themselues ; 
which  hee  performed  with  that  euidence  of  great  learning, 
iudgement,  industrie  and  faithfulnes,  that  he  hath  for  euer 
bound  the  Church  vnto  him,  in  a  debt  of  speciall  remembrance 
and  thankefulnesse." 

These  learned  and  good  men  knew  the  superlative  value  of 
the  book  on  which  they  had  been  so  long  working,  and  they 
felt  that  their  earnest  labour  was  hallowed — that  the  altar 
sanctified  the  gift.  They  quote  several  of  the  Fathers  in  com 
mendation  of  the  pious  and  prayerful  study  of  Scripture,  and 
proceed  to  eulogize  it  in  these  significant  and  old-fashioned 
terms : — 

"  The  Scriptures  then  being  acknowledged  to  bee  so  full  and 
so  perfect,  how  can  wee  excuse  our  selues  of  negligence,  if  wee 
doe  not  studie  them,  of  curiositie,  if  we  be  not  content  with 
them  ?  Men  talke  much  of  ei/oco-iwvrj,  how  many  sweete  and 
goodly  things  it  had  hanging  on  it ;  of  the  Philosophers  stone, 
that  it  turneth  copper  into  gold ;  of  Cornu-copia,  that  it  had 
all  things  necessary  for  foode  in  it ;  of  Panaces  the  herbe,  that 
it  was  good  for  all  diseases ;  of  Catholicon  the  drugge,  that  it 
is  in  stead  of  all  purges ;  of  Vulcans  armour,  that  it  was  an 
armour  of  proofe  against  all  thrusts,  and  all  blowes,  &c.  Well, 
that  which  they  falsly  or  vainely  attributed  to  these  things  for 
bodily  good,  wee  may  iustly  and  with  full  measure  ascribe 
vnto  the  Scripture,  for  spirituall.  It  is  not  onely  an  armour, 
but  also  a  whole  armorie  of  weapons,  both  offensine  and  defen- 


siue ;  whereby  we  may  saue  our  selues  and  put  the  enemie  to 
flight.  It  is  not  an  herbe,  but  a  tree,  or  rather  a  whole  para 
dise  of  trees  of  life,  which  bring  foorth  fruit  euery  moneth,  and 
the  fruit  thereof  is  for  meate,  and  the  leaues  for  medicine.  It 
is  not  a  pot  of  Manna,  or  a  cruse  of  oyle,  which  were  for 
memorie  onely,  or  for  a  meales  meate  or  two,  but  as  it  were  a 
showre  of  heauenly  bread  sufficient  for  a  whole  host,  be  it 
neuer  so  great ;  and  as  it  were  a  whole  cellar  full  of  oyle 
vessels ;  whereby  all  our  necessities  may  be  prouided  for,  and 
our  debts  discharged.  In  a  word,  it  is  a  Panary  of  holesome 
foode,  against  fenowed  traditions;  a  Physions-shop  (Saint 
Basill  calleth  it)  of  preseruatives  against  poisoned  heresies ; 
a  Pandect  of  profitable  lawes,  against  rebellious  spirits;  a 
treasurie  of  most  costly  iewels,  against  beggarly  rudiments ; 
Finally  a  fountaine  of  most  pure  water  springing  vp  vnto 
euerlasting  life.  And  what  maruaile  ?  The  originall  thereof 
being  from  heauen,  not  from  earth ;  the  authour  being  God, 
not  man;  the  enditer,  the  holy  spirit,  not  the  wit  of  the 
Apostles  or  Prophets;  the  Pen-men  such  as  were  sanctified 
from  the  wombe,  and  endewed  with  a  principal!  portion  of 
Gods  spirit;  the  matter,  veritie,  pietie,  puritie,  vprightness; 
the  forme,  Gods  word,  Gods  testimonie,  Gods  oracles,  the  word 
of  trueth,  the  word  of  salvation,  &c. ;  the  effects,  light  of  vnder- 
standing,  stablenesse  of  perswasion,  repentance  from  dead 
workes,  newnesse  of  life,  holinesse,  peace,  ioy  in  the  Holy 
Ghost ;  lastly,  the  end  and  reward  of  the  studie  thereof,  fellow 
ship  with  the  Saints,  participation  of  the  heauenly  nature, 
fruition  of  an  inheritance  immortall,  vndefiled,  and  that  neuer 
shall  fade  away:  Happie  is  the  man  that  delighteth  in  the 
Scripture,  and  thrise  happie  that  meditateth  in  it  day  and 

They  set  to  their  work  with  a  will  and  in  the  true  spirit. 
Their  piety  and  modesty  are  incidentally  referred  to : — 

"  And  in  what  sort  did  these  assemble  ?  In  the  trust  of  their 
owne  knowledge,  or  of  their  sharpenesse  of  wit,  or  deepenesse  of 
iudgment,  as  it  were  in  an  arme  of  flesh  ?  At  no  hand.  They 
trusted  in  him  that  hath  the  key  of  Dauid  opening  and  no 
man  shutting  ;  they  prayed  to  the  Lord,  the  Father  of  our 


Lord,  to  the  effect  that  S.  Augustine  did;  'O,  let  thy  Scriptures 
be  my  pure  delight,  let  me  not  be  deceiued  in  them,  neither  let 
me  deceiue  by  them.'  In  this  confidence,  and  with  this  deuo- 
tion  did  they  assemble  together  ;  not  too  many,  lest  one  should 
trouble  another  ;  and  yet  many,  lest  many  things  haply 
might  escape  them." 

When  the  task  was  completed  at  Oxford,  Cambridge,  and 
Westminster,  three  copies  were  sent  to  London  and  revised 
again  by  two  from  each  company  or  place,1  and  this  supervision 
occupied  nine  months.  Thus  the  pages  were  considei-ed  by 
all  the  companies  in  succession,  and  Dr.  Myles  Smith  and  Dr. 
Bilson,  "  who  carried  prelature  in  his  very  aspect,"  and  whose 
name  does  not  appear  among  the  revisers,  superintended  the 
work  at  press.  But  the  account  given  by  Samuel  Ward,  one  of 
the  revisers,  in  name  of  the  English  delegates  (Theologi  Angli) 
to  the  Synod  of  Dort  in  November,  1618,  differs  from  that 
given  in  the  previous  paragraphs.  It  reduces  the  rules  for  the 
translators  to  seven,  and  says  that  twelve  persons  were  selected 
for  the  final  review.2  On  the  other  hand,  it  is  recorded  that 
Downes  and  Bois  went  up  to  London,  and  there  met  their 
"  four  fellow-labourers."  3 

This  last  revision  required  pecuniary  expenditure,  but  it  was 
not  defrayed  by  the  king,  or  from  the  funds  of  the  church. 
Each  of  the  revisers  received  thirty  shillings  a  week,  not, 
as  Lewis  reports,  thirty  pounds,  which  Barker  seems  to  have 
paid.  One  authority  says  that  the  wages  were  paid  by  the 
Stationers'  Company;  but  another  writer  on  this  subject,  in 
1651,  asserts  openly,  "and  forasmuch  as  propriety  rightly  con- 
siderd  is  a  legal  relation  of  any  one  to  a  temporal  good,  I  con 
ceive  the  sole  printing  of  the  Bible  and  Testament,  with  power  of 
restraint  in  others,  to  be  of  right  the  property  of  one  Matthew 
Barker,  citizen  and  stationer  of  London,  in  regard  that  his 
father  paid  for  the  amended  or  corrected  translation  of  the 
Bible  £3,500  by  reason  whereof  the  translated  copy  did 

1  Twelve  persons  in  the  one  case        3  Life  of  John  Bois,  by  Dr.  A.  Wal- 
and  six  in  the  other,  ker,  Harleian  MSS.,  printed  in  Peck, 

2  Acta  Synodi  Nat.  Dordrecht.,  p.  Desiderata  Curiosa.     See  also  Scriv- 
27,  28.  ener^s  Introduction,  p.  xiv. 


of  right  belong  to  himself  and  his  assigns." l  According  to  the 
same  author,  Matthew  Barker  paid  £600  for  a  reversionary 
patent  in  1635. 

After  so  long  a  period  of  anxious  labour,  carried  out  in  the 
spirit  of  true  scholarship  and  genuine  piety,  the  new  Bible 
was  issued  in  1611,  under  the  title  : — 

"  The  Holy  Bible,  Conteyning  the  Old  Testament  and  the 
New.  Newly  Translated  out  of  the  Originall  tongues:  and 
with  the  former  Translations,  diligently  compared  and  revised 
by  his  Majesty's  Speciall  Comman dement.  Appointed  to  be  read 
in  Churches.  Imprinted  at  London  by  Robert  Barker,  Printer 
to  the  King's  Most  Excellent  Majesty.  Anno  Dom.  1611." 

It  was  published  in  handsome  folio,  and  in  that  year  there 
were  two  issues — one  with  a  beautiful  frontispiece,  engraved  on 
copper,  by  C.  Boel,  of  Richmont.  Which  of  the  two  issues  is 
the  earlier,  it  is  difficult  to  say,  especially  after  what  Mr.  Fry2 
of  Bristol,  Mr.  Lenox  3  of  New  York,  and  Dr.  Scrivener,4  have 
written  on  both  sides  of  the  question.  We  are,  however,  still 
inclined  to  the  more  common  opinion  that  the  issue  with 
Boel's  engraving  is  the  earlier  of  the  two.  The  titles  and 
sheets  of  the  several  editions  were  often  craftily  mixed  up  to 
deceive  buyers  into  the  belief  that  they  were  purchasing  an 
early  issue. 

The  volume  was  disfigured  by  a  dedication  of  fulsome 
magniloquence  to  the  king, — "  the  sun  in  his  strength,"  "  that 
sanctified  person,  enriched  with  many  singular  and  extraor 
dinary  graces,"  "  the  wonder  of  the  world  in  this  latter  age." 
It  concludes  with  a  fling  at  the  Puritans  :  "Or  if,  on  the  other 
side,  we  shall  be  maligned  by  self-conceited  brethren,  who  run 

1  Quoted  by  Mr.  Anderson  in  his  2  A  Description  of  the  Great  Bible, 

Annals,  vol.  II,  p.  384,  and  by  Mr.  &c.,  and  of  the  Authorized  Version, 

Potts,    M.A.,   and    tutor    in   Cam-  &c.,  by  Francis  Fry,  F.S.A.,  London, 

bridge,  in  his  evidence  before  a  select  1865. 

committee   of  the   House  of  Com-  3  Early  Editions  of  King  James's 

mons,    1860,  from  a    brief  treatise  Bible  in  folio,  New  York,  1861. 

"  concerning  the  regulating  of  print-  4  Introduction  to  the  Cambridge 

ing  humbly  submitted  to  the  Parlia-  Paragraph  Bible,  1873. 
ment  of  England  by  William  Ball, 
Esq.,  London,  1651." 


their  own  ways,  and  give  liking  unto  nothing  but  what  is 
framed  by  themselves,  and  hammered  on  their  anvil,  we  may 
rest  secure,  supported  within  by  the  truth  and  innocency  of  a 
good  conscience,  having  walked  the  ways  of  simplicity  and 
integrity,  as  before  the  Lord,  and  sustained  without  by  the 
powerful  protection  of  Your  Majesty's  grace  and  favour,  which 
will  ever  give  countenance  to  honest  and  Christian  endeavours 
against  bitter  censures  and  uncharitable  imputations."  The 
Preface,  which,  though  it  is  composed  in  the  elaborate  style 
of  the  age,  and  gemmed  with  so  many  patristic  quotations, 
is  yet  in  many  points  of  great  excellence  alike  in  tone  and 
aim,  in  candour  and  criticism ;  in  the  points  discussed,  the 
arguments  maintained,  and  the  anticipations  cherished  as  to 
the  result  both  in  church  and  land  by  the  divine  blessing. 
It  is,  however,  as  eulogistic  of  the  king  as  is  the  Dedication  ; 
"  This,  and  more  to  this  purpose.  His  Maiestie  that  now 
reigneth  (and  long,  and  long  may  he  reigne,  and  his  offspring 
for  euer,  Himselfe  and  children,  and  childrens  children 
ahuayes)  knew  full  well,  according  to  the  singular  wisedome 
giuen  vnto  him  by  God,  and  the  rare  learning  and  experience 
that  he  hath  attained  vnto ;  namely  that  whosoeuer  attempteth 
any  thing  for  the  publike  (specially  if  it  pertaine  to  Religion, 
and  to  the  opening  and  clearing  of  the  word  of  God)  the  same 
setteth  himselfe  vpon  a  stage  to  be  glouted  vpon  by  euery  euil 
eye,  yea,  he  casteth  himselfe  headlong  vpon  pikes,  to  be  gored 
by  euery  sharpe  tongue.  For  he  that  medleth  with  mens 
Religion  in  any  part,  medleth  with  their  custome,  nay,  with 
their  freehold ;  and  though  they  finde  no  content  in  that 
which  they  haue,  yet  they  cannot  abide  to  heare  of  altering. 
Notwithstanding  his  Royall  heart  was  not  daunted  or  dis 
couraged  for  this  or  that  colour,  but  stood  resolute,  as  a  statue 
immoueable,  and  an  anuile  not  easie  to  be  beaten  into  plates, 
as  one  sayth ;  he  knew  who  had  chosen  him  to  be  a  Souldier, 
or  rather  a  Captaine,  and  being  assured  that  the  course  which 
he  intended  made  much  for  the  glory  of  God,  &  the  building 
vp  of  his  Church,  he  would  not  suffer  it  to  be  broken  off  for 
whatsoeuer  speaches  or  practises."  A  kind  word  is  also  said 
in  defence  of  public  burdens,  and  the  sentences  must  have 


highly  pleased  his  majesty,  who,  with  great  need  of  his  sub 
jects'  money,  and  an  intense  craving  after  it,  imagined  that 
he  had  an  inherent  claim  upon  it.  "Dauid  was  a  worthy 
Prince,  and  no  man  to  be  compared  to  him  for  his  first  deedes, 
and  yet  for  as  worthy  an  acte  as  euer  he  did  (euen  for  bring 
ing  backe  the  Arke  of  God  in  solemnitie)  he  was  scorned  and 
scoffed  at  by  his  owne  wife.  Solomon  was  greater  than  Dauid, 


though  not  in  vertue,  yet  in  power:  and  by  his  power  and 
wisdome  he  built  a  Temple  to  the  Lord,  such  a  one  as  was  the 
glory  of  the  land  of  Israel,  and  the  wonder  of  the  whole  world. 
But  was  that  his  magnificence  liked  of  by  all  ?  We  doubt  of 
it.  Otherwise,  why  doe  they  lay  it  in  his  sonnes  dish,  and 
call  vnto  him  for  easing  of  the  burden,  Make,  say  they,  the 
grieuous  seruitude  of  thy  father,  and  his  sore  yoke,  lighter. 
Belike  he  had  charged  them  with  some  leuies,  and  troubled 
them  with  some  cariages ;  Hereupon  they  raise  vp  a  tragedie, 
and  wish  in  their  heart  the  Temple  had  neuer  bene  built. 
So  hard  a  thing  it  is  to  please  all,  euen  when  we  please  God 
best,  and  do  seeke  to  approue  our  selues  to  euery  ones  con 

The  clause  on  the  title-page,  "Appointed  to  be  read  in 
churches,"  has,  so  far  as  is  known,  no  authority,  no  edict  of 
Convocation,  no  Act  of  Parliament,  no  decision  of  the  Privy 
Council,  no  royal  proclamation.  At  the  same  time,  the  new 
edition  had  virtual  authority  by  the  order  of  succession,  by  the 
law  of  entail  and  lineage  ;  for  it  was  made  as  a  national  book, 
by  royal  order,  on  purpose  to  displace  the  Bishops'  Bible,  and 
it  had  succeeded  the  Great  Bible  which  had  been  formally 
authorized  by  the  crown.  The  clause  under  review,  it  is  said, 
has  been  sometimes  understood  as  if  it  were  connected  with 
the  previous  words  "  by  his  majesty's  special  command."  But 
its  omission  in  some  editions,  especially  of  the  New  Testament, 
means  nothing.  When  the  two  Testaments  were  bound  up 
together,  it  was  enough  that  it  was  printed  on  the  first  and 
general  title-page  which  covered  the  whole  volume,  and  it  was 
engraven  on  the  copper-plate  title  of  the  first  edition.  Yet  the 
first  folio  in  Roman  character  omits  it,  but  that  was  in  1616. 
The  first  edition  was  meant  to  set  the  model  for  all  subsequent 


issues.  The  "  churches  "  are  only  those  in  connection  with  the 
Established  Church  of  England,  "  this  whole  church  to  be 
bound  into  it  and  none  other,"  according  to  the  minute  of 
Conference.  The  Dedication,  also,  expressly  declares,  "we 
have  great  hopes  that  the  Church  of  England  shall  reap  great 
good  thereby." *  None  but  members  of  that  church  had  any 
hand  in  the  work.  Yet  the  first  letter  of  Genesis  in  the  Bible  has 
in  it  the  rose  and  thistle.  In  the  Preface  Puritans  are  twice 
referred  to  in  a  somewhat  scornful  spirit,  and  also  in  the  Dedi 
cation  ;  while  Archbishop  Bancroft  is  called  "  the  chief  overseer 
under  his  majesty,  to  whom,  not  only  we,  but  also  our  whole 
church  was  much  bound."  2  The  Puritan  party  that  suggested 
the  translation  were  not  Nonconformists.  Nor  were  they  in 
sympathy  with  Scotch  Presbyterians.  Reynolds  wrote  in 
defence  of  the  Liturgy,  and  Sparke  in  favour  of  conformity. 
His  own  party  disowned  Reynolds  and  his  colleagues,  as  being 
"  not  of  their  nomination  or  choosing,  or  of  one  judgment " 
with  them.3  The  millenary  petitioners  disclaimed  all  con 
nection  with  the  Presbyterian  and  "popular  party  in  the 
church,  and  with  all  separatists  who  sought  the  dissolution  of 
the  state  ecclesiastical." 

But  it  has  been  surmised  that  the  Scottish  Church  was  in 
some  way  represented  by  Galloway.  Galloway  had  been  a 
minister  in  Perth,  many  years  before  the  time  of  the  Conference, 
and  had  been  one  of  the  royal  chaplains  from  1589  to  1607.  He 
had  been  obliged  to  fly  for  safety  to  England  in  1584,  because  he 
had  so  resolutely  preached  against  Lennox  and  Arran ;  and  he 
had  been  "decourted"  in  1601  "at  the  instance  of  the  Queen." 
He  wrote,  as  told  in  a  previous  page,  an  account  of  the  meetings, 
which,  after  the  king  had  revised  it,  he  sent  as  "a  just  transumpt" 
down  to  the  Presbytery  of  Edinburgh.  But  he  was  reckoned,  in 
the  phrase  of  the  period,  "a  fallen  star";  and  in  no  sense  did  he 

1  And  so  Dr.  Scrivener  says  that  2  Bancroft  died  on  the    2nd   of 

the  "five    clergymen    who  revised  November,  1610. 

some  of  the   Epistles,  in  or  about  3  Neale's  History  of  the  Puritans, 

1858,  benefited  the  English  Church  vol.  I,  p.  463. 
by  revising  its  Authorized  Version." 
Criticism,  p.  545,  2nd  Edition,  1874. 


represent  the  Church  of  Scotland ;  for  he  was  employed  as  one  of 
the  royal  tools  in  attempts  to  subvert  its  distinctive  constitu 
tion  ;  and  these  papers  sent  down  to  Edinburgh  from  Hampton 
Court  were  a  portion  of  the  process.  His  career,  as  a  courtier, 
was  so  successful  that  his  son  was  raised  to  the  peerage  by 
the  title  of  Lord  Dunkeld. l  When  the  Edinburgh  ministers 
were  arbitrarily  banished  from  the  city,  for  refusing  to  accept, 
on  all  points,  the  king's  account  of  the  Gowrie  conspiracy, 
Galloway  preached  vigorously  in  the  royal  defence,  and  applied 
to  the  sovereign  without  reserve  the  words  and  imagery  in 
which  the  psalmist  describes  his  great  deliverances.  Eight 
ministers  were,  indeed,  summoned  up  from  Scotland  in  1606, 
but  the  points  to  be  discussed  by  or  before  them  were  the  royal 
prerogative  and  power  to  summon  and  dismiss  ecclesiastical 
assemblies.  The  Scottish  party  would  not  listen  to  the  voice 
of  the  charmer,  though  the  voice  was  lordly  and  learned  ;  the 
discourses  of  four  episcopalian  dignitaries  produced  no  effect 
upon  them,  and  so  far  from  being  employed  in  the  work  of 
translation,  they  were  not  only  forbidden  to  attend  church 
courts  any  more,  but  were  severely  punished.  Andrew  Mel 
ville,  Principal  of  the  University  of  St.  Andrews,  after  being 
deprived  of  his  academic  office,  was  sent  to  the  Tower  2  by  a 
court  which  had  no  jurisdiction  over  him,  and  he  obtained  his 
liberty  by  exiling  himself  at  the  age  of  sixty-six.  The  others 
were  bound  to  fix  their  dwellings  in  various  places,  many  miles 
distant  from  the  scenes  of  their  usual  pastoral  labours.  Mel 
ville  had  been  so  imprudent  as  to  write  a  smart  Latin  epigram 
on  the  decorations  of  the  altar  in  the  royal  chapel,  and  on  being 
challenged  for  it  he  flared  into  high  words  with  Bancroft,  and 
twitted  him  with  writing  a  book  against  the  succession  of 

1  This  son  became  first  "  Master  the  French  service."  —  Douglas's 
of  Bequests  and  conjunct  Secretary  Peerage  of  Scotland,  vol.  I,  p.  483. 
of  State,  along  with  the  Eai'l  of  2  Adversity  creates  strange  fellow- 
Stirling,  and  was  elevated  to  the  ships.  Melville  met  Hamilton  "  the 
peerage  in  1645.  The  third  son  Skirmisher "  (page  54)  in  the  Tower, 
joined  the  army  of  Claverhouse,  and  as  a  fellow-prisoner,  got  into  friendly 
being  outlawed  after  Killiecrankie,  intercourse  with  him,  and  attended 
retired  to  the  court  of  St.  Germains,  him  with  great  kindness  in  his  last 
and  the  fourth  son  was  an  officer  in  moments. 


James  to  the  English  crown.  Producing  the  book  from 
his  pocket,  and  getting  into  closer  than  logical  proximity  to  the 
enraged  prelate,  he  shook  him  "freely  and  roundly  by  his 
popish  rags."  l 

The  welcome  which  many  in  England  gave  to  the  new 
translation  is  gratefully  expressed  by  Fuller  :  "  And  now, 
after  long  expectation  and  great  desire,  came  forth  the  new 
translation  of  the  Bible  (most  beautifully  printed),  by  a  select 
and  competent  number  of  divines  appointed  for  that  purpose ; 
not  being  too  many  lest  one  should  trouble  another,  aud  yet 
many  lest  any  things  might  haply  escape  them ;  who,  neither 
coveting  praise  for  expedition,  nor  fearing  reproach  for  slack 
ness  (seeing,  in  a  business  of  moment,  none  deserve  blame  for 
convenient  slowness),  had  expended  almost  three  years  in  the 
work,  not  only  examining  the  channels  by  the  fountain,  trans 
lations  with  the  original,  which  was  absolutely  necessary  ;  but 
also  comparing  channels  with  channels,  which  was  abundantly 
useful,  in  the  Spanish,  Italian,  French,  and  Dutch  languages. 
So  that  their  industry,  skilfulness,  piety,  and  discretion  have 
therein  bound  the  Church  unto  them  in  a  debt  of  special 
remembrance  and  thankfulness.  These,  with  Jacob,  '  rolled 
away  the  stone  from  the  mouth  of  the  well '  of  life,  Gen.  xxix, 
1 0  ;  so  that  even  Rachels,  weak  women,  may  freely  come,  both 
to  drink  themselves,  and  water  the  flocks  of  their  families  at 
the  same." 2 

1  Melville's  Diary,  p.  679.  James's  such  a  quantity  of  gunpowder,  his 
Scottish  countrymen  were  far  from  sudden  reply  was,  "To  blow  you 
being  popular  at  this  time,  and  their  beggarly  Scotch  back  to  your  barren 
unpopularity  was  increased  by  the  hills."  So  unpopular  were  Scotch- 
case  of  Calvin  or  of  the  postnati,  men  in  1612,  that  three  thousand 
the  question  being,  "What  were  the  of  them  passed  homeward,  through 
civil  rights  in  England  of  persons  Ware,  in  ten  days.  Nichol's  Pro- 
born  in  Scotland  since  1603  ?  "Were  gresses,  vol.  II,  p.  649. 
they  aliens  or  not  ?  When  Guy  2  Church  History  of  Britain,  vol. 
Fawkes,  on  his  trial,  was  asked  by  a  III,  p.  245. 
Scottish  peer  why  he  had  stored  up 

The  name  given  in  the  Preface  as  "  Efnard  "  should  be  "  Eiuard,"  the 
abridger  of  the  French  Psalter,  Ussher's  Letter  to  "Ward,  Works,  vol. 
XV,  p.  291. 


"DUT  while  the  Bishops'  Bible  was  to  be  "  as  little  altered " 
as  possible,  the  revision  was  made  by  the  constant  use  and 
comparison  of  the  Hebrew  and  Greek  originals.  Their  own 
words  are  ;  "  If  you  aske  what  they  had  before  them,  truely  it 
was  the  Hebrewe  text  of  the  Olde  Testament,  the  Greeke  of  the 
New.  These  are  the  two  golden  pipes  or  rather  conduits 
where  through  the  oliue  branches  emptie  themselues  into  the 
golde.  Saint  Augustine  calleth  them  precedent  or  originall 
tongues:  Saint  Hierome  fountaines.  The  same  Saint  Hierome 
affirmeth,  and  Gratian  hath  not  spared  to  put  it  into  his  Decree, 
'  That  as  the  credit  of  the  olde  bookes  (he  meaneth  of  the  Old 
Testament)  is  to  be  tryed  by  the  Hebrewe  volumes,  so  of  the 
New  by  the  Greeke  tongue  (he  meaneth  by  the  originall 
Greeke.) '  If  trueth  be  to  be  tried  by  these  tongues,  then 
whence  should  a  translation  be  made,  but  out  of  them?  These 
tongues  therefore,  the  Scripture  wee  say  in  these  tongues,  wee 
set  before  vs  to  translate,  being  the  tongues  wherein  God  was 
pleased  to  speake  to  His  church  by  His  prophets  and  apostles." 
These  translators  had  not,  of  course,  the  so-called  Textus  Re- 
ceptus  either  of  the  Old  or  of  the  New  Testaments — the  former 
being  the  edition  of  Van  der  Hooght,1  and  the  second  that  of 
the  Elzevirs.2  But  of  Hebrew  Bibles  they  had  a  choice,  as 
is  shown  in  a  statement  on  page  209.  They  had  access  also 
to  the  Complutensian  Polyglott3  and  to  the  Antwerp  Poly- 

1  Amsterdam,  1705.  of  which  600  copies  were  printed, 

"  Leyden,  1624.  was  delayed  in  publication  by  the 

3  The  Old  Testament  is  contained  death    of    its    patron    on  the    8th 

in    vol.    I-IV.      The    entire  book,  November,   1517,    and     Pope    Leo 


glott.1    They  had  thus  more  than  one  edition  which  they  could 
use,  and  they  made  some  collations. 

The  Hebrew  text  of  the  Old  Testament  is  far  from  being  in 
a  perfect  state,  and  there  are  but  scanty  means  of  amending  it. 
No  Hebrew  manuscripts  are  of  very  ancient  date,  few  going 
beyond  the  twelfth  century,  and  it  is  perilous  to  attempt  to 
introduce  alterations  either  from  the  Septuagint,  the  Samaritan 
Pentateuch,  or  the  Targurns.  But  the  Masoretic  notes  bearing 
chiefly  on  the  text  are  also  grammatical,  lexical,  euphemistic, 
and  exegetical,  and  they  are  abundant.  Elias  Levita  reck 
oned  them  at  848,  while  Capell  found  no  less  than  1171. 
What  is  technically  called  the  Keri  and  the  Chetib  refer  to  the 
spelling  and  pronunciation,  but  such  various  readings  were 
not  always  regarded  by  the  translators,  who  were  quite  cap 
ricious  in  their  treatment.  Thus  the  Masora  gives  fifteen 
instances  where  lo  should  be  written  so  as  to  signify  "  to  him  " 
— and  not  to  signify  "  not."2  Thus  in  Isaiah  ix,  3,  in  the  clause 
"thou  hast  not  increased  the  joy,"  which  contradicts  the  rest  of 
the  verse,  "  they  joy  before  Thee,"  the  translators  put  the  note 
"  to  him  "  into  the  margin — though  it  should  have  been  in  the 
text.  In  Exodus  xxi,  8,  "  not  "  should  be  "  to  himself  "  as 
the  Masora  intimates,  and  this  is  accepted  into  the  text  with 
out  any  remark.  Words  omitted  altogether  in  the  Hebrew 
text  are  supplied  by  the  Masorets,  and  these  supplements  are 
accepted  by  the  royal  revisers  usually,  but  not  always,  without 
any  reference.  On  the  other  hand,  spurious  words  are  also 
marked,  and  the  translators  made  their  choice  of  text  or 
margin,  but  not  always  with  judicious  preference.3  The  ex 
traordinary  marks  over  words  and  letters  have  been  often  ne 
glected.  Thus  in  Judges  xviii,  30,  the  n  in  the  proper  name 
Ma?iasseh  is  so  marked,  the  hanging  form  of  the  n  denoting 

did  not  license  it  till  March  22ud,  lation  of  Arias  Montanus,  which  is 

1520.  a  revision  of  that  of  Pagninus. 

1  The  Antwerp  Polyglott  was  pub-  2  i1?  to  him  ;  xh  not. 

lished  in  1569-72,  and  in  addition  to  3  The  same  remark  may  be  made 

the  text  found  in  the  Complutensian  to  some  extent  about  some  of  the 

it  has  a  Chaldee    paraphrase,  the  writers  in  the  Speaker's  Comnien- 

Syriac  version  and  the  Latin  trans-  tary. 

VOL.  II.  O 


that  the  name  should  be  Moses,  the  common  reading  having 
been  devised  to  conceal  the  fact  that  this  idolatrous  priest 
was  the  son  of  Gershom  and  grandson  of  Moses.1  There  are 
eighteen  corrections  of  the  scribes  (Tikkun  Sopherim)  some 
times  conjectural  and  sometimes  based  on  exegetical  opinions. 
Gen.  xviii,  22,  might  be  "  and  Jehovah  stood  yet  before 
Abraham."  The  reading  which  has  been  altered  may  be  in  many 
cases  the  original  reading.  Habakkuk  i,  12,  might  read  as 
Ewald  prefers — "Art  Thou  not  from  everlasting."  .  .  . 
"  Thou  diest  not."  Geiger  usually  adopts  these  readings. 

Three  readings  of  no  moment  are  formally  marked,  Ezra 
x,  40,  at  the  word  "  Machnadebai "  the  margin  has  or 
"  Mabnadebai  according  to  some  copies."  Psalms  cii,  3,  "  my 
days  are  consumed  like  smoke,"  "  or  as  some  read  into 
smoke."  Cant,  v,  4,  "  for  him,"  "  or  as  some  read,  in  me." 
But  there  are  at  least  sixty-seven  notes  referring  to  various 
readings  of  the  Hebrew,  generally  pointed  out  on  the  margin 
by  "  or."  In  about  half  of  them  the  Keri  is  given  while  the 
Chetib  is  kept  in  the  text,  but  also  in  many  cases  the  pro 
cess  is  reversed.  As  these  readings  have  generally  the  same 
initial  mark  as  the  alternative  renderings,  they  are  often  not 
distinguished  by  the  common  reader.2  They  ignored,  of  course, 
the  Masoretic  notes  at  the  end  of  each  book — such  notes  as 
tell  the  number  of  the  verses  and  letters  in  it,  point  out  the 
middle  verse,  and  mark  the  larger  and  shorter  sections,  with 
other  similar  minutiae.  The  revisers  of  the  Old  Testament 
were  excellent  Hebrew  scholars,  six  of  them  then  or  after 
wards  held  the  chair  of  Hebrew  at  Oxford  and  Cambridge 
— Lively  had  held  it  for  thirty  years ;  Bedwell  was  of  unrivalled 
fame  as  an  Arabic  scholar.  Many  parts  of  the  Old  Testa 
ment,  especially  in  the  Historical  Books  and  the  Psalms,  are 
admirably  done.3 

1  ntf3Q.  found  in   Dr.    Davidson's   Hebrew 

2  The  list  is  given  in  Dr.  Scrive-  text  of  the  Old  Testament  (London, 
ner's  Introduction  to  the  Cambridge  1855),  and    many   sound    scholarly 
Paragraph  Bible,  p.  25.  suggestions  are  contained  in  several 

3  Many   acute   and   excellent  re-  parts  of  his   volume  "  On  a  Fresh 
marks  on  the  Hebrew  text  will  be  Eevision  of  the  English  Old  Testa- 


They  used  their  own  judgment  in  selecting  a  Greek  text  of 
the  New  Testament.  That  which  they  generally  used  was  the 
best  within  their  reach  at  the  time,  and  it  is  substantially  that 
of  Beza,  1589,  it  being  taken  from  Stephens's  folio  of  1550, 
with  some  variations;  while  both  Stephens  and  Beza  were 
based  on  the  fourth  edition  of  Erasmus.  The  common  statement 
is  that  in  about  eighty-one  places  they  agree  with  Beza  against 
Stephens;  in  about  twenty-one  places  they  agree  with  Stephens 
against  Beza;  while  in  twenty-nine  places  they  follow  neither, 
but  are  guided  by  Erasmus,  the  Vulgate,  or  the  Complutensian 
Polyglott. 1  In  places  in  the  New  Testament  where  they 
could  not  decide  they  gave  an  alternative  in  the  margin,  Beza 
being  followed  in  the  text,  and  Stephens  put  in  the  margin,  or 
vice  versa.  Thus  Matt,  xxi,  7,  "  set  him  thereon,"  B,2  instead  of 
"  he  sat  thereon,"  St. ;  xxiii,  13,  14,  in  the  order  of  the  verses, 
B. ;  Mark  ix,  16,  "with  them,"  St. ;  margin,  "  or,  among  your 
selves,"  after  the  rendering  of  the  Yulgate  and  Beza,  who  adds 
that  this  is  the  reading  of  his  oldest  MS. ; 3  ix,  40,  "  he  that  is 
not  against  us,"  B.,  "  you,"  St. ;  Luke  ii,  38,  "  Jerusalem,"  St., 
margin,  "  or,  Israel,"  after  Beza's  note ;  John  xviii,  15,  where 
the  margin,  without  any  explanation,  abruptly  reads,  "  And 
Annas  sent  Christ  bound  unto  Caiaphas,  the  high  priest," — 
taken  from  the  Bishops'  Bible,  and  though  not  inserted  by 
Beza  into  his  last  text,  yet  is  justified  by  him ;  Rom.  vii,  6, 
"  that  being  dead  wherein,"  B.,  margin,  "  or,  being  dead  to 

ment,  London,  1873."   See  Delitzsch,  Authorized    Version     agrees    with 

Studies  on  the  Complutensian  Poly-  Beza  of   1589   against  Stephens  of 

glott,   Bagster   and    Sons,   London,  1550   in  about  ninety  places,  with 

and   the   Delitzsch-Tregelles  Hand-  Stephens    against    Beza    in    about 

schriftl.  Funde.     Leipzig,  1861-63.  forty  places,  and  that  in  about  from 

1  The  list  with  some  variations  is  thirty  to  forty  places  it  differs  from 

given  by  Canon  Westcott   in   the  both.     There  are  cases  in  which  it 

article  "  New  Testament "  in  Smith's  is  impossible  to   decide  the   Greek 

Dictionary    of    the    Bible,    vol.  II,  reading  from  the  English   version. 

p.  254  ;    by  Dr.  Scrivener,    in    the  Schaff,  Eevision  of  the  English  Ver- 

introduction  to  the  Cambridge  Bible,  sioii,  p.  xxv,  New  York,  1873. 

appendix     E  ;       also     by     Profes-  2  B.  is  Beza  ;  St.  is  Stephens, 

sor  Abbot  of  Harvard  University.  3  kv  vfj.iv. 
This  last  list  would  show  that  the 


that,"  St.;  viii,  11,  "by  his  spirit,"  B.,  margin,  "or,  on  account  of 
his  spirit,"  St. ;  1  Peter  i,  -i,  "  for  you,"  B.,  margin,  "  for  us,"  St.  ; 
2  Peter  i,  3,  "to  glory,"  B.,  margin,  "  or,  by,"  St.;  Kom.  v,  17, 
''by  one  man's  offence,"  St.,  margin,  "or,  by  one  offence,"  B's 
Latin;  Gal.  iv,  17,  "they  would  exclude  you,"  St.,  margin,  "  or, 
us,"  B.  In  Heb.  x,  2,  the  interrogative  form  is  from  Stephens, 
"  for  then  would  they  not  have  ceased  to  be  offered  ?  "  margin, 
"  or,  they  would  have  ceased  to  be  offered,"  B.  In  Matt,  ii,  11, 
x,  10,  2  Peter  i,  1,  they  forsake  both  Beza  and  Stephens ;  in 
John  xviii,  1,  Acts  xxviii,  29,  they  prefer  the  reading  of  the 
Vulgate,  and  from  it  also  is  taken  the  alternative  rendering  of 
the  margin  in  Matt,  xxiv,  31,  "  or,  with  a  trumpet,  and  a  great 

But  different  readings  in  the  New  Testament  are  also  for 
mally  inserted  in  the  margin.  There  are  thirty-five  such 
textual  notes,  and  the  following  are  a  sample  of  them :  Matt,  i, 
11,  margin,  "Some  read,  Josias  begat  Jakim,  and  Jakim  begat 
Jechonias,"  a  marginal  reading  of  Stephens,  but  of  no  authority 
— first  accepted  by  Beza,  and  then  rejected  by  him  in  his  third 
edition.  Matt,  xxvi,  26,  "  Jesus  took  bread  and  blessed  it "  ; 
margin,  "  Many  Greek  copies  have,  Gave  thanks."  Their  text 
follows  Stephens  and  Beza,  and  the  note  is  based  on  Beza,  who 
says  that  "  gave  thanks  "  is  read  in  some  old  codices,  and  that 
both  words  are  used  in  Mark,  viii,  C,  7,  in  reference  to  the  same 
meal,  adding  some  further  thoughts  on,  or  rather  against,  tran- 
substantiation.  But  the  reading  is  baseless,  being  introduced 
from  the  usage  of  Luke  and  Paul.  Luke  x,  22,  at  the  begin 
ning  of  the  verse  the  margin  says,  "  Many  ancient  copies  add 
these  words,  And  turning  to  his  disciples,  he  said."  In  omit 
ting  this  clause  from  their  text,  they  deserted  Stephens  and 
followed  Beza.  The  reading  has,  however,  some  manuscript 
authority,  and  some  of  the  oldest  versions,  and  is  accepted  by 
Tischendorf  in  his  seventh  edition,  and  even  in  his  eighth, 
though  the  Sinaitic  MS.  omits  it.  It  is  omitted  by  Tregelles, 
and  bracketed  by  Alford.  Luke  xvii,  36,  "  Two  men  shall  be 
in  the  field,  the  one  shall  be  taken  and  the  other  left "  ;  margin, 
"  This  verse  is  wanting  in  most  of  the  Greek  copies," — yet  it  is 
kept  in  the  text  after  Beza,  who  says  that  it  is  in  the  Syriac,  the 


Complutensian,  and  some  old  codices.  Erasmus  and  Stephens 
both  omitted  it ;  it  has  some  support  in  versions,  but  MSS.  are 
against  it.  Acts  xxv,  6,  "  more  than  ten  days  "  ;  margin,  "  Or 
as  some  copies  read,  No  more  than  eight  or  ten  days," — the 
reading  of  the  Vulgate,  Sj^riac,  and  Coptic  versions,  and  now 
accepted  on  great  diplomatic  authority.  Ephesians  vi,  9} 
"  knowing  that  your  master  is  also  in  heaven";  margin,  "  Some 
read,  Both  your  and  their  master,"  and  this  is  now  the 
accepted  reading,  supported  by  preponderant  evidence.  Here, 
again,  they  follow  Beza,  and  he  admits  the  various  reading  in  his 
own  Latin  version.1  James  ii,  18,  "  Show  me  thy  faith  without 
thy  works  "  ;  margin,  "  Some  copies  read,  By  thy  works,"  but 
these  copies  are  of  little  weight.  Beza  rejected  the  reading 
"  by  thy  works"  as  very  frigid  and  jejune  ;  but  Stephens  keeps 
it,  and  notes  the  other  in  the  margin.  1  Peter  ii,  21,  "because 
Christ  also  suffered  for  us";  margin,  "Some  read,  for  you," — Beza 
affirming  that  the  reading  "you  "  is  rashly  corrupted  "  to  bring 
the  clause  into  correspondence  with  the  person  of  the  previous 
verse."  Stephens  puts  the  reading  in  his  margin.  But  there 
is  every  authority  for  "  suffered  for  you,"  "  leaving  you."  No 
uncial  MS.  reads  "  for  us,"  "  leaving  us  "  ;  though  two  read  with 
the  Vulgate  "  suffered  for  us,"  "  leaving  you."  2  Peter  ii,  2, 
" their  pernicious  ways  " ;  margin,  "or  lascivious  ways,  as  some 
copies  read  " — Stephens  and  Beza  are  followed — Beza  quoting 
the  Vulgate,  the  Complutensian,  and  six  MSS.  The  reading  pre 
ferred  by  our  translators  has  no  manuscript  authority.  2  Peter 
ii,  11,  "railing  accusation  against  them";  margin,  "Some  read, 
against  themselves,"  a  various  reading  of  no  value  in  the 
margin  of  Stephens,  and  condemned  by  Beza.2  2  Peter  ii,  18, 
"those  that  are  clean  escaped  "  ;  margin,  "  Or,  for  a  little,  or  a 
while,"  as  some  read.  The  reading  rests  on  high  authority. 
Stephen  notes  it  in  his  margin.  Beza  prefers  paululum,  but 
his  note  has  a  polemical  tinge.  2  John  8,  "  that  we  lose  not 
those  things  which  we  have  wrought,  but  that  we  receive  "  ; 
margin,  "  Some  copies  read,  which  ye  have  gained,  but  that  ye 
receive,  &c."  Stephens  notices  the  reading  in  his  margin 

1  Et  illorum  et  vester  dominus. 

2  The  Vulgate  having  adversum  se,  and  Erasmus  adversus  sese. 


which  is  that  of  the  Vulgate,  and  there  are  variations.  Finally, 
the  last  clause  of  1  John  ii,  23,  is  thus  printed,  "  [but]  he  that 
acknowledged  the  Son  hath  the  Father  also."  The  italics  are 
not  employed,  as  usually,  to  mark  a  supplement,  but  to  show 
that  the  words  were  regarded  as  suspicious.  Why  they  should 
have  chosen  such  a  method  of  indication  in  this  place  only,  it 
is  impossible  to  conjecture.  Stephens  excluded  the  clause,  but 
has  a  reference  to  it  in  the  margin.  Beza,  however,  admits  it 
without  hesitation,  nay,  vindicates  his  restoration  of  it  from 
MSS.,  the  Vulgate,  and  the  style  of  the  Apostle,  which  is  very 
often  marked  by  such  antitheses.  The  clause  rests  on  un 
doubted  authority.  Beza  was  followed  in  some  doubtful  cases, 
but  here  he  is  followed  timidly,  and  no  marginal  comment  is 
added.  They  imitate  the  Bishops'  and  the  Great  Bible  in  their 
mode  of  printing  it,  while  Tyndale  and  Coverdale  omit  it 

They  were  wisely  forbidden  to  append  theological  notes,  but 
they  vindicate  in  their  preface  the  necessity  and  benefit  of 
marginal  renderings.  "  Some,  peraduenture,  would  haue  no 
varietie  of  sences  to  be  set  in  the  margine,  lest  the  authoritie 
of  the  Scriptures  for  deciding  of  controuersies  by  that  show  of 
vncertaintie,  should  somewhat  be  shaken.  But  we  hold  their 
judgmet  not  to  be  so  sound  in  this  point.  For  though  what- 
soeuer  things  are  necessary,  are  manifest,  as  S.  Chrysostome 
saith,  and  S.  Augustine.  In  those  things  that  are  plainely  set 
downe  in  the  Scriptures  all  such  matters  are  found  that  con 
cern  faith,  hope,  and  charitie.  Yet  for  all  that  it  cannot  be 
dissembled,  that  partly  to  exercise  and  whet  our  wits,  partly 
to  weane  the  curious  from  loathing  of  them  for  their  euery- 
where-plainenesse,  partly  also  to  stirre  vp  our  deuotion  to 
craue  the  assistance  of  Gods  spirit  by  prayer,  and  lastly  that 

1  The  margin  of  the  New  Testa-  own  possession,  and  some  of  which 

ment  of  Eobert  Stephens,  1550,  is  have    not  as    yet    been   identified, 

not   of  great  value.      He  did   not  His  text   usually  differs   from  the 

print  all  the  various  readings  which  majority  of    the    readings    in   the 

his  son   Henry  had   gathered,  nor  margin,  and  in  nineteen  places  it 

did  he  fully  collate  all  the  sixteen  disagrees  with  them  all. 
MSS.,  affirmed  by  him  to  be  in  his 


we  might  be  forward  to  seek  ayd  of  our  brethren  by  conference, 
and  never  to  scorn  those  that  be  not  in  all  respects  so  complete 
as  they  should  bee,  being  to  seeke  in  many  things  our  selues,  it 
hath  pleased  God  in  his  diuine  prouidence,  heere  and  there  to 
scatter  wordes  and  sentences  of  that  difficultie  and  doubtful- 
nesse,  not  in  doctrinal  points  that  concerne  saluation,  (for  in 
such  it  hath  been  vouched  that  the  Scriptures  are  plaine)  but  in 
matters  of  lesse  moment."  In  this  spirit,  in  addition  to  textual 
notes,  they  appended  6,687  marginal  notes  to  the  Old  Testa 
ment — two-thirds  of  these  expressing  the  more  literal  meaning 
of  the  Hebrew  or  Chaldee,  having  "Heb."  or  "Chald."  prefixed, 
and  of  the  remainder  2,156  contain  alternative  renderings, 
proper  names  are  explained  in  63,  240  contain  an  attempt  to 
harmonize  the  text  especially  as  to  the  spelling  of  proper 
names,  108  of  these  naturally  belonging  to  the  Books  of 
Chronicles.1  In  the  New  Testament  they  placed  765 — of  these 
35  state  various  readings,  582  are  alternative  renderings,  112 
give  more  literal  translations,  and,  quite  in  contrast  to  the 
Genevan,  only  35  present  explanations. 

Many  of  the  Notes,  especially  in  the  Old  Testament,  ex 
plain  symbolic  names  like  those  in  Hosea  i,  ii ;  and  sometimes 
the  Hebrew  geographical  name  is  put  in  the  margin,  when 
another  term  has  been  put  into  the  text,  as  Gush,  Ethiopia  • 
Aram,  Mesopotamia  ;  Ararat,  Armenia.  When  a  Hebrew  or  a 
foreign  term  is  kept  in  the  text,  it  is  occasionally  explained 
in  the  margin :  as  Jasher,  "  of  the  upright,"  2  Samuel  i,  18  ; 
mammon,  "riches,"  Luke  xvi,  11;  but  they  attach  no  note  to 
Raca  in  Matt,  v,  22.  And,  conversely,  the  original  term  "  tera- 
phim  "  is  carried  to  the  margin,  "  images "  remaining  in  the 
text,  Gen.  xxxi,  19  ;  "  the  giant "  is  reserved  for  the  text, 
"  Rapha  "  relegated  to  the  margin,  2  Sam.  xxi,  16  ;  "  Praise  ye 
the  Lord "  is  in  the  text,  and  "  Hallelujah "  in  the  margin, 
Psalm  cvi,  1,  but  no  note  is  given  to  the  same  clause  just  before 
the  conclusion  of  the  previous  Psalm.  They  were  in  great 

1 1   Chron.   i,  6,   Eiphath   in  the  cording  to  Dr.   Scrivener,  there  are 

text  is  Diphath  in  the  margin  ;  7,  1,016  marginal   notes  in  the  Apo- 

Dodauim,  Rodanim  ;    17,  Meshech,  crypha. 
Mash  ;   30,    Had  ad,    Hadar.      Ac- 




doubt  as  to  the  meaning  of  two  names  in  Isaiah  Ixv,  11,  and 
they  put  the  Hebrew  terms  "  Gad,"  "  Meni,"  in  the  margin ; 
and  they  felt  a  similar  bewilderment  at  Ezekiel  xliii,  15.  A 
more  literal  rendering  than  that  of  the  text  is  frequently  set  in 
the  margin  :  Gen.  xxxi,  2,  "  as  yesterday  and  the  day  before  " ; 
1  Kings  i,  25,  "  let  king  Adonijah  live " ;  Psalms  ii,  6, 
"anointed"  "upon  Zion  the  hill  of  my  holiness."  There  are 
also  alternative  renderings,  as  if  giving  the  reader  his  choice  : 
Gen.  vii,  11,  "windows,"  margin,  "flood-gates";  i,  6,  "  firma 
ment,"  margin,  "expansion";  Gen.  xxxi,  54,  "offered  sacri 
fices,"  margin,  "  killed  beasts  " ;  Exodus  xii,  6,  "  in  the  even 
ing,"  margin,  "  between  the  two  evenings " ;  Psalms  xviii, 
26,  "thou  wilt  show  thy  self  froward,"  margin,  "wrestle." 
Geographical  annotations  are  sometimes  found  :  2  Kings  xxiii, 
13,  "  mount  of  Corruption,"  margin,  "  that  is,  the  mount  of 
Olives " ;  2  Chron.  ix,  26,  "  the  river,"  margin,  "  that  is, 
Euphrates " ;  Acts  xxvii,  7,  "  Crete,"  margin,  "  or,  Candy." 
There  are  a  few  general  notes  interspersed l :  Gen.  vi,  5,  margin, 
"  the  Hebrew  word  signifieth  not  only  the  imagination,  but 
also  the  purposes  and  desires";  Exodus  xxix,  13,  on  "caul,"  2 
the  margin  is,  "It  seemeth  by  anatomy  and  the  Hebrew 
doctors  to  be  the  midriff";  2  Samuel  xxiv,  1,  "he  made 
David  to  number,"  margin,  "Satan";  Job  x,  17,  "thy  wit 
nesses,"  margin,  "  that  is,  thy  plagues  "  ;  xii,  13,  "  with  him," 
margin,  "  that  is,  with  God " ;  xxvii,  3,  "  spirit  of  God," 
margin,  "that  is,  the  breath  which  God  gave";  Psalms  xxiv,  6, 
"  Jacob,"  margin,  "  or,  O  God  of  Jacob."  In  John  xviii,  verse 
24  is  made  a  note  to  verse  13;  Acts  xvii,  19,  "Areopagus," 
margin,  "  or,  Mars'  hill.  It  was  the  highest  court  in  Athens  " ; 
1  Cor.  xi,  10,  "power,"  margin,  "that  is,  a  covering  or  sign 

1  These  examples,  inserted  by  the 
revisers   themselves,  belong  to  the 
first  edition.     The  notes  were  vastly 
multiplied     in     subsequent     issues, 
and  without  authority. 

2  It  may  be  added  that  in  Hosea 
xiii,  8,  the  caul  of  the  heart  is  men 
tioned,    that   is,  the   membrane  en 

closing  the  heart.  The  name  is  also 
given  in  Isaiah  iii  to  some  species  of 
network  that  formed  a  portion  of 
female  head-dress.  But  in  the 
Hebrew  text  of  Exodus,  Isaiah,  and 
Hosea  three  different  words  are 


that  she  is  under  the  power  of  her  husband."  There  is  also  a 
note  of  some  length  to  Acts  xiii,  34,  and  to  Mark  vii,  3.  Ex 
planations  of  weights  and  of  measures,  and  of  terms  denoting 
distances  are  also  given.  But  there  are  no  historical  notes,  for 
they  are  virtually  an  interpretation  based  on  some  scheme  of 
chronology.  The  Bibles  in  common  currency  and  use  have 
many  of  these  historical  notes,  but  the  translators  themselves 
did  not  append  them,  They  are  therefore  in  no  way  respon 
sible  for  the  notes  at  Judges  iii,  31 ;  iv,  2 ;  xi,  29 ;  xii,  8,  11, 
13;  xiii,  1  ;  xv,  20 ;  1  Sam.  iv,  18;  2  Kings  i,  17;  viii,  17; 
1  Chron.  i,  50 ;  Daniel  i,  21 ;  ix,  24  ;  Hosea  xiii,  10.  Nor  are 
they  responsible  for  the  reference  to  Josephus  in  Genesis  xxii,  1, 
and  2  Kings  xiv,  8  ;  or  for  that  to  Ussher,  2  Kings  xv,  30  ;  or 
for  the  prefatory  note  to  the  Book  of  Job ;  nor  that  on  Psalm 
Ix,  8 ;  or  Hosea  ix,  3  ;  or  for  that  at  the  beginning  of  2  Kings 
xv,  in  which  the  word  "monarchy"  occurs  in  the  sense  of 
"  sole  reign."  All  those  are  later  interpolations,  and  have 
been  brought  in  from  time  to  time  without  recognized  autho 
rity  ;  269  of  such  notes  first  appeared  in  the  edition  of  Dr. 
Paris,  1762  ;  and  Dr.  Blayney  added  66  additional  annotations. 
A  large  group  of  these  notes  may  be  seen  at  the  end  of  Daniel 
ix,  the  one  note  of  the  first  edition  being  omitted  altogether. 
The  chronology  of  Archbishop  Ussher  has  also  been  inserted,  and 
is  now  found  in  the  most  of  Bibles,  though  it  has  not  a  satisfac 
tory  basis.  It  is  startling  to  find  that  the  epoch  of  the  creation, 
the  deluge,  and  the  call  of  Abram  is  given  without  any  mis 
giving,  while  Job  is  assigned  to  about  1520  B.C.,  and  1,000 
years  B.C.  runs  through  the  first  twenty-four  chapters  of 
Proverbs,  and  then  300  years  are  suddenly  deducted,  and 
it  becomes  "about  B.C.  700."  There  are  no  distinct  chrono 
logical  data  given  in  the  earlier  chapters  of  Genesis.  For 
it  is  said  x,  15,  "  Canaan  begat  Sidon  his  firstborn,  and 
Heth,"  but  the  next  clause  adds  the  names  of  tribes  be 
gotten  by  him,  "  the  Jebusite  and  the  Amorite,"  &c.,  a 
mode  of  expression  that  makes  a  very  large  and  indefinite 
demand  on  time.  The  date  assigned  to  the  earthquake,  B.C. 
787,  is  certainly  not  correct,  nor  can  862,  prefixed  to  Jonah 
be  the  true  year. 


It  would  be  a  great  exaggeration  to  say  that  the  marginal  ren 
derings  are  better  than  those  of  the  text,  but  not  a  few  of  them 
certainly  are  preferable,  as  those  attached  to  Gen.  xxi,  33; 
Deut.  xxi,  23  ;  Josh,  xx,  7  ;  Psalm  ii,  G  ;  xxix,  2 ;  Prov.  iv,  23  ; 
Ezek.  xxix,  10 ;  Matt,  ii,  6,  11  ;  v,  21 ;  xxii,  20 ;  xxiii,  18  ; 
Mark  vii,  3  ;  x,  52;  John  i,  12 ;  xiv,  18  ;  Acts  xiii,  36  ;  xvii, 
23  ;  xix,  38,  39  ;  xxv,  20  ;  xxvii,  40 ;  Romans  iii,  25 ;  vii,  7  ; 
Galatiaus  iv,  25  ;  Ephesians  i,  19  ;  vi,  24 ;  1  Thess.  i,  4 ;  2 
Thess.  i,  7;  Titus,  ii,  11 ;  Hebrews  ii,  16  ;  vi,  7,  17 ;  vii,  3,  28  ; 
2  Peter  iii,  12  :  3  John  14;  Rev.  iii,  14,  &c.,  &c.  Yet  no  one 
will  fully  adopt  the  statement  of  Gell,  "  that  the  translators 
have  placed  some  different  significations  in  the  margent,  but 
these  mostwhat  the  better,  because  where  truth  is  tried  by 
most  voyces  it  is  commonly  outvoted." l 

The  fourteenth  rule  given  to  the  translators  exhorted  them, 
in  cases  of  doubt  and  difficulty,  to  consult  Tyndale,  Matthew, 
Coverdale,  Whitchurch,  Geneva.  The  order  is  peculiar,  in  that 
it  places  Matthew  before  Coverdale,  and  calls  the  Great  Bible 
by  the  name  of  one  of  its  printers — Whitchurch.2  The  refer 
ence  to  Matthew  was  superfluous,  as  his  Bible  is  simply  made 
up  of  Tyndale  and  Coverdale.  This  rule  the  translators  did 
not  specially  regard,  for  they  knew  that  these  versions  were  a 
series  of  revisions,  and  therefore  they  revised  the  Bishops'  by 
the  help  of  its  contemporary,  the  Genevan.  In  fact,  they 
clung  as  closely  to  it  as  to  the  Bishops',  though  they  often  differ 
with  advantage  from  both.  In  the  historical  books  they  keep 
near  the  Bishops'.  The  royal  condemnation  of  the  Genevan 
did  not  affect  them,  but  they  gave  it  its  just  place  in  their 
estimation,  and,  especially  in  the  prophetic  books,  adopt  it  as 
often  as  they  adopt  the  Bishops'.  Professor  Moulton's  exact 
calculation  is  that,  in  one  hundred  and  eighty-two  words  of 
six  verses,  Isaiah  liv,  11-17,  eighty  remain  unchanged  from 
the  previous  versions,  sixty  are  from  the  Genevan,  and  only 
twelve  are  from  the  Bishops'.3  In  the  familiar  fifty-third 
chapter  of  Isaiah,  Canon  Westcott  has  counted  that  of  the 

1  Essay  toward  the  Amendment  of          2  Whitchurch    had    married   the 
the  last   English  Translation,   pre-     widow  of  Cranmer. 
face  p.  24,  London,  1659.  3  Bible  Educator,  vol.  IV,  p.  380. 


variations  seven-eighths  are  due  to  the  Genevan.1  Arid  they 
made  use  of  another  version,  not  mentioned  to  them  at  all — 
the  Rheims.2  The  Genevan  represented  an  extreme  section 
of  Protestant  English  refugees,  and  the  Rheims  a  party  of 
extreme  Popish  exiles ;  but  they  profited  by  the  consultation 
of  both  versions.  Many  happy  turns  were  borrowed  from  the 
one,  and  from  the  other  they  enriched  their  vocabulary,  though 
they  avoided  the  theological  notes  of  the  first,  and  did  not 
accept  the  swarm  of  Latinized  terms  that  disfigure  the  second. 
Instances  of  the  happy  use  of  the  Genevan  and  the  Rheims 
are  to  be  found  everywhere. 

They  had  also  other  helps,  as  they  record  in  their  Preface : 
"  Neither  did  wee  thinke  much  to  consult  the  translators  and 
commentators — Chaldee,  Hebrewe,  Syrian,  Greeke,  or  Latine, 
no,  nor  the  Spanish,  French,  Italian,  or  Dutch;  neither  did  we 
disdaine  to  reuise  that  which  we  had  done,  and  to  bring  back 
to  the  anuill  that  which  we  had  hammered :  but  hauing  and 
vsing  as  great  helpes  as  were  needfull,  and  fearing  nor  eproch 
for  slownesse,  nor  coueting  praise  for  expedition,  wee  haue  at 
the  length,  through  the  good  hand  of  the  Lord  vpon  us, 
brought  the  worke  to  that  passe  that  you  see."  These  more 
modern  versions  were  probably  a  Spanish  translation,  De 
Regna,  1569,  and  a  revision  of  it  by  Cyprian  De  Valera,3 
Amsterdam,  1602;  a  French  translation  by  Olivetan,  1535,  and 
by  the  Company  of  Pastors,  Geneva,  in  1587-88;  an  Italian 
translation  by  Diodati,  Geneva,  1607.  Of  course,  they  had 
Luther's  Bible ;  and  if  Dutch  is  to  be  distinguished  from 
German,  then  a  Dutch  translation  had  been  published  in  1560 
based  on  Luther's  version.  They  had  also  Pagninus,  the  edi 
tion  of  Arias  Montanus,  and  Miinster.  They  were  very  familiar 
with  the  translation  of  the  Old  Testament  by  Tremellius, 
Frankfort,  1575-76-79;  and  its  second  edition,  under  the  care 
of  Junius,  his  son-in-law,  Geneva,  1590.  The  Targum  of 
Onkelos  had  been  printed  several  times  before  1611,  and  also 

1  History  of  the   English  Bible,  powder  Plot  had  been  discovered  on 
p.  274.  the  5th  of  November,  1605. 

2  King  James  at  that  time   de-        3  See  some  account  of  De  Valera 
tested  the   Papists,   and  the   Gun-  in  Thomsons'  Fasti,  vol.  II,  p.  353. 




that  of  Jonathan  Ben  Uzziel.  The  Peshito  also  had  been 
published,  as  was  also  the  Latin  version  of  Castalio,  1551. 

One  glimpse  into  their  method  of  procedure  is  given  by 
Selden  :  "  The  English  translation  of  the  Bible  is  the  best  trans 
lation  in  the  world,  and  renders  the  sense  of  the  original  best, 
taking  in  for  the  English  translation  the  Bishops'  Bible,  as 
well  as  King  James's.  The  translators  in  King  James's  time 
took  an  excellent  way.  That  part  of  the  Bible  was  given  to 
him  who  was  most  excellent  in  such  a  tongue — as  the  Apo 
crypha  to  Andrew  Downes ;  and  then  they  met  together,  and 
one  read  the  translation,  the  rest  holding  in  their  hands  some 
Bible,  either  of  the  learned  tongues,  or  French,  Spanish, 
Italian,  &c.  If  they  found  any  fault,  they  spoke ;  if  not,  he 
read  on." 

The  alternative  renderings  which  they  place  in  the  margin 
show  what  helps  they  had  been  consulting  for  the  text.  Thus 
in  Isaiah  xl,  apart  from  the  more  literal  renderings  of  Hebrew 
idioms,  the  following  marginal  notes  may  be  taken  as  an  ex 
ample  :  1,  "  her  warfare  is  accomplished,"  Genevan,1  but  the 
alternative  rendering,  "  appointed  time,"  2  is  from  Tremellius  ; 
4,  "and  the  rough  [places]  made  plaine,"  B.,  G. B.3 — mar 
ginal  rendering,  "  a  plain  place  "  ; 4  9,  "  O  Zion,  that  bringest 
good  tidings !  O  Jerusalem,  that  bringest  good  tidings !" — 
B.  and  Genevan  being  virtually  the  same,  after  Pagninus, 
Mlinster,  and  Leo  Judse ;  but  the  marginal  rendering,  "  O 
thou  that  tellest  good  tidings  to  Zion,"  is  from  Tremel 
lius,5  the  Septuagint  adopting  the  former,  and  the  Vul 
gate  the  latter.  6  10,  "  The  Lord  God  will  come  with  strong 
hand,"  "  with  power,"  G.  and  B. ; 7  but  the  dissimilar  margin, 
"against  the  strong,"  is  again  from  Tremellius.8  "His  work 
before  him  " — similar  in  G.  and  B.,  after  Pagninus,  Munster, 
and  Leo  Judse ; 9  while  the  margin,  "  or  recompense  for  his 

1  "Militia    completa" — Pagninus 
and  Munster. 

2  "  Tempus  praefinitum." 

3  B.  is  Bishops';  G.B., the Gt.  Bible. 

4  "  In  planitiem" — Pagninus  and 

5  "  O  quae  evangelizas  Zijoiii." 

6  "  Qui  evangelizas  Zijoni." 

7  "  Cum  f  orti,"  Pagninus. 

8  "  Contra  robustum." 

9  "  Opus  ejus  ante  ipsum." 


work,"  is  virtually  after  Castalio.1  11,  "  those  that  are  with 
young,"  virtually  after  G.  and  B;2  but  the  marginal  reading 
is  correct,  "that  give  suck,"  and  is  from  the  French  ver 
sion  of  1588.3  14,  "and  who  instructed  him"  G. ;  margin, 
"  Hebrew,  made  him  understand,"  literal,  after  Coverdale  and 
the  Zurich  German.4  22,  "  It  is  he  that  sitteth  "  ;  margin,  "  or 
him  that  sitteth."  5  31,  "  shall  renew  their  strength,"  Tremel- 
lius,  after  Leo  Judse;  margin,  "or,  change,"  Vulgate.6  The 
Hebrew  verb  means  to  exchange  strength,  or  get  new  strength. 

The  royal  revisers  were  somewhat  independent  in  their 
appropriation  and  in  their  rejection  of  the  renderings  found  in 
the  preceding  versions. 

The  Bishops'  was  the  translation  which  was  immediately 
revised  by  royal  order,  and  it  therefore  had  its  own  influence 
in  moulding  the  Authorized  Version.  But  it  was  changed  in 
many  ways,  though  now  and  then  both  its  text  and  margin 
are  retained,  as  in  2  Cor.  viii,  22 ;  or  sometimes  the  text  of  the 
Bishops'  becomes  the  margin  of  the  Authorized,  as  in  2  Thess. 
iii,  14;  Ephes.  iv,  1;  and  the  margin  of  the  Bishops'  the  text 
of  the  Authorized,  as  in  Gal.  vi,  12  ;  2  Pet.  i,  20.  The  revisers 
often  followed  the  earlier  versions  in  places  where  change 
would  have  been  profitable,  but  sometimes  they  have  intro 
duced  alterations  to  the  worse.  A  few  examples  may  be  given : 

Mark  xii,  44,  "they  did  cast  in  of  their  abundance," 7  from  the 
Rheims  and  the  Vulgate,  superseding  the  better  reading, 
"  superfluity,"  of  the  Bishops',  and  all  the  preceding  versions. 

The  older  translations  are  rightly  forsaken  in  Mark  vi,  29, 
in  the  rendering  "corpse";  "body"  being  the  earlier  rendering, 
the  Genevan  having  "  or  carcase  "  in  the  margin. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  Authorized  follows  the  older  ver 
sions  in  wrongly  rendering  "but"  in  1  Thess.  ii,  18,  "but8 

1  "  Prsemium  suumque."  6  "  Novas   vires    recipiunt,"    Leo 

2  "  Fcetas/'      Vulgate,     Minister,  Judas;  "mutabunt"  being  the  verb 
Pagninus,  and  Leo  Judse.  in   the   Vulgate,   followed  by  Pag- 

3  "  Celles    qui    allaitent,"  Luther  niuus,  Minister ;  "  mutant  vires  "  iii 
having  "  die  Schaff mutter."  Tremellius. 

4  "  Das  er  in  versteudig  mache."  7  Quod  abundabat  illis. 

5  "  Eum  qui  insidet,"  Tremellius.  8  KCU. 


Satan  hindered  us  " ;  the  contrast  is  not  expressed  by  the  con 
junction,  but  lies  in  the  context,  the  particle  simply  adding 
another  fact  in  sequence,  as  in  Hebrew  narration. 

Acts  i,  4,  the  translation  "being  assembled  together  with 
them  "  is  better  than  "  and  gaddered  them  together  " — the  ren 
dering  of  all  the  older  versions  but  the  Rheims,  which,  after 
Wycliffe,  has  "  and  eating  with  them  " — found  in  our  margin. 

In  Heb.  iv,  1,  the  older  versions  have  "  let  us  fear,  therefore, 
lest  any  of  us  forsaking  the  promise  of  entering,"  but  the 
Authorized  Version  boldly  alters,  and  gives  "  a  promise  being 
left  us  of  entering."  In  a  more  important  place  it  forsakes  the 
older  versions,  and  mistranslates  the  original — "the  promises 
.  .  .  .  having  seen  them  afar  off  and  embraced  them." 
The  proper  rendering  is  "  saluted  them,"  for  the  privation  of 
the  fathers  was  that  they  could  not  embrace  them.  Wycliffe 
has  "  greetynge  "  ;  so  Tyndale,  Coverdale,  the  Great  Bible,  the 
Bishops',  and  the  Rheims ;  but  the  Genevan  versions  have,  the 
one  "received  them  thankfully"  (1560),  and  the  other  "with 
thanks"  (1557).  Our  translators  have  also  so  rendered  the 
verb  in  Acts  xx,  1,  thus  in  some  way  identifying  salute  and. 

The  Authorized  Version  also  follows  the  older  versions,  in 
shrinking  from  the  full  and  literal  sense  of  the  first  clause  of 
2  Pet.  iii,  12,  when  it  renders  "hasting  unto  the  coming  of  the 
day  of  God,"  the  insertion  of  "  unto "  being  unwarranted. 
Believers  are  exhorted  to  speed  the  coming  of  the  day  of  God. 
The  true  translation — "  hasting  the  coming  " — is  relegated  to 
the  margin,  as  if  it  had  been  felt  to  be  too  adventurous  to 
put  it  into  the  text.  "...  that  it  may  please  thee  ...  to 
hasten  thy  kingdom  "  (Burial  Service). 

In  a  similar  way,  and  apparently  from  a  similar  motive,  the 
true  sense  is  departed  from  in  Acts  iii,  19,  "Repent  ye  there 
fore,  and  be  converted,  that  your  sins  may  be  blotted  out 
when  the  times  of  refreshing  shall  come."  Without  doubt  the 
conjunction1  signifies  "in  order  that."  Two  ends  are  spoken  of 
as  the  twin  result  of  their  conversion — first,  "  that  your  sins 
may  be  blotted  out";  and  secondly,  "that  seasons  of  refreshing 


may  come " ;  these  seasons,  connected  with  the  second  advent 
or  mission  of  Jesus,  at  the  restitution  of  all  things.  The 
second  advent  is  thus  conditioned  in  its  period  by  the 
state  of  the  world  and  the  church;  but  our  translators,  not 
being  able  to  entertain  the  notion,  render  the  conjunction  by 
"  when  " ;  and  to  show  that  they  felt  some  necessity  laid  upon 
them,  this  is  the  only  place  where  it  is  so  translated.  The 
older  versions  have  the  same  misrendering ;  the  Genevan  of 
1557  has  "since,"  but  the  note  in  the  margin  of  the  Bishops' 
hints  at  the  true  reference. 

It  forsakes  its  predecessor  in  rendering  Heb.  ii,  16,  "he 
took  not  on  him  the  nature  of  angels,"  the  true  rendering 
being  put  into  the  margin,  and  the  false  translation  probably 
suggested  by  the  marginal  note  of  the  Bishops'.  The  verse  is 
not  an  assertion  of  the  incarnation,  but  an  inferential  argu 
ment  for  it. 

Matt,  xiv,  8,  "  And  she  being  before  instructed  of  her 
mother,"  does  not  give  the  sense  with  its  peculiar  point ;  it  is 
rather,  "  and  she  being  put  forward  (set  on)  by  her  mother." 
Our  version  is  based  upon  the  Vulgate,1  and  it  may  be  traced 
through  the  Bishops',  the  Genevan,  the  Great  Bible,  Matthew, 
and  Coverdale,  up  to  Tyndale,  who  has  "  beinge  informed  of 
her  mother  before." 

It  follows  Tyndale,  the  Great  Bible,  the  Genevan,  and  the 
Bishops',  and  misrenders  Acts  ii,  6,  "now  when  this  was  noised 
abroad "  ("  about "  in  the  older  versions),  putting  the  better 
translation  into  the  margin,  "when  this  voice  was  made." 
Coverdale  and  the  Rheims  have  "voice."  The  noun  never 
signifies  report  or  rumour,  and  refers  to  the  "  sound  "  of  v.  2, 
and  means  when  that  sound  had  taken  place. 

In  the  injunction,  "abstain  from  all  appearance  of  evil," 
1  Thess.  v,  22,  "  appearance "  is  properly  what  presents  itself 
to  the  eye — form  or  figure,  as  in  Luke  iii,  22 ;  ix,  29 ;  John 
v,  37;  and  in  2  Cor.  v,  7.  But  the  word  does  not  mean 
semblance  without  reality,  though  the  sense  suggested  by  the 
English  translation,  which  copies  the  Genevan  rendering,  is, 
avoid  what  bears  the  aspect  of  evil,  though  it  be  not  really 
1  Praemonita  a  matre. 


evil ;  or,  as  Tyndale  has  it,  "  all  suspicious  things." 1  The  con 
trast  is  not  between  what  is  really  good,  and  is  to  be  held  fast, 
and  what  is  evil  only  in  appearance. 

Mark  vi,  20,  "  Herodias  would  have  killed  him,  but  she 
could  not,  for  Herod  observed  him  "  (Bishops'  and  Genevan) — 
rather  "  preserved  " — shielded  him  from  her  malignity, 

The  older  versions  are  followed  in  giving  a  rendering  to 
Luke  xxiii,  15,  which  takes  away  all  sense  from  the  passage, 
"  No,  nor  yet  Herod ;  for  I  sent  you  to  him,  and  lo,  nothing 
worthy  of  death  is  done  unto  him  " ;  for  the  rendering  should 
be  not  "  unto  him,"  but  "  by  him."  Pilate  had  said,  "  I  find  no 
fault  in  him,"  and  he  adds  that  Herod  had  come  to  a  similar 
conclusion — nothing  had  been  done  by  him  that  could  entail 
capital  punishment. 

"  Cumber,"  now  all  but  obsolete,  may  be  supposed  to  have 
the  same  meaning  as  "  encumber  "  in  Luke  xiii,  7,  "  why  cum- 
bereth  it  the  ground  ? "  Such  a  translation,  however,  does  not 
represent  the  verb  of  the  original,  but  is  probably  due  to  the 
occupat  of  the  Vulgate,  Wycliffe  having  "  wherto  occupieth  it 
the  erthe  ?  "  and  the  Rheims,  "  whereto  also  doth  it  occupy  the 
ground."  "  Cumber  "  was  introduced  by  Tyndale,  and  Cover- 
dale  has  "  why  hyndreth  it  the  ground  ?  "  2  But  these  trans 
lations  amount  only  to  this — "  Why  does  it  take  up  so  much 
of  the  soil  ?"  the  Genevan  advancing  a  step,  and  giving  "  why 
keepeth  it  also  the  ground  barren  ? "  The  sense  has  its  point 
in  the  "  also,"  and  the  verb  means  to  destroy  the  ground,  for 
the  tree  was  pernicious  as  well  as  fruitless.  It  is  quite  a 
different  verb  that  is  rendered  "  cumbered "  in  Luke  x,  40, 
"  Martha  was  cumbered  with  much  service." 

"  Blindness  "  instead  of  "  hardness  "  is  wrong  in  Rom.  xi,  25  ; 
Ephes.  iv,  18,  after  the  Vulgate,3  but  it  is  rightly  rendered 
"  hardness  "  in  Mark  iii,  5 — the  rendering  also  of  the  Genevan. 

Gal.  vi,  11  is  misrendered  in  the  Authorized  Version,  follow 
ing  Tyndale,  the  Great  Bible,  and  the  Genevan,  "  ye  see  how 
large  a  letter  I  have  written."  The  true  and  literal  translation 
is,  "  ye  see  with  how  large  letters  I  have  written,"  the  allusion 

1  The  Vulgate    reads   "  ab   omni        2  "  Impedit "  in  the  old  Latin, 
mala  specie."  3  Coecitas. 


being  to  the  large  characters  which,  from  age,  infirmity,  or 
want  of  experience  in  writing  Greek,  his  own  hand  had  traced 
on  the  parchment. 

It  rightly  forsakes  the  earlier  versions  in  John  i,  3,  4,  by 
rendering  "him"  instead  of  "it,"  and  has  thus  followed  the 
Rheims,  and  Wycliffe,  who  reads,  "  alle  thingis  weren  maad  bi 

In  2  Thess.  ii,  2,  the  clause  "  as  that  the  day  of  Christ  is  at 
hand  "  does  not  present  the  true  meaning,  which  is  "  as  that 
the  day  of  the  Lord  is  present."  The  participle  denotes  "  pres 
ent,"  and  it  is  so  rendered  rightly  in  Rom.  viii  38 ;  1  Cor. 
iii,  22;  vii,  26;  Gal.  i,  4;  Heb.  ix,  9.  The  belief  that  the  day 
of  the  Lord  had  come  upon  them  was  spreading  in  the  Thessa- 
lonian  Church,  and  many,  in  consequence  of  the  delusion,  had 
become  unsettled,  and  had  ceased  to  work.  All  the  older  ver 
sions  have  "  at  hand,"  and  Wycliffe  has  "  be  nigh." 

The  rendering  of  James  v,  16,  "the  effectual  fervent  prayer 
of  a  righteous  man  availeth  much,"  is  so  far  tautological,  since 
to  be  effectual  and  to  be  of  much  avail  are  not  very  different. 
The  translation  gives  a  double  sense  to  the  participle,  and  the 
more  literal  rendering  is,  "  the  prayer  of  a  righteous  man  avail 
eth  much,  as  it  worketh."  Tyndale  has,  and  he  has  been 
followed  in  the  main,  "  the  prayer  of  a  righteous  man  availeth 
much,  if  it  be  fervent."  The  Great  Bible  has  "the  fervent 
prayer  of  a  righteous  man  availeth  much  " ;  the  Rheims,  after 
Wycliffe,  "  the  continual  prayer  of  a  just  man."  The  participle 
is  middle,  and  means,  as  it  works,  or  puts  out  its  power. 

The  revisers  were  aware  that  words  used  in  such  a  volume 
as  theirs  would  win  for  themselves  a  lasting  place  in  the 
language,  and  they  therefore  used  great  caution;  their  own 
defence  being,  "  We  might  also  be  charged  (by  scoffers)  with 
some  vnequall  dealing  towards  a  great  number  of  good  English 
words  ...  if  wee  should  say,  as  it  were,  vnto  certaine 
words,  Stand  vp  higher,  have  a  place  in  the  Bible  alwayes, 
and  to  others,  of  like  qualitie,  Get  ye  hence,  be  banished 
for  euer."  And  the  English  tongue  is  worthy  of  this  loving 
guardianship.  Other  languages  in  Europe — French,  Italian, 
and  German, — have  little  prevalence  beyond  the  limits 

VOL.  II.  P 


of  the  old  territories;  but  England  lias  been  a  "mother  of 
nations  " — her  little  island  is  but  a  point  in  comparison  with 
her  immense  colonial  empire,  her  language  has  been  conveyed 
to  all  quarters  of  the  globe,  and  there  are  also  many  millions 
speaking  her  tongue  that  owe  her  no  allegiance. 

The  translation  as  a  whole  is  excellent,  and  has  elicited 
many  encomiums  from  all  classes  of  critics  and  scholars.  There 
are  some  renderings  equivocal,  and  some  wrong;  and  a  chief 
blemish  is  the  want  of  uniformity  in  rendering  the  same  terms 
— a  liberty  which  was  taken  on  purpose,  for  it  is  vindicated 
in  the  Preface. 

Grimm  affirms  of  English  that  "in  wealth,  wisdom,  and 
strict  economy  none  of  the  living  languages  can  vie  with  it." l 
King  James's  scholarly  revisers  were  conscious  of  possess 
ing  such  an  instrument,  and  their  English  style  is  above  all 
praise.  They  did  not  give  us  the  English  of  their  own  day,  but 
their  great  merit  consisted  in  so  fully  retaining  the  simple 
and  racy  idioms  of  the  earlier  versions.  English  was  in  its 
first  vigour  when  Tyndale  consecrated  it  in  his  New  Testa 
ment,  and  its  consecration  has  preserved  it  in  immortal 
youth.  The  language  of  common  life  became  hallowed  and 
dignified  by  the  service  to  which  it  had  been  yoked.  The 
Authorized  Version  has  in  it  the  traces  of  its  origin,  and  its 
genealogy  may  be  reckoned.  For  while  it  has  the  fulness  of 
the  Bishops'  without  its  frequent  literalisms  or  its  repeated 
supplements,  it  has  the  graceful  vigour  of  the  Genevan,  the 
quiet  grandeur  of  the  Great  Bible,  the  clearness  of  Tyndale, 
the  harmonies  of  Coverdale,  and  the  stately  theological 
vocabulary  of  the  Rheims.  It  has  thus  a  complex  unity 
in  its  structure — all  the  earlier  versions  ranging  over  eighty 
years  having  bequeathed  to  it  contributions  the  individuality 
of  which  has  not  been  in  all  cases  toned  down.  Some  clauses 
tell  their  origin  by  their  lucid  distinctness  and  others  by 
their  rhythm,  some  are  more  precise  and  others  more  easy. 
While  some  of  the  older  terms  are  excluded,  others  are  at  the 

1   "We    may  quote    another    and     surely  it  is  a  sleepy  language."  Tern- 
different  opinion :  "Did  not  you  hear     pest,  Shakespeare, 
us   speak  ?  I    do  ;     and 


same  time  introduced.  The  "  cratch " l  of  the  Genevan  went  out, 
but  "settle"2  came  in.  The  revisers  dropped  the  "pill"3 
of  Tyndale,  and,  ignoring  the  Bishops',  they  preserve  the  "  de 
mand  " 4  of  the  Great  Bible  in  its  French  sense.  Setting  aside 
"  strike  "  and  "  knock  "  of  the  older  revisions,  they  introduce 
the  picturesque  rendering  "tabering"5  "on  their  breast."  Let 
ting  go  the  expression  "  fardels  "  6  of  the  Genevan,  and  not  con 
tent  with  the  "  burdens  "  of  the  Bishops'  and  the  Great  Bible, 
they  put  in  its  room  "  carriages,"  a  term  quite  obsolete  now  in 
their  meaning  of  it,  and  they  were  so  fond  of  it,  that  they 
have  used  it  five  times  in  the  text  and  twice  in  the  margin. 
They  did  not  admit  "  disease  " 7  as  a  verb,  though  it  was  iu 
Biblical  use,  but  they  have  "bettered  "  8  in  reference  to  malady; 
passing  over  the  more  familiar  "platter"  they  give  us  "charger,"9 
a  word  in  this  sense  long  unused.  Like  the  tree  which  sucks 
kindlier  nurture  from  a  soil  enriched  by  its  own  fallen  leaves, 
our  Bible  is  the  outgrowth  of  many  years  and  many  minds, 
the  aim  ever  being  to  give  to  the  English  people,  not  a  mere 
literary  luxury,  but  a  book  which  all  ranks  and  classes  should 
easily  understand  and  enjoy.10 

For  the  version  must  ever  be  admired  for  its  simple  dignity 
and  quaint  terseness,  its  archaic  tinge,  its  rhythmic  cadences 
and  idiomatic  felicities.  It  is  homely  but  not  vulgar,  and 
musical  without  the  aid  of  tawdry  expletives.  Having  kept 
its  place  for  more  than  two  centuries  and  a  half,  it  has 

1  Luke  ii,  7,  12.  fardels,"  in  modern  phrase,  made  up 

-  Ezekiel  xliii,  14,  17  ;    xlv,    19.  our  packs  or  personal  baggage. 

It   is  still   a  provincial  or  liornely  7  Mark  v,  35,  "  why  diseasest  thou 

term.  the  Master?"  both  in  the  Bishops' 

3  2  Cor.  xii,  17,  preserved  in  the  and  Genevan,  after  Tyndale. 
Bishops',  "  did  I  pill  you  ? "  but  in  8  Mark  v,  26. 

the    Authorized,    "  did    I  make    a  9  Matt,  xiv,  8. 

gain  ? "  10  King   James,    though    lie    had 

4  Matt,  ii,  4.  Latin  and  Latinized  Scotch  at  easy 

5  Nahum  ii,  7,  "tabling,"  in  the  first  and  ever-flowing  command,  yet  had 
edition  sometimes  spelt  "tabouring,"  the  good  judgment  and  good  taste 
allied  in  origin  to  tabret.    Gen.  xxxi,  to  say,  iu  the  "  Basilicou  Doron,"  to 
27.  his  son,  "Be  plain  and  smooth  iu 

6  Acts  xxi,  15,  "  trussed  up  our    your  own  language." 


"  waxed  old,"  but  it  has  not  "  decayed."  Obsolete  words 
do  occur  in  it,  but  the  version,  so  far  from  being  dry  and  dead, 
is  fresh  and  living  as  the  rod  of  Aaron,  which  on  being  laid 
up  before  the  ark  "  budded  and  bloomed  blossoms  and  yielded 
almonds."  Though  it  may  vary  with  the  themes  of  the  original, 
it  never  loses  its  identity.  So  quiet  and  clear  in  narrative,  so 
direct  and  urgent  in  precept,  so  fervid  and  spiritual  in  the 
psalter,  so  impressive  and  magnificent  in  the  prophets,  it 
bears  upon  it  the  imagery  of  the  Hebrew  lyrics  without  being 
overborne  by  it,  and  gives  earnest  and  impressive  utterance 
to  apostolical  argument  and  appeal. 

The  spirit  of  all  the  sacred  writers  lives  in  the  English 
translation.  The  immediate  and  fervid  utterances  of  the 
Semitic  temperament  filled  with  the  divine  life  clothe  them 
selves  as  with  a  native  fitness  in  our  English  tongue,  and 
have  for  all  time  ennobled  and  sanctified  it.  The  Bible,  the 
creation  of  Hebrew  genius,  has  proved  itself  adapted  to 
universal  circulation.  Originating  in  the  east,  reflecting 
its  hues  and  lighted  up  with  its  splendours,  it  has  yet 
in  the  west  found  a  welcome  and  a  home,  and  has  become 
without  effort  or  awkwardness  the  natural  vehicle  of  song 
and  supplication  to  myriads  of  the  children  of  Japhet. 
The  syllables  of  the  Lord's  prayer  drop  gently  from  the  lips 
of  a  child ;  and  they  fill  the  mouth  of  an  "  aged  disciple." 
Many  who  are  strangers  to  the  spiritual  power  of  the 
English  Bible  bow  to  its  literary  beauties.  The  charm  and 
tenderness  of  the  parables  are  not  lost  by  difference  of  lan 
guage — the  evangelists  speak  as  touchingly  in  English  as  in 

Exception  has  indeed  been  taken  to  the  translation  of  the 
Old  Testament  on  account  of  some  literal  renderings  of 
Hebrew  clauses  and  epithets,  as  if  they  were  "  abhorrent " 
from  the  English  idiom.  But  not  a  few  Hebrew  phrases 
are  now  deeply  imbedded  in  our  language,  and  from  famil 
iarity  with  them  no  one  feels  that  they  are  foreign,  such 
as  "  God  of  peace,"  "  God  of  all  grace,"  "  Father  of  lights," 
"  Sun  of  righteousness,"  "  Son  of  peace,"  "  man  of  sin,"  "  robe  of 
righteousness,"  "  song  of  songs,"  "  ways  of  pleasantness/'  "  oil 


of  gladness,"  "  trees  of  Jehovah/'  "  man  of  sorrows,"  "  Son  of 
man,"  "  the  Ark  of  thy  strength,"  "  Rock  of  Ages,"  a  favourite 
phrase  of  a  favourite  hymn,  is  a  literal  translation  in  the 
margin  of  Isaiah  xxvi,  4,  the  text  having  a  far  feebler  render 
ing,  "  everlasting  strength."  But  while  they  so  often  preserve 
or  imitate  some  Hebrew  idioms,  they  have  no  small  merit  in 
rendering  others  into  terse  and  felicitous  English.  Especially 
in  the  frequent  instances  of  an  infinitive  construct  in  com 
bination  with  its  own  finite  verb,  they  have  shown  in 
genious  versatility.  This  combination  indicated  certainty  in 
reference  to  a  past  act :  Gen.  xxvi,  28,  "  we  saw  certainly  that 
the  Lord  was  \vith  thee  "  ;  Exod.  iii,  7,  "  I  have  surely  seen  "  ; 
1  Sam.  ii,  30,  "  I  said  indeed." 

The  idiom  is  also  intensive,  arid  they  render  it  in  various 
ways : — 

Gen.  ii,  1G,  "  thou  mayest  freely  eat";  iii,  4,  "ye  shall  not 
surely  die  "  ;  and  similarly  xviii,  18,  xx,  7,  and  xxviii,  22  ; 
xxxi,  30,  "  thou  wouldest  needs  be  gone,  because  thou  sore 

Exod.  iv,  14,  "he  can  speak  weW." 
Josh,  xxiii,  13,  "know  for  a  certainty." 
2  Sam.   xvii,   16,    " but  speedily  pass  over";  xx,  18,  "they 
were  wont  to  speak." 

1  Chron.  iv,  10,  "0  that  thou  wouldest  bless  me  indeed." 
Esther  iv,  14,  "  if  thou  altogether  holdest  thy  peace." 
Job  vi,  2,  "  O  that  my  grief  were  thoroughly  weighed." 
Isaiah  xxiv,  20,  "  the  earth  shall  reel  to  and  fro." 
Jeremiah  xxiii,  17,  "  they  say  still " ;  32,  "  they  shall  not 
profit  at  all";    39,   "I  will  utterly  forget  you";    xxv,  30, 
"  he    shall   mightily   roar " ;    xxxi,  20,    "  I    do    earnestly   re 

Ezek.  i,  3,  "  the  word  of  the  Lord  came  expressly." 
Clauses  coupled,  as  they  usually  are,  by  the  simple  conjunc 
tion  would  be  bald  in  English,  and  therefore  a  particle  sup 
plying  a  subordinate  or  logical  connection  is  often  employed. 
Gen.  xv,  2,  "  what  wilt  thou  give  me,  seeing  I  go  childless." 
Exod.  v,  18,  "no  straw  given  you,  yet  shall  ye  deliver";  xvii, 
2,  "  give  us  water  that  we  may  drink." 


Num.  iv,  15,  "they  shall  not  touch  the  holy  things  lest 
they  die." 

Josh,  iii,  13,  "  when  ye  see  the  ark  of  the  covenant .... 
then  ye  shall  remove." 

Ruth  i,  11,  "are  there  yet  sons  in  my  womb  that  may  be 
your  husbands?"  iii,  13,  "if  he  will  not  do  the  part  of  a 
kinsman,  then  I  will." 

Prov.  xxv,  25,  "  as  cold  water    .    .    .    so  is  good  news." 

Similar  idioms  they  also  render  as  happily :  Gen.  viii,  5, 
"  the  waters  decreased  continually  " ;  7,  "  which  went  forth 
to  and  fro"  ;  xii,  9,  "going  on  still" ;  Jerem.  xli,  6,  "weeping 
all  along";  2  Sam.  iii,  16,  "went  with  her  along  weeping"; 
v,  10,  "David  went  on  and  grew  great";  i  Chron.  xi,  9, 
"  David  waxed  greater  and  greater."  The  idiom  made  by  son 
or  daughter  or  lord  they  often  do  not  give  literally,  as  sons  of 
sheep,  sons  of  lightning,  sons  of  the  bow,  lord  of  a  woman,  for 
such  literal  translation  would  have  seemed  as  a  foreign  idiom. 
The  repetition  of  a  noun  is  well  rendered  :  as  two-two  by  "two 
and  two";  day-day,  by  "every  day";  six  wings  six  wings,  by 
"  each  one  had  six  wings  "  ;  Deut.  xxv,  13,  "thou  shalt  not  have 
in  thy  bag  a  stone  and  a  stone" — "divers  measures" — oc 
curring  also  in  Prov.  xx,  23  ;  Psalms  xii,  2,  "  an  heart  and  an 
heart "  is  rendered  "  a  double  heart."  In  such  cases  the  literal 
rendering  is  put  in  the  margin — "perfect  peace,"  "peace,  peace," 
Isaiah  xxvi,  3.  The  phrase  literally  "  good  in  the  eyes  of" 
is  rendered  "as  it  pleaseth,"  "  as  it  liketh,"  "  what  he  thought 
good,"  "  as  it  seemeth  good,"  "  if  he  think  good." 

In  the  New  Testament  they  show  similar  devices.  The 
verb  which  is  commonly  rendered  "  seek  "  they  vary  by  the 
translation,  "go  about  to,"  John  vii,  19,  20,  Acts  xxi,  31,  and 
by  "were  about  to  "  in  xxvii,  30.  One  particle  x  is  rendered  as 
the  context  suggests,  "  and,"  or  "but,"  or  "now,"  or  "so,"  or 
"  moreover,"  or  "  even  "  in  Philip,  ii,  8,  or  it  is  omitted 
altogether.  They  also  vary  another  particle,2  though  not 
always  correctly,  "and,"  "even,  "also,"  "but,"  "then,"  "so," 
"  yet,"  "when,"  "  therefore,"  "  if."  To  have  kept  the  Greek 
participle  uniformly  in  English  would  have  made  the  ver- 


sion  intolerably  heavy — it  is  therefore  often  resolved  into  a 
finite  verb,  a  resolution  which  takes  place  in  nearly  every 
verse  in  the  second  chapter  of  Matthew.  This  method 
is  not  so  accurate  when  participle  and  verb  mark  a  con 
temporaneous  act.  We  have  in  Matt,  ix,  2,  "  Jesus  seeing 
their  faith  said,"  though  it  is  differently  rendered  in  Luke 
v,  20,  "  when  he  saw  their  faith."  In  Matt,  xii,  15,  the  better 
rendering:  would  be,  "but  Jesus  knowing  it  withdrew" — the 

O  £J 

knowledge  being  that  of  his  own  divine  omniscience  ;  and 
similarly  in  Matt,  xvi,  8.  Their  ordinary  method  is  reversed 
in  Luke  xxii,  15,  the  more  literal  rendering  being  kept  in 
the  text,  "with  desire  I  have  desired,"  and  the  usual  form 
transferred  to  the  margin,  "  I ;  have  heartily  desired " ;  and 
similarly  Acts  vii,  84,  "  I  have  seen,  I  have  seen,"  Jer. 
xxiii,  25. 

Their  own  style,  as  seen  in  their  learned  and  very  ela 
borate  preface,  was  somewhat  pedantic  and  cumbrous,  and 
wanted  the  lithe  and  easy  turns  of  an  earlier  age,  but  they 
did  not  employ  it.  Not  that  in  their  version  they  altogether 

"  Against  Apollo's  lute  decreed, 
And  gave  it  for  Pan's  oaten  reed.'' 

But  the  English  of  their  Bible  is  especially  Saxon.  Saxon 
prevails  in  most  of  the  verses ;  but  Latin  occasionally, 
though  rarely,  predominates  in  others,  as  in  Isaiah  1,  I,1 
Jer.  xxxi,  25, 2  in  Luke  vi,  49,  as  in  each  of  its  last  three 
clauses  is  a  Latin  term,3  and  in  2  Cor.  ix,  13,  there  are 
five  Latin  terms.4  In  the  familiar  twenty-third  psalm 
five  verses  have  each  a  non-English  word  and  the  fifth 
verse  has  no  loss  than  five  Latin  terms.  On  the  other 
hand  "  now  "  occurs  three  times  in  Acts  xxvii,  9 — the  first 
instance  might  have  been  easily  dispensed  with ;  the  pro 
noun  "  she  "  occurs  five  times  in  Luke  viii,  47 ;  "  shall  "  is 
used  four  times  in  Matt,  xiii,  14;  and  "should"  four  times 

1  Divorcement,    creditors,   iniqui-  -  Satiate,  replenish, 

ties,   transgressions  ;  usurer — stand-  3  Vehement,  immediately,  ruin, 

ing  for  creditor  in  the  Bishops'  and  4  Experiment,  ministration,  glory, 

the  Great  Bible  professed,  subjection. 


in  Matt,  xiii,  15;  the  strange  collocation  "this,  that  this" 
occurs  in  Matt.  xxvi.  13 ;  "  that  that "  is  found  in  Num.  vi,  21, 
Dan.  xi,  3G,  Zech.  xi,  9,  John  xxi,  23,  in  the  two  latter  places 
taken  from  the  Bishops'.1  The  unusual  connection,  "when 
they  had  this  done,"  meets  us  in  Luke  v,  6.  The  proportion 
of  Saxon  to  Latin  words  in  it  is  over  ninety  per  cent, 
while  in  Shakespeare  it  is  about  eighty-five,  in  Swift  eighty- 
nine,  in  Johnson  only  about  seventy-five,  and  in  Gibbon  about 
seventy  per  cent.  The  Lord's  Prayer  as  given  in  St.  Matthew 
consists  of  sixty-five  words  exclusive  of  the  transferred  Amen. 
Of  these  words  fifty-nine  are  Saxon  as  against  six  Latin  ones. 
Nay,  the  first  five  and  thirty  words  are  all  Saxon  in  suc 
cession.2  But  while  the  preponderance  of  Saxon  terms  is  so 
great,  they  did  not  scruple  to  press  Latin  terms  into  their  ser 
vice  when  they  were  deemed  necessary  to  compactness  and 
strength.  They  have  "succour"  as  well  as  "help,"  "misery" 
as  well  as  "  wretchedness "  which  occurs  only  once,  "  inter 
cession  "  as  well  as  "  pleading "  which  occurs  only  twice. 
They  use  both  "act"  and  "deed,"  "similitude"  and  "likeness," 
"power"  and  "might,"  "justice"  and  "righteousness," 
"marriage"  and  "wedding,"  "transgression"  and  "sin," 
"  desert  "  and  "  wilderness,"  "  testimony  "  and  "  witness," 
"  tabernacle "  and  " tent,"  " equity  "  and  "righteousness,"  "re 
mission  "  and  "  forgiveness."  In  the  same  way  are  found 
"kingly"  and  "royal,"  "death"  and  "mortal,"  "flesh"  and 
"carnal,"  "gentile"  and  "heathen,"  "charity"  and  "love," 
"  distil  "  and  "  drop,"  "  sanctify  "  and  "  hallow,"  "  conceal "  and 
"hide,"  "timely"  and  "early,"  "chief"  and  "head,"  "obscurity" 
and  "darkness,"  "sufficient "and  "enough,"  "labour"  and  "\vork," 

1  In  three  sentences  of  the  Pil-  This  book,  which  is  fortunately  still 
grim's  Progress    "but"   occurs    six  in   existence,    is  the  Bible,   and   I 
times.     Milton  ridicules  Bishop  Hall  venture   to   affirm    without  fear  of 
for  writing  "Teach  each."  contradiction  that  those  old-fashioned 

2  Gifford  notes,    "  There   was    a  people  who  have  studied  it  well  are 
book  much  read  by  our  ancestors,  as  competent  judges  of  the  meaning 
from  which,  as  being  the  pure  well-  of  our  ancient  writers  as  most  of  the 
head  of  English  prose,  they  derived  devourers  of  black  literature  from 
a  number   of  phrases  which  have  Theobald    to    Stevens.'"'       Gifford's 
sorely    puzzled    their    descendants.  Massinger,  p.  58,  London,  1853. 


"  castle  "  and  "  hold."  They  were  fastidious,  however,  in  their 
admission  of  Latin  terms.  Many  words  much  in  use  now  and 
occurring  only  once  in  Shakespeare  are  not  found  in  Scripture 
at  all — as  abrupt,  ambiguous,  artless,  improbable,  improper, 
impure,  and  inconvenient.  But  by  a  happy  instinct  of  selec 
tion  they  admitted  such  terms  as  "ambassador"  and  "opera 
tion,"  though  Swift  objects  to  them  along  with  "preliminaries," 
"  speculation,"  &c.;  and  they  have  taken  "  temperance,"  which 
Elyot  in  1534  regarded  as  modern,  "destruction"  though  Fulke 
branded  it,  "austere"  though  in  1G01  Holland  thought  it 
necessary  to  explain  it ;  and  "  element,"  though  Shakespeare 
plays  with  it  as  a  word  "overworn."  But  they  did  not  admit 
a  word  so  common  now  as  "  character  " l  though  it  occurs  so 
often  in  Shakespeare  ;  and  they  refused  "  adore,"  "  elevation," 
"  accommodate,"  the  last  term  being  ridiculed  by  Shakespeare 
and  Ben  Jonson  ;  and  though  they  employed  the  Latin  "  com 
passion,"  they  did  not  take  "  sympathy,"  though  the  word  in 
its  Greek  form  occurred  twice  in  their  text,  but  the  term 
meant  sometimes  at  that  period  "  equality  of  station."  "  Learn" 
does  not  occur  in  an  active  sense,  though  it  is  found  several 
times  in  the  Bishops'  and  the  Prayer  Book  version  of  the 
Psalms,  and  was  in  common  use.2  Many  terms  occur  only 
once,  not  simply  technical  words,  but  such  as  the  following 
from  a  foreign  source:  Abjects,  addicted,  advisement,  advo 
cate,  agony,  aided,  allege,  allegory,  arouse,  amiable,  amerce, 
ancestors,  assist,  argument,  averse,  benefactor,  benevolence, 
bravery,  bray,  brawling,  celestial,  chapel,  chafed,  chant,  clem 
ency,  cogitation,  commodious,  contribution,  comparable,  con 
descend,  congratulate,  concert,  decease  (as  an  intransitive  and 
as  a  neuter  verb),  delectable,  decently,  depend,  descry,  debase, 

1  Wotton  says,  "  Now  here  then  lator   than  they   has  transferred   a 
will  lie  the  whole  businesse,  to  set  participle  in  Matt,  ii,   7,  and   also 
down  beforehand  certain  Signatures  changed  it  into  anoun,  his  rendering 
of  Hopef ulnesse,  or  Characters  as  I  being,  "  Enquired   exactly  of  them 
will  rather  call  them,  because  that  the  time  of  the  phenomenon   of  the 
word  hath  gotten  already  some  en-  star."     Bowes'  Translation,  Dundee, 
tertainment  among  us."  1870. 

2  But  a  more  adventurous  trans- 


demonstration,  discipline,  disclose,  displayed,  disfigure,  dis 
patch,  disgrace,  enable,  endure,  empire,  endow,  ensue,  entire, 
environ,  erect,  eternity  (once  in  text,  three  times  in  margin), 
exchanger  (banker),  exercise,  as  a  noun,  forfeit,  frankly 
(gratuitously,  Luke  vii,  42),  ignominy,  illuminate,  imperious, 
implead,  importunity,  incredible,  infallible,  intelligence,  laud, 
magnifical,  magnificence,  million,  modesty,  monument,  misused, 
mutual,  news,  object  (verb),  oration,  pernicious,  potentate, 
protection,  pursue,  putrifying,  quantity,  rare,  rase,  reasonable 
(rational),  recall,  recount,  redound,  reformation,  renounced,  re- 
pliest,  resemble  (as  an  active  verb),  renounce,  repeateth,  rifled, 
rites  (but  twice  also  in  the  margin),  schism,  servitors,  senses, 
severity,  strain,  temporal,  terrestrial,  tranquillity,  transferred, 
treatise,  unction,  vent,  vouch,  voyage.  They  ventured  on 
"  purteuance "  but  once,  Exodus  xii,  9,  though  the  word  is 
found  in  Tyndale  and  Coverdale;1  they  admit  "expia 
tion  "  "  echo,"  and  "  compose "  only  once  into  the  margin, 
and  the  common  theological  term  "type"  is  also  excluded 
from  the  text,  and  found  only  in  the  margin.  On  the  other 
hand  many  Saxon  terms  used  in  Shakespeare  and  not  occur 
ring  in  Scripture  have  become  obsolete,2  and  many  of  his  Latin 
terms  not  accepted  by  our  translators  have  passed  out  of  cur 
rency.  The  following  words  in  the  Version,  mostly  native,  are 
found  only  once :  Ado,  aloof,  badness,  bestead,  bestir,  betake,  blaze 

1  The  phrase  "  saddle  me  the  ass  "  "  tuition  "    for    defence,   "  fracted  " 
is  sometimes  supposed  to  be  a  com-  for  broken  ;    "  lot,"  "  period,"  and 
mon  idiom  with  an  expletive  word,  "monster  '      as      verbs  ;      "testi- 
but  "  me  "   is  in  this  case  the  literal  mouied/'    ''  concent  "  for  harmony, 
rendering  of    the    pronoun   in   the  "affront "  to    meet  with,    "  acture " 
Hebrew  text  "  for  me."  for    action,    &c.        In     Cockeram's 

2  Such    as    "  faith'd,"    "  scaling  "  English  Dictionarie,  or  interpreter  of 
for   weighing,    "  able  "    as  a  verb,  hard  English  words,  ifcc.   (London, 
"entertain,"'    to    take  into   service,  1632),  it  is  said  that  "abate,"  which 
"  cheer :'      face,       "  brief  "      letter,  occurs  four  times  in  the  Version,  is 
"  dern  "  lonely,   "  yclad,"    "  yclept,"  a   word  now  out  of  use,  and  only 
"  bate,;'"birthdom."    Similarly  such  used      of      some      ancient     writers. 
Latin  words  as  "sense "for  sensual  Neither  the  Bible  nor  Milton  in  his 
passion,     "  absolute  "    for    perfect,  poetry  uses  a  word  now  so  familiar 
"  fine  "  for   end,  "  mure  "  for  wall,  as  "  commence." 


belch  (and  once  in  the  margin),  belief,  bide,  boisterous,  boiled, 
bloom,  border  (as  a  verb),  bought  (as  a  noun  in  the  margin), 
cabins,  chapmen,  dandled,  deemed,  flash,  forecast,  gaddest,  gulf, 
huge,  outlived,  outran,  outlandish,  outwent,  pate,  pathway, 
pilled,  rests  (as  a  noun,  margin  "  rebatement "),  right  early, 
right  well,  road,  shapen,  swerve,  unspoken,  untoward,  well 

Reference  was  made  in  the  previous  course  of  the  narrative 
to  the  Latin  paper  handed  in  by  the  English  divines  to  the 
Synod  of  Dort,  giving  an  account  of  the  process  of  revision 
which  had  produced  a  version  "  so  very  accurate."  The  royal 
rules  prescribed2  to  the  revisers  are  here  reduced  to  seven, 
and  four  of  these  seven  are  upon  matters  not  alluded  to  in  the 
original  fourteen,  while  the  first,  second,  and  fourth  coincide 
with  the  first,  sixth,  and  seventh  of  the  earlier  canons.  Pro 
bably  those  new  rules  had  sprung  from  the  necessities  of  the 
work,  or  had  been  naturally  suggested  as  the  work  advanced. 
These  newer  regulations,  affording  daily  guidance  to  the  vari 
ous  companies,  were  fresh  in  the  memory  of  the  delegates : 
while  the  others,  issued  in  1G04,  containing  ultimate  laws  or 
principles,  had  faded  somewhat  out  of  view. 

The  fifth  rule  of  the  seven  quoted  at  Dort  took  up  the 
Apocrypha — "that  in  the  translation  of  Tobit  and  Judith,  as 
there  was  great  difference  between  the  Greek  and  the  old 
Vulgate  text,  the  Greek  text  should  rather  be  followed."  3 

Considerable  license  was  taken  in  revising  the  Apocrypha,  as 
probably  they  had  no  belief  in  the  inspiration  of  its  books. 
The  following  words  and  phrases  occurring;  in  it  are  not  found 

O  1  O 

in   the    canonical  portions    of  Scripture  :     Abashed,    abridge, 

1   The   affectation    of    using  fine  Bishop     Spiridion     being     in    the 

terms  in    a  version  of  Scripture  is  audience,     at    once    cried    out    to 

not    confined   to    England,   though  him,    "  Are  you  better  than  he  that 

Lowth  and   Campbell  are  occasion-  said  '  bed  '  that  you  are  ashamed  to 

ally    touched    by    it.      About   the  use  his  words  ? "     Stanley's  Eastern 

period    of    the   Nicene    Council,   a  Church,  p.  108.     The  incident  is  also 

noted    preacher    in    Cyprus,    in    a  referred  to  in  the  translators'   pre- 

quotation  from  the  Gospels,eschewed  face. 

KpafSftoLTov  and  preferred  cr/a^Troi's,  2  See  pp.  191,  201. 

"couch"  to  "bed.''      The    famous  3  Sessio  VII. 


adore,  adherent,  aim,  amain,  anew,  annoy,  apparition,  attempt, 
augmentation,  brickie,  baggage,  canopy,  carrs,  clubs,  cocker  (to 
pamper),  commentaries,  conduct  (meaning  safe  conduct),  con 
jecture,  counterfeit,  culture,  defective,  defray,  distinguish 
(once  in  margin,  1  Cor.  iv,  7),  echo,  enforce,  enterprise,  ever- 
lastingness,  exquisite,  voyage  (Jud.  ii,  19),  fact,  falls  (as  a 
plural  noun),  favoureth,  feat,  fear  (to  terrify),  forlorn,  graces, 
gratify,  immunities,  incredulity,  impiety,  indifferent,  invincible, 
jollity,  justices,  loyal,  magi,  mitigate,  niggard,  outroad,  penalty, 
pleasure  (as  a  verb),  reconcilement,  resolute,  shrewd  (a  "shrewd 
turn "  or  clever  retaliation),  submissively,  unright,  thrive, 
timorous,  trace,  tyrant,  tender  (to  feel  tenderness),  wearing, 
uneasy  (in  the  sense  of  difficult),  importable,  ugly,  and  such 
phrases  as  "well  is  him"  (Eccles.  xxv,  8,  9),  "take  example  at," 
"  get  the  day,"  "  other  some,"  "  he  sticks  not,"  "  not  for  our 
turn,"  "  make  him  away,"  "  the  party,"  that  is,  an  individual— 
"  the  man  or  the  woman,"  "  curious,"  four  times  in  the  sense  of 
"  inquisitive,"  "  within  the  liberties,"  "  took  no  good  order," 
"sour  behaviour,"  "held  them  battle,"  "laugh  upon,"  "shall 
ripe,"  "will  fat,"  "pensions — to  all  who  kept  the  city,"  "at 
the  last  gasp,"  &c. 

The  marginal  notes  in  the  Apocrypha  are  freer  in  character 
than  those  of  the  Old  Testament.  The  translators  had  the 
Septuagint  of  Aldus,  that  in  the  Complutensian  Polyglott,  and 
the  Codex  Vaticanus  printed  in  Rome  1586.  But  as  the  text 
was  not  in  a  satisfactory  state,  they  were  obliged  to  set  down 
no  less  than  154  various  readings.  They  bracketed  as 
spurious  Eccles.  i,  7,  though  the  Bishops'  had  admitted  it,  and 
also  Eccles.  xvii,  5,  they  marked  in  a  similar  way.  There  are 
138  notes  for  the  purpose  of  giving  more  literally  or  precisely 
the  sense  of  the  original  Greek  or  Latin.1  There  are  in  the 
margin  also  174  variations  given  of  the  spelling  of  proper 
names,  167  of  which  belong  to  1  Esdras  ;  and  there  are  505  alter 
native  renderings,  with  other  42  notes  designed  to  impart 
information.  They  depart  from  their  practice  in  the  Old 

1  They  had  only  a  Latin  text  of  2  given  l>y  Dr.  Scrivener,  Cambridge 
Esdras.  The  different  readings,  with  Paragraph  Bible,  Introduction,  p. 
the  authorities,  are  lucidly  and  fully  xxvii,  &c. 


Testament  by  quoting  authorities,  not  only  Josephus,  but 
Herodotus,  Pliny,  Athanasius,  the  Latin  interpreter,  and 
Junius  the  translator.  For  the  text  they  refer  at  Tobit  xiv, 
5,  18,  to  the  "  Roman  copie " ;  also  1  Mac.  ix,  9,  and  xii, 
37,  where  it  is  called  the  "Roman  reading." 

Geddes,  the  Catholic  critic,  an  admirer  of  Castalio,  objects  to 
such  biblical  Saxon  compounds  as  "therefore,"  "wherefore," 
"  therein,"  "  wherein  " — "  '  wherein  '  being  the  only  tolerable, 
decent  gentleman  of  the  family";  and  Hume,  expressing  a 
strong  antipathy  to  the  use  of  th  as  the  termination  of  the 
third  person  singular  of  verbs,  also  brands  "wherewith"  as 
an  old-fashioned  dangling  word,  as  "  having  no  harmony,  no 
eloquence,  no  ornament,  and  not  much  correctness,  whatever 
the  English  may  imagine,"  and  swears  "  that  he  would  not 
swallow  it,"  though  Robertson  and  SwTift  are  so  partial  to  it. 
But  these  idiomatic  vocables  are  so  useful  and  expressive  that 
they  cannot  be  dispensed  with.  These  criticisms  of  the 
scholar  and  historian  betray  their  northern  origin,  for  in  the 
self-training  of  such  men  (whose  dialect  in  boyhood  was 
Scotch)  to  write  good  English,  there  mingled  unconsciously 
the  desire  to  be  more  Attic  in  its  use  than  those  whose  mother 
tongue  it  was.1 

There  are  also  in  the  English  Bible  many  native  mono 
syllables  ;  nouns,  verbs,  and  particles,  which  in  their  common 
or  idiomatic  use  give  directness,  clearness,  and  harmony  to 
the  clauses,  which  are  not  only  comprehended  at  once,  but 
fix  themselves  in  the  memory  and  linger  in  the  ear  like  an 
echo  or  the  refrain  of  a  song.2  What  is  scholastic  has  no  place 
in  it;  it  uses  "great  plainness  of  speech,"  and  so  utters  itself  that 
all  may  "  mark,  learn,  and  inwardly  digest."  It  is  a  stranger 
to  "  inkhorn  terms  "  and  to  classical  intricacies  of  construction, 
for  in  Hebrew  and  in  New  Testament  Greek  ideas  occur  in 
coordinate  succession  and  arc  not  ranged  round  or  subordinated 

1  Yet  Hume  could  write  in  refer-         "  There  are  five  lines  and  a  half 

ence    to    Cato    and    Brutus,   "the  in  Shakespeare  consisting  of  about  40 

leisure   of  these  noble  antients  were  words,  and  of  those  only  five  are  not 

employed   in  the  study  of   Grecian  monosyllables.     Macbeth,  vol.  VII, 

eloquence."  p.  15,  ed.  Dyce. 


to  one  central  thought  which  is  gradually  evolved.  So  that  a 
true  version  preserving  the  form  as  well  as  the  spirit  of  the 
original  could  not  have  been  made,  in  the  style  of  Hooker,1 

"  With  many  a  winding  bout 
Of  linked  sweetness  long  drawn  out." 

It  was  guarded  against  the  euphuism  of  an  earlier  period, 
with  its  antitheses,  alliterations,  sounding  epithets,  and  cir 
cuitous  politeness  of  diction,  "  drawing  out  the  thread  of 
verbosity  finer  than  the  staple  of  argument."  Nor  was  it 
tainted  with  such  mannerisms  as  were  current  some  years 
afterwards,  and  were  beginning  to  appear  in  1G11  ;  and  the 
English  of  Evelyn,  Temple,  or  Jeremy  Taylor  would  have 
been  wholly  out  of  place. 

A  special  theological  nomenclature  had  been  provided  for 
the  revisers  in  the  previous  translations.  What  was  wanted 
now  was  the  clothing  of  the  divine  oracles  in  the  genial  and 
familiar  tongue  elevated  only  by  its  sacred  use  from  that  of 
ordinary  life.  Some  words  of  a  former  period  that  were  passing 
away  they  preserved,  and  words  only  coming  in  and  not  fully 
welcomed  they  did  not  admit.  The  marks  of  age  upon  the 
version  are  like  the  hoary  locks  of  the  prophet,  giving  him  a 
reverential  grandeur.  As  in  Dry  den's  canon,  "  the  court,  the 
college,  and  the  town  are  all  joined"  in  it.  So  free  is  it  from 

1  Becon  has  "  immarcessible,"  mou  Prayer  of  the  time  of  Edward 
"amplexed,"  "  precordial."  Hooker  VI,  and  indicate  at  that  early 
has  "learnedest,"  "virtuousest,"  &c.,  period  the  two  great  sources  of 
"  wiselier,"  "  easilier,"  and  "power-  the  language.  These  still  occur: 
.able "  for  "  powerful. "  Ascham  "  Acknowledge  "  and  "  confess," 
has  "  inventivest,"  and  Bacon  "  pray  "  and  "  beseech,"  "  erred  "  and 
uses  similar  forms.  Jeremy  Taylor  "  strayed,"  "  vanquish  "  and  "  over- 
has  "  funest,"  "  claucularly,"  "  con-  come,"  "  trust "  and  "  confidence," 
trition"  in  its  literal  sense  as  applied  "  holiness  "  and  "  pureness,"  "  re- 
to  the  doom  of  the  serpent.  Hooker  mission"  and  "forgiveness,"  "cre- 
also  couples  native  and  foreign  terms  ate  "  and  "  make  in  us,"  "  weighed  " 
— "  rectitude  "  and  "  straightness,"  and  "  pondered,"  "  valour  "  and 
"coecity"  and  "blindness,"  "  sense"  "price,"  "prepare"  and  "make 
and  "  meaning."  Such  collocations  ready." 
are  frequent  in  the  Book  of  Com- 


many  of  those  usages  that  mark  or  characterize  any  special 
literary  epoch,  that  it  has  amidst  all  changing  fashions 
maintained  itself  as  a  standard  for  two  hundred  and  sixty 
years  among  all  peoples  using  our  island  speech.  For  the 
English  Bible  is  endowed  with  a  wondrous  universality  of 
adaptation.  To  men  of  intellect  and  culture  its  lucid  simpli 
city  of  style  brings  relief,  and  it  appears  to  them  like  the 
blue  sky  overhead,  which,  while  it  reveals  much,  gives  a 
glimpse  into  much  more  behind  it.  It  has  been  recited  in 
academic  halls,  lordly  towers,  and  royal  palaces  ;  and  no  element 
of  vulgarity  has  been  felt  in  it,  nay,  the  graceful  popularity  of  its 
language  has  been  its  special  charm  and  fascination.  It  has  been 
read  in  barns  and  miserable  outhouses  to  earnest  and  un 
tutored  rustics,  and  as  it  spoke  to  them  in  their  own  tongue, 
they  realized  the  presence  of  divinity,  and  listened  to  the 
voice  of  God.  Though  its  English  differed  from  the  more 
familiar  dialect  of  the  olden  time  on  this  side  of  the  Tweed,  it 
was  carried  joyously  to  moors  and  glens  in  Scotland,  and  lis 
tened  to  as  the  immediate  revelation  of  the  Almighty,  by 
bands  of  worshippers  crowded  into  some  spot  under  the 
shadow  of  a  great  hill,  while  the  eagle  sailed  above  them, 
and  the  music  of  the  waterfall  was  the  accompaniment  of 
their  song. 

Such  in  general  is  the  style  of  the  Authorized  Version,  and 
it  remains  a  noble  specimen  of  the  variety,  richness,  elasticity, 
and  power  of  the  English  language,  about  which  an  Eliza 
bethan  bard  ventured  to  sing — 

"  And  who  in  time  knows  whither  we  may  vent 

The  treasures  of  our  tongue  ?  to  what  strange  shores 

This  gain  of  our  best  glory  shall  be  sent 

T'  enrich  unknowing  nations  with  our  stores  1 

What  worlds  in  th'  yet  unformed  Occident 

May  'come  refin'd  with  accents  that  are  ours  ? " 

The  beginning  of  the  seventeenth  century  was  propitious  to  the 
execution  of  such  a  work.  Mulcaster  had  said,  in  1582,  "I  take 
this  present  period  of  our  English  tung  to  be  the  verie  height 
thereof,  because  I  find  it  so  excellently  well  fined  both  for  the 


bodie  and  tung  itself,  and  for  the  customary  writing  thereof,  as 
either  foren  workmanship  can  giue  it  glosse,  or  as  home- 
wrought  handling  can  giue  it  grace."  "  The  English  tong 
cannot  prove  fairer  than  it  is  at  this  date,  if  it  may  please 
our  learned  sort  so  to  esteeme  it  and  to  bestow  their  travell 
upon  such  a  subject." l  The  true  dialect,  according  to 
Puttenham,  is  not  "  in  effect  any  speech  used  beyond  the 
river  of  Trent,  though  no  man  can  deny  but  that  theirs  is 
the  purer  English  Saxon  at  this  day,  yet  it  is  not  so  courtly 
nor  so  current  as  our  Southern  English  is ;  no  more  is  the  far 
Western  man's  speech;  ye  shall  therefore  take  the  usual 
speech  of  the  court,  and  that  of  London  and  the  shires  lying 
about  London  within  sixty  miles,  and  not  much  above.  I  say 
not  this  but  in  every  shire  of  England  there  be  gentlemen  and 
others  that  speak,  but  specially  write,  as  good  Southern  as  we 
of  Middlesex  or  Surrey  do;  but  not  the  common  people  of 
every  shire,  to  whom  the  gentlemen  and  also  their  learned 
clerks  do  for  the  most  part  condescend ;  but  herein  we  are 
ruled  by  the  English  dictionaries  and  other  books  written  by 
learned  men;  and  therefore  it  needeth  none  other  direction  in 
that  behalf.  Albeit  peradventure  some  small  admonition  be 
not  impertinent,  for  we  find  in  our  English  writers  many 
words  and  speeches  amendable  ;  and  ye  shall  see  in  some  many 
inkhorn  terms  so  ill  affected,  brought  in  by  men  of  learning  as 
preachers  and  schoolmasters  ;  and  many  strange  terms  of  other 
languages,  by  secretaries  and  merchants  and  travellers ;  and 
many  dark  words,  and  not  usual  nor  well  sounding,  though 
they  be  daily  spoken  in  court.  Wherefore  great  heed  must 
be  taken  by  our  maker  in  this  point  that  his  choice  be  good." 
.  .  .  .  "Of  this  number  are  'scientific,'  'conduict'  —  a 
French  word,  but  well  allowed  of  us,  and  lono-  since  usual ;  it 

•*  *  o  y 

sounds  something  more  than  this  word  (leading),  for  it  is 
applied  only  to  the  leading  of  a  captain,  and  not  as  a  little 
boy  should  lead  a  blind  man  ;  '  idiom,'  from  the  Greek ;  '  sig 
nificative,'  borrowed  of  the  Latin  and  French,  but  to  us 
brought  in  first  by  some  nobleman's  secretary,  as  I  think,  yet 
doth  so  well  serve  the  turn  as  it  could  not  now  be  spared  ; 
1  Elementarie,  p.  189,  London. 


and  many  more  like  usurped  Latin  and  French  words,  as 
'  method,  methodical,  placation,  function,  assubtiling,  refining, 
compendious,  prolix,  figurative,  inveigle  ' — a  term  borrowed  of 
our  common  lawyers ;  '  impression,'  also  a  new  term,  but  well 
expressing  the  matter,  and  more  than  our  English  word ; 
'  penetrate,  penetrable,  indignity '  (in  the  sense  of  unworthi- 
ness),  and  a  few  more." l 

By  the  middle  of  the  century,  in  1G62,  Swift  expresses  the 
opinion  that  the  English  language  had  grown  corrupt  since  the 
Restoration.  Evelyn  thought  it  necessary  to  explain  such 
technical  terms  in  his  Sylva,  1664,  as  homogeneous,  mural, 
perennial,  vernal ;  and  others  which  he  did  not  condescend 
to  explain  as  being  "  obvious "  are  lapidescent,  insititious, 
politure,  stramental,  procerity,  improsperity,  surbated,  sub- 
ductitious,  &c.2  But  Fuller,  a  native  of  Northamptonshire, 
mentions  that  the  language  of  the  common  people3  in  that 
county  is  generally  the  best  of  any  shire  in  England.  When 
he  was  a  boy  he  had  been  told  by  a  "  hand  labouring 
man  "  "  that  the  last  translation  of  the  Bible  done  by  those 
learned  men  in  the  best  English  agreeth  perfectly  with  the 
common  speech  of  our  country." 

1  Art  of  Poesy,  bk.  iii,  1589.  ness,  vacuous,    salacious,    miuistra- 

-  The  following  words  appear  in  tion  of  faculty,  &c. 

a  recent    volume  of  Transatlantic  3  Worthies  of  England,  vol.  II,  p. 

Sermons  :  Acerb,  avertuess,  basilar,  496,  London,  1840. 

effulges,  sapid,  resurrected,  inward- 

The  motto  at  the  beginning  of  the  section  is  from  the  pen  of  the  late 
F.  W.  Faber,  and  is  taken  from  his  "  Essay  on  the  Interest  and  Charac 
teristics  of  the  Lives  of  the  Saints."  London,  1853. 

VOL.  II. 


~D  UT  in  the  course  of  two  centuries  and  a  half  some  words  have 
become  obsolete,  some  have  changed  their  signification, 
and  the  meaning  of  others  has  grown  obscure  and  unfamiliar. 
It  is,  at  the  same  time,  a  remarkable  peculiarity  that  many 
terms  have  kept  their  place  because  they  occur  in  the  text  of 
the  Bible,  and  that  others  have  fallen  out  of  use  because  they 
are  found  only  in  the  margin  or  in  the  contents  prefixed  to 
each  chapter.  The  third  of  the  Rules  delivered  by  the  English 
divines  to  the  Synod  of  Dort  is,  "that  when  a  Hebrew  or  Greek 
word  admits  of  two  proper  senses,  one  should  be  expressed  in 
the  text  and  the  other  in  the  margin."  x  The  following  list 
indicates  an  attempt  to  present  in  the  margin  a  literal  ren 
dering  of  the  original,  and  those  marginal  renderings  are  for 
the  most  part  not  now  in  currency : — 



Ascending  of  the  morning. 

Chief  of   the  slaughter 

On  a  slice. 
Faulty  to  die. 
Thou  shalt  not  bough  it. 

Dungy  gods. 


Breaking  of  the  day. 
Captain  of  the  guard. 


That  which  remaineth. 


In  a  pan. 

Guilty  of  death. 

Thou  shalt  not  go   over 

the  boughs  again. 

1  See  p.  201. 

Gen.  iv,  22. 
Gen.  xxxii,  24. 
Gen.  xxxvii,  36. 
Gen.  xxxvii,  36. 

Exodiis  xvii,  7. 
Exodus  xxvi,  13. 
Exodus  xxvi,  24. 
Levit.  ii,  5. 
Num.  xxxv,  31. 
Deut.  xxiv,  20. 

Deut.  xxix,  17. 




Doth  his  easement. 
Till  the  day  declined. 
The  pitching  time  of  day. 
And  he  circuited. 
Forbear  us. 
Battle  array. 
Bought  of  a  sling. 
Hath  a  pursuit. 
To  rafter. 

The  eyelids  of  the  morn 

Chanelbone  (collar  bone.) 
Gladded  him. 
Roll  thy  way. 
For  the  rulings. 



Sweet  balls. 

Spangled  ornaments. 

Exactress  of  gold. 


From  the  thrum. 


Convent  (as  a  verb.) 

Flit  gretly. 



Concision  or  threshing. 



Covering  or  coverer. 

Flue  net. 

With  one  shoulder. 

Him  that  waketl/and  him 

that  answereth. 


Covereth  his  feet. 
Till  the  afternoon. 
The  day  gro \veth  to  an  end. 
"Went  in  circuit. 
Give  us  respite. 
The  fight. 

The  middle  of  a  sling. 
He  is  pursuing. 
To  floor. 
The  dawning  of  the  day. 

Judges  iii,  24. 
Judges  xix,  8. 
Judges  xix,  9. 
1  Sam.  vii,  16. 
1  Sam.  xi,  3. 
1  Sam.  xvii,  20. 
1  Sam.  xxv,  29. 

1  Kings,  xviii,  27. 

2  Kings  vi,  15. 

2  Chron.  xxxiv,  11. 
Job  iii,  9. 


The  bone. 


Made  him  glad. 

Commit  thy  way. 


To  rule. 

Them  that   are  given 

Returneth  to. 
Golden  city. 
With  pining  sickness. 
Large  (chambers.) 
Get  you  far  off. 
Witli  one  consent. 

Master  and  scholar. 
Let  us  alone. 

Job  xxiv,  6. 
Job  xxxi,  22. 
Job  xli,  23. 
Ps.  xxi,  6. 
Ps.  xxxvii,  5. 
Ps.  xxxviii,  6. 
Ps.  cxxxvi,  8. 
to  Prov.  xxiv,  21. 

Prov.  xxvi,  11. 
Isaiah  i,  17. 
Isaiah  iii,  19. 
Isaiah  iii,  1 9. 
Isaiah  xiv,  4. 
Isaiah  xvi,  4. 
Isaiah  xxxviii,  12. 
Jerem.  xxii,  14. 
Jerem.  xlix,  19. 
Jerem.  xlix,  30. 
Ezek.  i,  18. 
Ezek.  xl,  43. 
Joel  iii,  14. 
Jonah  iv,  6. 
Nahum  ii,  5. 
Nahum  ii,  5. 
Hab.  i,  15. 
Zeph.  iii,  9. 
Mai.  ii,  12. 

Mai.  iii,  14. 
Luke  iv,  34. 
1  Cor.  ii,  4. 


Margin.  Text. 

Gall  ings  one  of  another.  Perverse  disputings.  1  Tim.  vi,  5. 

Makebates.  False  accusers.  2  Tim.  iii,  3. 

Profess  honest  trades.  Maintain  good  works.  Titus  iii,  14. 

Taketh  not  hold  of.  Took  not  on  him  the  ua-  Heb.  ii,  16. 


Interposed  himself.  Confirmed  it.  Heb.  vi,  17. 

Way  to  change  his  mind.  Place  of  repentance.  Heb.  xii,  17. 

Add  it  to  the  prayers.  Offer  it  with  the  prayers.     Rev.  viii,  3. 

There  are  also  in  the  margin  not  a  few  plural  terms,  which 
have  not  come  into  use  at  all,  but  were  chosen  on  purpose  to 
represent  literally  some  plurals  in  the  original.  Holinesses, 
Exodus  xl,  10  ;  greatnesses,  1  Chron.  xvii,  19  ;  equities,  Prov. 
i,  3 ;  secrecies,  Prov.  ix,  17 ;  frowardnesses,  Prov.  x,  32 ; 
righteousnesses,  Isaiah  xxxiii,  15  ;  uprightnesses,  Isaiah 
xxxiii,  15  ;  prosperities,  Jerem.  xxii,  21 ;  bitternesses,  Lam.  iii, 
15  ;  vengeances,  Ezek.  xxv,  17. 

Where  the  translation  has  a  slight  paraphrase  the  margin 
renders  the  Hebrew  occasionally  by  terms  which  have  slipped 
out  of  view.  "Escaper,"  2  Kings  ix,  15  ;  "  praisers,"  2  Chron. 
xx,  21 ;  "  raiser,"  Hosea  vii,  4  ;  "  rangers,"  1  Chron.  xii,  33. 

In  their  own  preface  the  revisers  use  words  and  phrases 
which  they  did  not  venture  to  put  into  the  translation. 

In  the  contents  prefixed  to  the  chapters  are  not  a  few  words 
and  phrases  which  have  wholly  or  nearly  passed  away.  In 
the  choice  of  them  the  revisers  were  not  in  any  way  influenced 
by  a  desire  to  give  the  exact  equivalent  of  the  original,  as  is 
done  so  often  in  the  margin,  but  they  employed  familiar  phraseo 
logy.  Many  of  the  terms  and  phrases  which  they  employed 
have  not  survived,  but  others  are  specimens  of  old  and  pithy 
English.  Gen.  xxx,  "  Laban  stayeth  him  " ;  xvii,  "  Abraham 
his  name  is  changed'"';  xix,  "  the  incestuous  original  of  Moab  "  ; 
xxiv,  "  Abraham  sweareth  his  servant " ;  xxix,  "  taketh 
acquaintance "  ;  xliii,  "  Jacob  is  hardly  persuaded  to  send 
Benjamin  " ;  1,  "  Joseph  dieth  and  is  chested "  (a  word 
common  still  in  the  rural  parts  of  Scotland).  Levit.  xxvi, 
''  religiousness."  Deut.  vii,  "  assuredness."  Josh,  ii,  "  the 
spies,  their  return  and  relation  "  (that  is  report) ;  x,  "  the  five 


kings  are  mured  in  a  cave."  1  Sam.  iii,  "  groweth  in  credit  "  ; 
xiv,  "  unwitting  to  his  father  "  ;  xxx,  "  by  means  of  a.  revived 
Egyptian  he  is  brought  to  the  enemies."  2  Sam.  ix,  "  he 
maketh  Ziba  his  farmer."  1  Kings  i,  "  Adonijah,  David's 
darling  usurpeth";  xii,  "a  suit  of  relaxation."  2  Kings  xvi, 
"  diverteth  the  brazen  altar  to  his  own  devotion."  2  Chron. 
xxviii,  "  Judah  being  captivated  by  the  Israelites."  Esther  v, 
"  Hainan  builded  a  pair  of  gallows."  Job  i,  "  by  calumnia 
tion  "  ;  v,  "  inconsideration "  ;  xxxii,  "  reproveth  them  for 
not  satisfying  of  Job  " ;  xxxviii,  "  God  .  .  .  convinceth 
Job  of  imbecility "  ;  Psalms  iv,  "  David  prayeth  for 
audience  "  ;  v,  "  professeth  his  study  in  prayer " ;  xxxix, 
"  impatiency ";  Ixxxvi,  "by  the  conscience  of  his  religion"; 
cxlvii,  "  power  over  the  meteors."  Pro.  viii,  "  evidency  "  ; 
vii,  "a  young  wanton."  Isaiah  iii,  "impudency";  ix,  "im- 
pcnitency  " ;  xiv,  "  insultation  over  Babel  " ;  xviii,  "  an  access 
thereby  shall  grow  "  ;  xxviii,  "  God's  discreet  providence  "  ; 
xiv,  "  convinceth  the  idols  of  vanity "  ;  liii,  "excuseth  the 
scandal  of  the  cross."  Jerern.  xxxvi,  "  they  will  Baruch  to 
hide  himself";  xxxix,  "the  city  ruinated,  the  people  capti 
vated";  xlix,  "the  restoration  of  Elam."  Mai.  i,  "irreli- 
giousness."  Matt,  i,  "  the  misdeeming  thoughts  of  Joseph  "  ; 
xi,  "unrepentance";  xxii,  "Christ  poseth  the  Pharisees";  Mark 
x,  "  resolveth  a  rich  man  how  he  may  inherit  eternal  life  "  ; 
xii,  "  resolveth  the  scribe  who  questioned  the  first  command 
ment."  Luke  ii,  "questioneth  with  the  doctors";  v,  likeneth 
faint  hearted  and  weak  disciples  to  "  old  bottles  and  worn 
garments  "  ;  xxii,  "  dehorteth."  John  xix,  "  being  overcome 
with  the  outrage  of  the  Jews."  Acts  xv,  "  Paul  and  Barnabas 
fall  at  strife  "  ;  vi,  "  appoint  the  office  of  deaconship  to  seven 
men";  xxvii,  "Paul  shipping  toward  Rome."  Rom.  v,  "sith 
we  were  reconciled,"  but  also  in  the  text  of  Ezek.  xxxv,  6  ;  xiii 
"  works  of  darkness  are  out  of  season  in  the  time  of  the 
gospel."  1  Cor.  xiii,  "  prelation  of  charity  before  faith  and 
hope  "  ;  xiv,  "  the  abuse  taxed  " ;  xvi,  "  shutteth  up  his 
epistle."  2  Cor.  x,  "who  disgraced  the  weakness  of  his 
person  "  (spoke  in  ridicule  and  contempt  of  it) ;  x,  "  against 
all  adversary  powers."  2  Tim.  iv,  "  willeth  him  to  come 


speedily  unto  him."  Titus  iii,  "directed  by  Paul  concerning 
.  .  .  .  he  is  willed  also  to  reject  obstinate  heretics." 
James  v,  "  we  ought  ...  to  reduce  a  straying  brother 
to  the  truth."  Heb.  iii,  "  more  worthy  punishment "  ;  x,  "  the 
law  sacrifices."  1  Peter  i,  "  salvation  in  Christ  no  news " 
(novelty).  2  Peter  i,  "whereof  he  is  careful  to  remember 
them."  1  John  ii,  "  He  comforteth  them  against  the  sins  of 
infirmity" ;  iv,  "  we  are  to  try  the  spirits  by  the  rule  of  the 
Catholick  faith." 

There  are  also  some  obsolete  terms  in  the  text  of  the 
Authorized  Version ;  some  words  gone  wholly  out  of  use,  or 
that  are  rarely  employed,  and  others  that  now  carry  a  different 
signification.  The  following  have  almost  or^wholly  ceased  to 
be  in  use  : — Tabret,  artillery  in  the  sense  of  an  archer's 
weapons,  dulcimer,  sackbut,  scrip,  knops,  ouches,  bosses,  taches, 
leasing,  pate,  shine,  earing — ploughing,  brigandine,  hard  to  for 
hard  by,  with — a  twig  or  chord,  emerods,  scrabbled,  habergeon, 
swaddle,  wench,  wimple,  sherd  as  a  simple  term,  "breaches" 
for  "  creeks,"  "  fat "  for  "  vat,"  "  charger  "  in  the  sense  of  a 
"capacious  dish,"1  "chambering"  for  "lechery,"  "coasts"  for 
"  borders,"  "  room  "  for  "  place,"  "  hardness  "  for  "  hardship," 
"  dure  "  for  "  endure,"  "  defenced  "  for  "  fenced,"  "  entreat "  for 
"  treat,"  "  minish  "  for  "  diminish."  "  camp  "  for  "  encamp," 
"  endamage  "  for  "  damage,"  "  gazing-stock,"  "  taken  with  the 
manner,"  in  the  act,  a  law  phrase  which  occurs  also  in  Shake 
speare,  Num.  v,  13;  "  ray  "  for  "  array,"  "ware"  for  "aware," 
"  tire  "  as  an  article  of  female  headdress,  so  that  "  attired  "  is 
properly  used  of  Aaron  wearing  his  mitre,  Leviticus  xvi,  4  ; 
"  changeable  suits"  in  the  sense  of  festal  garments,  changed  or 
put  off  when  the  festival  is  over;  "  estate  "  meaning  "  state  " 
or  "  company,"  Acts  xxii,  5  ;  "  estates  "  meaning  "  persons  high 
in  authority,"  Mark  vi,  21,2  "resemble"  as  an  active  verb, 

1  But  Macaulay  uses  it — l<  Many  2  Barclay,  '.'  Ship   of  Fools,"  says 

of  these  (the  royalist  party)   rnort-  that   his  language   was   "  for    rude 

gaged    their    land,    pawned     their  people  much  more  convenient  than 

jewels,   and    broke   up   their   silver  for    estates,    learned    men,    or    elo- 

chargers    and     christening    bowls. "  quent." 
History  of  England,  vol.  I,  p.  113. 


Luke  xiii,  18;  "white"  in  an  active  sense,  Mark  ix,  3; 
"equal"  as  an  active  verb,  Lam.  ii,  13;  ''convert"  as  a  tran 
sitive  verb,  used  only  once  of  a  human  agent,  James  v,  19,  20, 
and  once  of  the  Divine  law,  Ps.  xix,  and  once  in  an  intransi 
tive  sense,  Isaiah  vi,  10;  "  ragged  "  in  the  sense  of  "  rugged," 
Isai.  ii,  21  ;  "  strike  "  his  hand,  to  move  over  or  up  and  down, 
2  Kings  v,  11;  "  book,"  libellus,  a  formal  accusation,  Job  xxxi, 
35  ;  "  ambassage  "  as  so  spelt ;  "the  concision,"  a  satirical  term 
for  the  circumcision,  Phil,  iii,  2 ;  "  delicates,"  Jer.  xli,  34 ; 
"  throughly,"  Ps.  Ii,  2 ;  "translate  "  in  the  sense  of  transfer,  2 
Sam.  iii,  10 ;  "  he  thought  scorn,"  Esther  iii,  6  ;  "  vial,"  a 
goblet ;  "  draught,"  a  sink  ;  "  let,"  to  hinder,  Isaiah  xliii,  13, 
2  Thes.  ii,  7 ;  "  worse  liking,"  Dan.  i,  10  ;  "  all  to  "  in  the  sense 
of  thoroughly,  "  all  to  brake  his  skull,"  Judges  ix,  53  (a  com 
mon  idiom  in  the  older  writers,  occurring  also  in  Milton's 
Comus);  "listed,"  Matt,  xvii,  12;  "lively,"  living,  1  Peter 
ii,  5  ;  "  uiidersetters,"  props,  1  Kings  vii,  30  ;  "  going  forth  " 
as  a  noun  meaning  outlet,  Ezek.  xliv,  5;  "Jehoram  departed 
without  being  desired,"  or  regretted,  2  Chron.  xxi,  20 — 
"  swelling,"  2  Cor.  xii,  20,  used  in  an  ethical  sense  ;  "  matter," 
material  or  fuel,  James  iii,  5  ;  "  noisome,"  not  disgusting,  but, 
according  to  its  origin,  noxious,  Ps.  xci,  3  ;  "  injurious,"  in 
solent,  1  Tim.  i,  13;  "discover"  would  now  be  uncover,  Ps. 
xxix,  9  ;  "  either  "  is  two  considered  separately  ; — "  on  either 
side  of  the  river  "  (Rev.  xxii,  2),1  means,  according  to  old  use, 
on  the  one  and  on  the  other  side.  The  usa^e  is  common ; 

O  ' 

it  was  no  slip,  and  no  novelty,  as  it  is  found  in  Lev.  x,  1 ; 
John  xix,  18  ;  "each  "  would  now  be  not  more  correct,  but  only 
more  intelligible  English;  Exodus  ix,  31,  "boiled,"  podded, 
perhaps  allied  to  bell,  as  holperi  to  help ;  "  blains  "  yet  survives 
in  chil-blains.  "  Matrix,"  in  the  low  Latin  sense  of  womb,  is 
not  in  currency  ;  nor  "  cleave  to  "  in  the  sense  of  adhere,  Acts 
xi,  23 ;  nor  "  tablet "  meaning  beads  or  amulets,  Exodus  xxxv, 
22 ;  nor  "botch  "  with  the  sense  of  boil ;  nor  "burst"  with  that 
of  break  ;  nor  "  base  "  with  that  of  mean  in  appearance ;  nor 

1  Tennyson  has — 

'•'  On  either  side  the  river  lie 
Long  fields  of  barley  and  of  rye." 


"  bunch "  with  that  of  Immp  (Isaiah  xxx,  6),  in  reference  to 
a  camel.  "  For  to,"  "  but  and  if,"  "  sirs,"  "  handiwork," 
"  afore,"  "  silverling,"  "  shroud  "  (Ezek.  xxxi,  3),  shadow  pro 
duced  by  the  thick  foliage,  "  comely "  with  a  spiritual  re 
ference  (Ps.  xxxiii,  1),  "  lightly"  in  the  sense  of  speedily  or  soon 
(Mark  ix,  39),  "be  at  a  stay,"  (Levit.  xiii,  5)  "lewd  "  as  meaning 
lay  or  unlearned,  are  not  in  present  employment.  "  Worship  " 
has  now  the  thinner  meaning  of  honour — "  thou  shalt  have 
worship,"  Luke  xiv,  10,  as  in  Wycliffe,  "  worsehipe  thi  fader 
and  thi  moder,"  Mark  vii,  10 ;  or  John  xii,  26,  "  if  any  man 
serve  me  my  fader  shall  worship  him." 

Some  words  and  phrases,  though  unusual  now,  are  easily  un 
derstood  ;  are,  in  short,  innocent  archaisms,  and  give  an  antique 
tinge  to  the  version.  "  Woe  worth  the  day,"  Ezek.  xxx,  2, 
"worth"  connected  with  the  German  werden;  "bravery"  is  gay 
clothing  in  Isaiah  iii,  18,  in  common  Scotch  "  braws  '' ;  "  by  and 
bye  "  is  not  a  time  at  some  little  distance,  but  immediately, 
Mark  vi,  25,  Lukexxi,  9  ;  "road,"  which  occurs  only  once,  does 
not  signify  a  path,  but  an  inroad,  a  raid,  1  Sam.  xxvii,  10  ; 
"  seared "  is  scorched,  or  cauterized,  1  Tim.  iv,  7 ;  "  ranges 
for  pots,"  Levit.  xi,  35  ;  but  "  ranges "  is  ranks  of  soldiers, 
2  Kings  xi,  8,  15,  at  least  the  Hebrew  word  has  this  mean 
ing  ;  "  ranges  "  appears  in  the  Great  Bible  in  verse  8,  but  in 
verse  17  the  words  are,  "  without  the  temple,  that  she  may  be 
within  the  ranges," — after  Mlinster — Coverdale  having  "  wall," 
and  the  Rheims  "  precincts  of  the  temple," — Vulgate,  septum 
— the  English  term  "ranges"  might  mean  in  that  case  the  limits 
or  boundaries  of  the  temple.  The  noun  is  left  untranslated  in  the 
Septuagint.  Shamefastness  (1  Tim.  ii,  9)  has  been  corrupted 
into  the  poor  and  misleading  form  "  shamefacedness."  The 
phrases  "set  the  people  a- work"  (2  Chron.  ii,  18),  "having  in  a 
readiness  "  (2  Cor.  x,  6)  remain  unaltered.  "  Rising  "  is  a 
swelling,  Lev.  xiii,  2,  19  ;  "  wealth"  is  not  money,  but  well- 
being,  1  Cor.  x,  24 ;  "  let  all  Israel  be  generally  gathered  unto 
thee  "  means  universally  brought  together,  2  Sam.  xvii,  11 ; 
"purchase"  is  simply  to  acquire,  1  Tim.  iii,  13;  "power  "is 
an  armed  force,  "all  his  power  with  him,"  2  Chron.  xxxii,  9; 
"  men  of  war,"  Luke  xxiii,  11,  is  a  phrase  applied  now  to  ships 


only  ;  "to  break  up  a  house  "  is  now  to  dismantle  it,  so  that 
"  he  would  not  suffer  his  house  to  be  broken  up,"  means  he 
would  not  suffer  his  house  to  be  broken  into  (Matt,  xxiv,  43), 
the  thief  digging  through  the  frail  clay  walls  ;  "  a  great  altar 
to  see  to,"  Josh,  xxii,  10 ;  "  how  shall  we  order  the  child  ? " 
(arrange  concerning  him),  Judg.  iii,  12 — margin,  "what  shall  be 
the  manner  of  the  child  ?"  "  Summer  and  winter"  are  used  as 
verbs,  Isaiah  xviii,  6  ;  "  ensue"  has  the  sense  of  "pursue,"  1  Pet. 
iii,  8,  11;  "  wasteness,"  Zeph.  i,  15 ;  and  "ravin,"  Gen.  xlix, 
27,  are  now  unfamiliar,  as  are  also  the  following  terms  and 
phrases:  "go  to,"  Gen.  xi,  3,  James  iv,  13;  "bar  and  all," 
Judges  xvi,  3 ;  "on  a  smoke,"  Exodus  xix,  18 ;  "  high  day," 
Gen.  xxix,  7;  "clean  escaped,"  2  Pet.  ii,  18;  "cast  the  same 
in  his  teeth,"  Matt,  xxvii,  44 ;  '•  withal,"  besides,  or  over  and 
above,  Ps.  cxli,  10 ;  Acts  xxv,  27,  "  made  as  though  he 
would  have  gone  further,"  Luke  xxiv,  28 ;  "  fell  on  sleep," 
"goodman  of  the  house,"  Matt,  xx,  11;  "savour"  as  a  verb, 
Matt,  xvi,  23 ;  "I  do  you  to  wit,"  "  wist  not,"  "  every  whit," 
"not  a  whit,"  "at  quiet,"  "a  fishing,"  "a  preparing,"  "an 
hungered,"  "  a  thirst,"  "  a  work,"  "  spring  of  the  day,"  "  much 
set  by,"  "as  good  as,"  "that  time  is,"  "for  all  there  were  so  many," 
"  at  a  venture," — Heb.  in  his  simplicity,  not  taking  aim  at  any 
particular  mark — "  the  more  part,"  "  many  a  time,"  "  forth  of," 
"before  time,"  "  cast  clouts,"  Jer.  xxvii,  11 ;  "of  a  truth,"  "any 
while,"  "  this  ado,"  "  at  their  wits  end,"  "  make  for,"  "  to  the 
end  that,"  "as  touching,"  "as  concerning,"  "in  respect  of," 
"  in  seething,"  "  in  building,"  "  was  budded,"  "  was  befallen," 
"  at  the  length,"  "  at  the  least,"  "  at  the  last,"  "  follow  after," 
"  on  examination  had,"  "  that  thine  is,"  "  the  quick  and  the 
dead,"  "  now  a  days,"  "  I  trow  not,"  "  such  like,"  "  of  a  child," 
"strike  hands,"  "on  a  day,"  "it  liketh  him  best,"  "what  time," 
"  when  as,"  "let  it  forth,"  "  the  goings  out  of  it,"  Num.  xxxiv, 
5 ;  "  thy  coming  in,"  Ps.  cxxi,  8 ;  "  against,"  by  the  time  that,1 
John  xii,  7;  2  Kings  xvi,  11 ;  or  "to  meet  one,"  1  Sam.  ix.  14. 
There  are  such  combinations  as  "horse  heeles,"  Gen.  xlix,  17; 
"  horse  hoofs,"  Judges  v,  22 ;  "horse  bridles,"  Rev.  xiv,  20 ;  the 

1  Maetzner's  English  Grammar,  English  Trans.,  vol.  Ill,  p  435, 
London,  1874. 


first  of  the  two  nouns  being  in  the  possessive.  The  phrase 
"three  mighties"  occurs  twice  in  1  Chron.  xi,  12,  24,  the 
Bishops'  and  the  Great  Bible  having  the  "  three  mightiest  " 
after  Tyndale — Matthew,  the  Genevan  and  Coverdale  in  one 
of  the  instances  have  "  three  worthies." 

Some  words  have  only  their  Latin  meaning — a  meaning 
that  has  passed  away,  and  some  preserve  two  significations. 
Thus  in  Acts  xxiv,  2,  "  providence  "  is  forethought,  not  divine 
government ;  "prevent  "  is  used  in  its  original  meaning — to  go 
before,  to  anticipate— in  Psalm  xxi,  3;  cxix,  148;  Matt,  xvii, 
25 ;  1  Thess.  iv,  15,  the  more  modern  sense  being  "to  hinder," 
to  go  before,  so  as  to  obstruct  one.  John  i,  15,  "is  preferred 
before  me  "  means  has  come  to  be  before  me,  his  office  rising  in 
dignity  far  above  mine ;  but  the  word  is  ambiguous,  as  it  is 
used  to  signify  "  to  regard  one  more  than  another  "  ;  and  this 
clause  is  adduced  by  Dr.  Johnson,  in  his  Dictionary,  as  an 
example  of  such  a  signification ;  and  the  erroneous  sense  would 
then  be,  "elevated  in  popular  opinion  above  me."  "  Revive  "  is 
brought  to  life  again,  1  Kings  xvii,  22 ;  Rom.  xiv,  9  ;  "decision," 
Joel  iii,  14,  is  cutting  off;  "apprehend,"  is  to  seize,  Philip, 
iii.  12;  "instant"  as  an  adjective  has  the  meaning  of  con 
tinuous  earnestness,  Rom.  xii,  12;  2  Tim.  iv,  2;  and  the  adverb 
has  a  similar  meaning  in  Acts  xxvi,  7,  and  in  Luke  vii,  4;  but 
the  noun  has  a  temporal  meaning  in  Luke  ii,  38,  and  as  often  as 
it  occurs  in  the  Old  Testament.  "Honest"  is  honourable,  Philip, 
iv,  8;  "eminent"  is  projecting  or  prominent,  Ezek.  xvii,  22; 
"profited"  is  made  progress,  Gal.  i,  14;  "evidently"  is  visibly, 
Acts  x,  3.  "  Conversation,"  in  all  places  where  it  occurs,  with 
one  exception,  keeps  its  Latin  signification,  and  means,  though 
it  represents  two  Greek  words,  not  talk,  but  the  general 
tenor  of  a  man's  life — his  walk ;  so  that  it  is  tautology  to 
speak  of  "walk  and  conversation,"  Gal.  i,  13;  Eph.  iv,  22; 
Philip,  i,  27;  1  Pet.  i,  15;  but  in  Philip,  iii,  20  it  means 
citizenship,  or  country,  representing  a  very  different  Greek 
substantive.  Similarly  we  have  "  conversant,"  Josh,  viii,  35— 
"  the  strangers  that  were  conversant  among  them,"  that  is, 
walked  in  and  out  among  them,  or  had  familiar  daily  inter 
course;  and  so  in  1  Sam.  xxv,  15;  and  also  in  the  contents  of 


Acts  ii,  "  devoutly  and  charitably  converse  together."  "  Pre 
sumptuously  "  also  keeps  a  sense,  according  to  its  composition 
in  Exod.  xxi,  14,  "if  a  man  come  presumptuously  upon  his 
neighbour"  —  beforehand,  and  on  set  purpose,  though  the 
Hebrew  means  cunningly.  In  other  places  the  word  has  in  it 
an  ethical  element  of  audacity  and  wilfulness— Num.  xv,  30 ; 
Deut.  i,  43,  and  in  many  other  places — representing  other 
Hebrew  terms.  "  Replenish,"  however,  is  to  fill,  not  to  fill 
again.  "Malice"  is  often  vice,  or  wickedness.  "Approve" 
has  sometimes  the  simple  sense  of  prove,  Acts  ii,  22 ;  "  affect  " 
is  to  pay  court  to,  Gal.  iv,  17;  "communicate"  is  to  give  to 
others  a  share  of  what  we  have,  Philip,  iv,  15 ;  1  Tim.  vi,  18 ; 
Heb.  xiii,  16,  but  in  other  places  it  has  its  more  common 
modern  meaning  of  words  uttered,  as  in  Matt,  v,  37 ;  Eph.  iv, 
29.  To  "accept"  a  person  is  to  show  unjust  partiality  for  him, 
Job  xxxii,  21;  Gal.  ii,  6;  but  in  many  instances  it  has  the 
common  modern  meaning.  "  Evil  occurrent "  is  evil  coming 
against,  1  Kings  v,  4 ;  "  to  occupy  "  is  often  not  to  possess,  but 
to  trade,  Ezek.  xxvii,  9,  16,  19,  21,  22,  27;  "allege"  is  to 
prove,  and  not,  as  now,  to  declare,  Acts  xvii,  3  ;  "  apparent " 
is  manifest,  and  not  seeming ;  God  says  of  His  special  reve 
lations  to  Moses,  "With  him  will  I  speak  mouth  to  mouth, 
even  apparently " — the  contrast  being  "  and  not  in  dark 
speeches,"  Num.  xii,  8 ;  "charity"  is  love,  1  Cor.  xiii;  "com 
fort,"  as  its  origin  implies,  is  not  simply  consolation,  but 
strength,  2  Cor.  xiii,  11.  "  Fervent  "  is  not  ethical,  but 
physical  in  2  Pet.  iii,  10,  12;  "vagabond"  is  only  wanderer, 
Gen.  iv,  12  ;  "to  possess"  is  to  seize  on,  Num.  xiii,  30;  "com 
prehend  "  is  used  in  its  original ,  or  Latin  sense,  Isaiah  xl,  12 ; 
"  vain  "  is  empty,  or  worthless,  Judg.  ix,  4 ;  "  vile  "  is  cheap, 
insignificant,  without  any  moral  implication,  in  Philip,  iii,  21 ; 
"  volume  "  is  roll ;  "  title  "  (titulus)  is  the  tablet  affixed  to  the 
cross,  John  xix,  19 ;"  temperance "  is  self-restraint,  and  not 
confined  to  the  use  of  wine,  Acts  xxiv,  25,  &c. ;  "  traditions  " 
are  doctrines  taught  or  handed  over,  either  orally  or  in  writing 
— "by  word  or  our  epistle,"  2  Thess.  ii,  15;  "decline"  is  to 
turn  away,  Exod.  xxiii,  2  ;  "  dissolving  doubts  "  is  solving  or 
resolving  them,  Dan.  v,  12;  "expecting"  is  looking  out  for, 


Heb.  x,  13;  "fame"  is  report,  Matt,  xiv,  1;  "degree"  is  step, 
2  Kings  xx,  9  ;  "  provoke  "  is  to  call  forth,  to  stir  up,  but  not 
to  anger,  2  Cor.  ix,  2 ;  "  disposition  "  is  arrangement  with  no 
reference  to  temperament,  Acts  vii,  53  ;  "  damnation  "  is  simply 
judgment  and  not  eternal  penalty,  the  word  having  grown  into 
a  darker  meaning  since  1611,  1  Cor.  xi;  29.  "Incontinent" 
has  a  wider  reference  than  to  sexual  lusts,  2  Tim.  iii,  3 ;  "  dis 
cipline  "  has  its  first  meaning  of  instruction,  Job  xxxvi,  10;  so 
has  "  describe  "  in  Josh,  xviii,  4,  6  ;  "  curious  "  is  wrought  with 
care,  Exodus  xxviii,  8 — "the  curious  girdle  of  the  ephod" — but 
in  Acts  xix,  19,  it  refers  to  magic.  "  Creature  "  is  any  created 
thing  without  the  modern  notion  of  a  living  or  organized  thing, 
1  Tim.  iv,  4;  "advisement"  is  deliberation,  1  Chron.  xii,  19; 
"  declare  "  is  to  make  clear,  Matt,  xiii,  36  ;  "  offend  "  is  to  be,  or 
prove  a  cause  of  stumbling,  Matt,  xviii,  6,  8,  9;  "publican  " — a 
Latin  term  transferred — is  a  collector  of  public  revenue,  and  he 
was  usually  in  Italy  taken  from  the  equestrian  order.  "Peculiar 
people"  is  a  people  His  own  special  possession,  Titus  ii,  14; 
"  singular"  in  Levit.  xxvii,  2,  is  in  special  or  individual  con 
nection  with  oneself  ;  "  passion  "  is  suffering,  Acts,  i,  3  ;  "  ye 
bear  witness  that  ye  allow  the  deeds  of  your  fathers,"  Luke  xi, 
48  ("allow,"  "allouer,"  "allaudare,")  the  verb  meaning  not  to  per 
mit  merely,  but  to  approve — similarly,  though  the  original  word 
is  different,  in  Rom.  vii,  15,  in  Rom.  xiv,  22,  and  in  1  Thess.  ii,  4, 
but  it  represents  a  different  Greek  verb  in  Acts  xxiv,  15,  and 
"allowance"  with  another  derivation  ("allouer,  "allocare,") signi 
fies  portion  or  ration  in  2  Kings  xxv,  30.  "Affinity"  in  1  Kings 
iii,  1,  2  Chron.  xviii,  1,  Ezra  ix,  14,  has  its  strict  Latin  sense — 
"  affinitas  "  opposed  to  "  cognatio  " — relation  by  marriage  as  op 
posed  to  relation  by  blood ;  "  mortify  "  is  to  put  to  death,  Rom. 
viii,  13  ;  "  tempt  "  is  to  put  to  trial ;  "  usury  "  is  only  interest, 
not  excessive  interest  in  Matt,  xxv,  27  ;  "proper"  is  one's  own, 
1  Chron.  xxix,  3;  Acts  i,  19;  1  Cor.  vii,  7;  but  it  also  means 
fair  or  comely,  Heb.  xi,  23 — Moses  "was  a  proper  child  "  : 
had  the  best  properties  befitting  a  child.  "  Very  "  is  "  true  " 
in  Gen.  xxvii,  21,  John  vii,  26  ;  "  attendance  "  is  mental  appli 
cation,  attention — a  word  which,  however,  does  not  occur  at  all, 
1  Tim.  iv,  13;  "nephews"  (Lat.  nepos)  are  grand -children 


according  to  old  usage  in  2  Tim.  v,  4,  and  it  represents  the 
Hebrew  phrase  "sons'  sons"  in  Judges  xii,  14,  Job  xviii,  19, 
Isaiah  xiv,  22 ;  and  "  niece  "  is  used  in  Wycliffe's  version  for 
grand-daughter.  "  Novice "  is  one  newly  admitted  to  the 
church,  1  Tim.  iii,  6  ;  "  virtue  "  is  healing  power,  Mark  v,  30  \ 
"  piety,"  1  Tim.  v,  4,  is  filial  affection ;  "pommel,"  2  Chron.  iv,  12 
(Lat.  pomum),  is  around  apple-like  ornament;  "chapiter"  is  the 
head  of  the  column,  Exodus  xxxvi,  38 ;  "  shalt  discontinue 
from  thine  heritage,"  is  shalt  be  exiled,  Jerem.  xvii,  4 ;  "several " 
is  separate  in  Num.  xxviii,  13,  and  2  Kings  xv,  5,  "dwelt  in 
a  several  house."  "  Taverns  "  are  stalls  or  shops,  the  "  Tres 
Tabernae"  in  Acts  xxviii,  15  being  a  station  on  the  Appian 
Road,  about  ten  miles  nearer  Rome  than  the  Appii  Forum. 

There  occur  also  such  phrases  as  "  even  to  the  mercy  seat- 
ward,"  Exodus  xxxvii,  9  ;  "he  is  forehead  bald,"  Levit.  xiii,  41, 
baldness  of  brow  distinguished  from  baldness  of  head ;  "  was 
sufficed,"  Ruth  ii,  14,  18 — the  active  being  used  as  in  modern 
idiom  in  Num.  xi,  22 ;  Ezek.  xliv.  6  ;  "  how  the  matter  will  fall," 
fall  out  or  happen,  Ruth  iii,  18;  "David  avoided  out  of  his 
presence,"  slipped  softly  and  suddenly  away,  1  Sam.  xviii,  11 ; 
"  three  days  agone  and  fell  sick,"  the  word  "  agone  "  occurring 
only  here,  and  itself  a  past  participle ;  "  have  out,"  thrust  out, 
2  Sam.  xiii,  9 ;  and  so  in  2  Kings  xi,  15  ;  2  Chron.  xxxv,  23 ; 
"me  thinketh,"  2  Sam.  xviii,  27;  "methought"  occurs  in  Milton, 
an  impersonal  verb,  with  "  me  "  as  a  species  of  dative.  "Which" 
is  used  both  with  persons  and  things,  according  to  old  usage. 
"  Which  "  is  the  old  form ;  "  that,"  however,  being  the  oldest, 
as  the  Anglo-Saxon  neuter  singular  relative,  but  coming  not  so 
near  the  antecedent  as  "  who  "  or  "  which."  According  to  one 
rule  of  distinction,  which  has  many  exceptions,  "who"  belongs  to 
clauses  of  additional  predication,  while  "that"  is  used  in  restric 
tive  or  explanatory  clauses.1  "  Which,"  more  definite  than 
"  that,"  is  often  applied  to  a  person  in  Shakespeare  and  his 
contemporaries ;  but  Shakespeare  also  couples  "  who "  with 
animals  (a  lion  who)  and  inanimate  objects  (the  winds  "  who 
take  ").  Ben  Jonson  speaks  of  "  our  relative  which,"  as  if  it 

1  The  term  helpmeet  as  one  word  is  "  help  meet  for  him" ;  and  the  pro- 
wrong;  the  words  in  Scripture  are  an  per  word  would  be  helpmate 


were  the  only  one ;  and  we  still  say,  interrogatively,  "which  of 
us  "  ? 1  We  have  in  1  Kings  v,  6,  "  any  that  can  skill  to  hew 
timber,"  the  verb  being  obsolete,  but  the  noun  preserved ; 
2  Chron.  ii,  9,  "wonderful  great";  Nehemiah  xiii,  26,  "out 
landish  women,"  foreigners;  Job  xix,  19,  "all  my  inward 
friends,"  intimate  or  confidential ;  in  Hebrew,  "  men  of  my 
secret " ;  Dan.  xi,  30,  "  have  intelligence  with "  is  an  under 
standing  with;  Prov.  xxix,  13,  "the  Lord  lighteneth  both 
their  eyes,"  the  eyes  of  both  classes  of  persons ;  and  Eccles.  iv,  3, 
"  better  is  he  than  both  they."  "Away  with"  has  two  senses — 
Isai.  i,  13,  I  cannot  away  with,  cannot  get  on  with,  or  cannot 
endure;  but  John  xix,  15,  "away  with  him,"  off  with  him  to 
execution ;  Isai.  xv,  5,  "  with  we'eping  shall  they  go  it  up,"  an 
old  and  familiar  idiom;  Prov.  xxi,  20,  "spend  it  up";  Ezek. 
xxvii,  13,  "traded  the  persons  of  men";  Hab.  ii.  10,  "thou  hast 
consulted  shame  to  thy  house  ";  Acts  xxiii,  15,  "or  ever  he  come," 
before  he  come ;  Amos  vii,  17,  "  into  captivity  forth  of  his  land" ; 
Matt,  vi,  34,  "  take  no  thought,"  thought 2  in  its  old  meaning 
of  anxiety ;  Matt,  ix,  9,  "  receipt  of  custom,"  the  place  where 
custom  or  toll  was  received,  as  in  the  margin  of  Mark  ii,  14, 
literally,  tollbooth;  Matt,  xx,  31,  "rebuked  them  because  they 
should  hold  their  peace,"  that  is  for  the  cause,  or  in  order  that 

1  Professor  Bain,  in  his  Compa-  2  Thus,  "  Hawis  was  put  in  trouble 
nion  to  the  Higher  English  Gram-  and  died  with  thought,"  Bacon; 
mar,  quotes  Professor  Milligan  of  Wright's  Bible  Word  Book,  p.  483. 
Aberdeen,  to  the  following  effect:—  "  Queen  Catherine  Parr  died  rather 
"  Our  translation  of  St.  Matthew's  of  thought,"  Somers'  Tracts ;  Arch- 
gospel  has  been  examined,  for  the  bishop  Trench's  Select  Glossary,  sub 
usage  of  the  several  relatives,  by  voce.  In  strange  ignorance  of  this 
Professor  Milligan,  of  Aberdeen,  one  old  arid  familiar  sense  of  the  term, 
of  the  Committee  for  revising  the  Mr.  Greg,  Creed  of  Christendom, 
English  Translation  of  the  New  vol.  I,  p.  Ixvii,  2nd  edition,  founds 
Testament.  There  are  224  relative  an  argument  against  the  morality  of 
constructions.  Of  these,  175  are  in  the  Gospel,  as  if  Christ  "not  only 
strict  accordance  with  the  distinctive  deprecated,  but  also  denounced  and 
uses  of  'who,'  'which,'  and  'that,'  prohibited"  all  forethought  in 
as  here  taught.  In  43  cases  '  who '  worldly  matters,  and  encouraged 
or  '  which '  is  put  for  '  that '  ;  in  6  "  improvidence."  The  Greek  term 
cases  '  that '  is  put  for  '  who  '  or  denotes  cares,  dividing  or  distracting 
'  which. ' '  the  mind — anxious  trouble. 


they  should  hold  their  peace,1  as  in  all  the  earlier  versions  but 
the  Rheims.  Matt,  xxvi,  66,  "guilty  of  death,"  guilty,  in  modern 
English,  being  connected  with  the  crime,  not  with  the 
penalty,  as  in  Num.  xxxv,  27,  "  shall  not  be  guilty  of  blood  or 
of  murder  " ;  "  likewise  ''  is  likeways,  or  in  like  manner,  and 
not  simply  "also,"  "he  also  himself  likewise,"  Heb.  ii,  14, 
used  similarly  by  Chaucer  and  Shakespeare ;  John  iii,  33,  "  set 
to  his  seal";  Acts  xxviii,  13,  "fetched  a  compass,"  tacking  on 
account  of  the  adverse  wind;  Rom.  xvi,  19,  "simple"  does  not 
mean  foolish;  James  v,  11,  "pitiful"  is  full  of  pity,  not  what 
excites  pity ;  Philip,  iv,  6,  "  careful "  is  full  of  care  or  anxiety  ; 
"  faithful "  is  often  full  of  faith,  or  believing,  Eph.  i,  1  ; 
"  painful  "  is  laborious,  Ps.  Ixxiii,  16 ;"  reward  "  is  often  to  re 
quite,  either  in  a  good  or  bad  sense ;  "  rehearse "  is  to  tell, 
not  necessarily  to  repeat ;  "  cunning "  is  skilled  or  expert, 
Gen.  xxv,  27 ;  "  fret"  is  used  in  a  physical  sense,  Lev.  xiii,  55  ; 
"  passage,"  1  Sam.  xiii,  23,  would  now  be  "  pass  " ;  and  "  witty  " 
has  no  element  of  humour  in  it,  Prov.  viii.  12. 

The  language  was  not  matured  in  the  early  part  of  the  reign 
of  James,  and  as  it  was  in  a  state  of  oscillation  the  trans 
lators  use  both  forms  of  the  preterite  "  clad  "  and  "  clothed," 
"  shone  "  and  "  shined,"  "  awoke  "  and  "  awaked,"  and 
they  have  both  "  stale  "  and  "  stole,"  "  lien  "  and  "  lain," 
"  strike  "  and  "  strake,"  but  never  "  struck,"  nor  "  spoke,"  nor 
"broke."  They  use  both  "got"  and  "gotten,"  "girt"  and 
"  girded,"  in  the  same  chapter,  and  "  built "  and  "  builded  "  in 
consecutive  verses,  nay  "  leapt "  in  the  text  and  "  leaped  "  in 
the  margin  of  1  Kings  xviii,  26;  "spilt"  and  "spilled," 
"  wrung  "  and  "  wringed,"  "  clave  "  and  "  cleaved,"  "  helped  " 
and  "  holpen,"  "held"  and  "holden";  "sod"  but  not 
"  seethed  "  ;  "  digged  "  only,  refusing  "  dug."  The  preterite 
forms  of  "  sew  "  from  "  sow,"  "  mew  "  from  "  mow,"  had 
already  passed  out  of  use.  "  Rent  "  is  used  several  times  as 
a  verb  in  the  present  and  is  once  found  in  modern  copies, 
Jerem.  iv,  30.  Similar  variations  occur  in  smaller  matters,  as 
the  use  of  "  a "  and  "  an,"  as  "  a  hand  "  and  "  an  hand,"  "  a 
hairy  "  and  "  an  hairy,"  "  a  hole  "  and  "  an  hole,"  "  a  horse  " 
and  "an  horse,"  "my"  and  "mine,"  "thy"  and  "thine," 


even  in  the  same  verse  (Num.  v,  20 ;  Job  xv,  12),  "  before " 
and  "  before  that,"  "  after  "  and  "  after  that,"  "  hence "  and 
"from  hence,"  "thence"  and  "from  thence."  But  the  version 
shows  general  correctness  in  the  use  of  "  shall "  and  "  will," 
"  lye  "  and  "  lay,"  "  sit "  and  "  set,"  "  bade  "  and  "  bidden  "— 
forms  and  idioms  so  often  confounded  in  colloquial  English. 
It  has  four  times  "beeves"  the  regular  plural  of  beef,  instead 
of  the  more  common  terms  "  bullocks  "  or  "  oxen."  "  Sith  " 
occurs  once  as  a  logical  term  in  Ezek.  xxxv,  6,  and  "  since  "  is 
also  employed  as  an  illative  in  Joshua  ii,  12,  and  in  1 
Cor.  xv,  21,  bub  it  is  oftenest  used  with  a  temporal  signi 
fication.  "  Beside "  usually  keeps  its  original  meaning  "  by 
the  side,"  as  in  1  Sam.  xix,  3  ;  Ps.  xxiii,  2  ;  but  it  is  also  found 
in  the  sense  of  more  or  in  addition  to,  and  it  has  this  modern 
meaning  four  times,  in  Levit.  xxiii,  38,  Deut.  xxix,  1,  Luke  xvi, 
26,  and  xxiv,  21.  On  the  other  hand  "  besides,"  while  it  has 
its  usual  sense,  is  employed  once  at  least  in  the  more  literal 
meaning  of  "  beside,"  Levit.  vi,  10,  "  he  shall  put  them  besides 
the  altar,"  changed,  however,  in  later  editions.  "Sake"  or 
"  sakes  "  after  the  preposition  "  for  "  is  very  often  employed — 
considerably  over  a  hundred  times — and  is  preceded  by  a 
noun  or  a  pronoun,  the  form  "for  the  sake  of"  being  ignored. 
Many  of  the  older  idioms  have  become  obsolete  or  the  mean 
ing  has  been  altered.  '  'Asa  his  heai't  was  perfect,"  1  Kings  xv,  14 ; 
the  noun  and  the  pronoun  so  placed  occur  in  the  first  edition  and 
in  the  early  editions  as  far  down  at  least  as  a  Scottish  one  of  1766 
— the  form  now  being  Asa's.  Many  seem  to  have  thought  that 
the  's  is  a  contraction  of  the  omitted  pronoun,  whereas  it  is 
simply  the  old  Saxon  genitive.  "  Mordecai  his  matters  "  has 
been  changed  into  "  Mordecai's  matters  "  (Esther  iii,  4),  and 
the  words  in  the  heading  of  Ruth  iii  are  also  modernized, 
"  By  Naomi  her  instructions,  Ruth  lieth  at  Boaz  his  feete." 
"  This  monstrous  syntax,"  as  Ben  Jonson  calls  it,  suggested 
the  word  "  his  "  as  the  explanation  :  man's =man-his;  but  what 
then  of  yours,  theirs,  ours,  hers  ?  "  The  queen's  English  "  could 
not  be  "  the  queen  his  English."  The  pronoun  "  it "  in  a 
possessive  sense  occurs  in  Shakespeare  fifteen  times  (first  folio), 
and  "  its  "  ten  times ;  "  its,''  found  only  three  times  in  Milton's 

XLV.]  OLD  USE  OF  "HIS."  257 

poetry,  is  not  found  in  the  Authorized  Version  at  all ;  the 
simple  "  it "  is  used  once,  "  that  which  groweth  of  it  own 
accord,"  Levit.  xxv,  5,  "his"  being  employed,  as  it  stood  in 
Anglo-Saxon  for  both  masculine  and  neuter.  But  the  usage 
sounds  strange  to  modern  ears:  Gen.  i,  11,  "after  his  kind 
whose  seed  is  in  itself " ;  Levit.  i,  G,  "  cut  it  into  his 
pieces " ;  15,  "  the  priest  shall  bring  it  to  the  altar  and 
wring  off  his  head "  ;  2  Sam.  vi,  17,  "  they  brought  in  the 
ark  and  set  it  in  his  place " ;  Ezek.  xvii,  9,  "  it  shall 
wither  in  all  the  leaves  of  her  spring  "  ;  1  Cor.  xiii,  5,  "  doth 
not  behave  itself  unseemly,  seeketh  not  her  own."  Dryden 
finds  fault  with  Ben  Jonson's  use  of  "his"  for  "its."  But 
at  length  objects  of  which  sex  could  not  be  predicated  necessi 
tated  the  introduction  of  "  its."  l  Chatterton's  "  Rowley's 
Poems  "  might  have  been  pronounced  a  forgery  at  once  from  the 
occurrence  of  "  its  "  in  such  a  phrase  as  "  life  and  all  its  goods." 
Dr.  Masson  has  brought  the  same  usage  to  bear  on  the 
genuineness  of  a  little  poem  found  in  the  British  Museum  and 
printed  in  18G8  in  the  Times  newspaper.  In  its  fifty-four  lines 
"its"  occurs  four  times.  At  an  earlier  period,  the  genitive  "is" 
was  common.  Palsgrave2  in  his  French  grammar,  prepared 
for  the  Princess  Mary,  sister  of  Henry  VIII  (London,  Haukyns, 
1530),  says  "  we  put  '  is  '  or  '  s  '  to  a  substantive  when  we  wyll 
express  '  possessyon.'  "  More  than  twenty  years  after  the  pub 
lication  of  the  Authorized  Version  the  practice  was  so  uncertain 
that  Butler,  while  in  his  English  Grammar  of  1G33  he  formally 
declines  "it"  with  the  genitive  "its,"  uses  "his"  again  and  again 
in  his  volume.  Referring  to  the  letter  W  he  speaks  of  "  his 
name,"  .  .  "  his  face/'  and  "  his  shape."  In  old  poems  "  hyt " 
is  found  with  a  possessive  sense.3  But  Addison  lightly  calls  the 
single  letter  "  s  "  ('s)  the  "  his  "  or  "  her  "  of  our  forefathers. 

1  The  "  h,"    though  preserved  in     &c.,  was  reprinted  in  Paris,  Impri- 
"he,"     "him,"    "his,"    "her,"    has     merie  National,  1852. 

passed  out  of  the  neuter  "  it,"  3  P.  xxiv,  Early  English  Literature, 
originally  "  hyt  "  or  "  hit,"  as  it  Poems,  Early  English  Text  Society, 
is  yet  pronounced  by  Scottish  and  in  the  writings  of  Sir  Thomas 
school  boys.  More. 

2  Palsgrave's    L'Esclarcissement, 
VOL.  II.  R 


Ill  our  modern  copies  the  spelling  is  very  often   changed 
from  the   first  edition:    "aliant"    (Job  xix,   15)  has  become 
"alien";  "chaws"  (Ezek.  xxix,  4),  ;<jaws";  "  fet,"  "fetched" 
(Acts   xxviii,    13);    "fift,"    "fifth"  (Lev.  xxvii,  13);     "  lese," 
"lose"  (1  Kings  xviii,  5);  "moe,"  "more"  (Deut.  i,  11);  "mids," 
"midst"  (Luke  xxiii,  45) ;  "terreses,"  "  terraces  "  (2  Chron.  ix, 
11);     "  bowshoot,"    "bowshot"     (Gen.    xxi,   16);    "moneth," 
"month"    (Exod.    xvi,    1);    "marish,"    "marsh";    "  thorow," 
"  through  "  ;    "  thorowout,"  throughout" ;  "  flixe  "  was  changed 
into  "flux  "  (Acts  xxviii,  8) ;  "  grinne,"  into  "  gin  "  (Job  xviii,  9) ; 
"counsel"  is  now  "council"  (the  Sanhedrim);  "broided"  (1  Tim. 
ii,  9) — "  plaited  "  in  the  margin  has  become  "  broidered  "  in 
several  modern  editions ;  and  the  n  was  sometimes  denoted 
only  by  a  stroke,  as  in  older  English;  "accompt"  has  been 
changed  into   "  account "  ;    and   "  renowne,"    into    "  renown  " ; 
"then,"  as  a  conjunction,  into  "than";  "plat,"  into  "plot"; 
"  unpossible "  (Matt,  xvii,  20)  has  become  "  impossible "  ;  but 
the    original    form    "  unperfect "   remains    in    Psalm  cxxxix; 
16;   "unmovable,"    in    Acts  xxvii,   41,   and    1   Cor.    xv,    58; 
"  shipwracke  "  has  been  altered  in  2  Cor.  xi,  25.     "  Hot  "  was 
spelled  "whot"  (Deut.  ix,  19).     The  form-ie  is  the  termination 
of  many  words  now  ending  in  y,  as  carie,  citie ;  i  and  u  are 
used  for  the  more  modern  j  and  v;  e  is  found  often  at  the 
end  of  words  as — sunne,  moone,  starres,  signe,  arke,  farre,  yere, 
hee,  shee,  bee,  rammes  skinnes,  and  in  the  phrase,  "  doe  the 
dutie " ;  past  participles  are  spelt  as  sowen,  growen ;  shallbe 
or  shal-be  is  one  word ;  and  there  are  such  spellings  as  bricke 
kill  (Jer.  xliii,  9),  maner,  sope,  perfit,  battel,  enterten,  unfained, 
neesing,  "  bile,"  for  "  boil "  ;  theren,  plow,  pransings,  "  lancer," 
for  "lancet";  "mussell,"  for  "muzzle;"  "  crudle,"  for  "curdle"; 
"  cize,"   for   size";   "utter,"  for    "outer";    damesell,    but  not 
always  ;  "that had  bin  "  occurs  Matt,  i,  6.     "  Ought "  is  an  early 
way  of  spelling  "  owed  " — "  which    ought  him   ten  thousand 
talents "    (Matt,  xviii,    24) — and   the   original   form  was  pre 
served  in   many   editions;  "champaign,"  a   level  country,   is 
"  champion  "  in  the  text  of  Deut.  xi,  30 ;  but  "  champian  "  in 
the  margin  of  Ezekiel  xxxvii,   2,  the  only  places  where  the 
word  occurs.      Preterite  forms  are  given,  as  "dipt,"  "cropt"; 


"  pluckt "  and  "  plucked  " ;  "  stopt "  and  "stopped  "  ;  "  lift "  and 
"lifted";  "fetcht"  and  "fetched";  "prey,"  in  the  modern 
editions,  is  "  pray  "  in  the  early  ones,  as  Gen.  xlix,  9,  27,  and 
so  commonly  throughout.  There  are  also  such  varying  forms 
as  "  burthen"  and  "burden";  "  murthcr  "  and  "  murder";  "hun- 
dreth"  and  "hundred"  in  consecutive  verses,  Judg.  xviii,  1C,  17; 
"prophane  "  and  "  profane  "  ;  "  toward  "  and  "  towards  "  in  the 
same  verse,  Gen.  xlviii,  13,  but  made  uniform  in  subsequent 
editions.  There  are  as  great  variations  in  Milton's  spelling, 
even  in  the  first  editions  of  his  poems.  "  Be "  is  the  old 
form  ;  "  thy  sins  be  forgiven  thee "  (Matt,  ix,  2)  is  not  a 
command  or  imprecation,  but  a  simple  statement,  as  in  Gen. 
xiii,  8,  "for  we  be  brethren  " ;  in  Dan.  iii,  19,  "  than  it  was 
wont  to  be  heat/'  the  old  participle  is  still  a  Scotticism, 
pronounced  "het,"  as  "set,"  which  is  the  past  participle  of 
"seat"  (Matt,  v,  1);  "dedicate"  in  the  phrase  "he  had  dedicate," 
2  Kings  xii,  18,  has  long  since  become  "  had  dedicated." 
Adjectives  of  this  or  similar  ending,  formed  from  the  Latin 
past  participle,  are  used  without  an  additional  syllable,  as 
"  situate,"  "  0  thou  that  art  situate,"  Ezek.  xxvii,  3.  "  Thee  " 
is  also  archaic,  as  "  get  thee,"  "  haste  thee,"  "  fare  thee " ; 
"  ye,"  and  seldom  "  you,"  as  the  nominative,  though 
"  ye "  is  often  objective  in  Milton.  It  would  appear  that 
when  Milton  wrote  "yee,"  or  "thee,"  he  occasionally  meant 
the  form  to  be  emphatic.1  "  Yee "  has  been  changed  into 
"you"  in  the  more  modern  editions:  Isa.  i,  16,  "wash  you," 
the  change  perhaps  prompted  by  the  following  clause,  "  make 
you  clean,"  "  you "  in  the  first  clause  being  regarded  as 
objective.  The  translators  in  their  own  preface  use  "you": 
"You  are  risen  up  in  your  father's  stead";  "as  your  fathers 
did,  so  do  you";  but  in  the  translation  of  both  places  they 
keep  "ye"  (Num.  xxxii,  14;  Acts  vii,  51).  "That"  is  used  for 
"what,"  "  we  speak  that  we  do  know"  (John  iii,  11);  and  several 
times  in  this  gospel;  "thou  takest  that  thou  layedst  not 
down"  (Luke  xix,  21,  22,  2G) ;  "if  1  do  that  I  would  not" 
(Rom.  vii,  20  ;  similarly,  viii,  25  ;  2  Cor.  viii,  12) ;  "  in,"  as  well 
as  "  on,"  is  found  in  connection  with  "  throne  "  (Prov.  xx,  8) ; 
1  Massou's  Miltou,  vol.  Ill,  p.  187 


Rev.  iii,  21) ;  and  in  connection  with  earth  (Matt,  vi,  10). 
We  have  in  1  Kings  xvii,  10,  "a  widow  woman  was  gathering 
of  sticks";  but  "gathering  two  sticks,"  in  verse  12;  and  in 
Rev.  xviii,  12,  "all  manner  vessels  of  ivory";  this  last  idiom 
occurs  in  several  other  places  in  the  first  edition.1  "  Whiles  " 
(Matt,  v,  25)  is  a  genitive  form ;  in  Eph.  ii,  13,  "  sometimes"  is 
simply  for  "sometime,"  like  "  betimes,"  which  has  not  a  plural 
sense,  but  means  at  some  early  period.  We  have  also  "  alway," 
"always";  and  the  phrase  "or  ever,"  Psalm  xc,  2,  "or"  being 
another  form  of  "ere,"  before,  Exodus  i,  19,  Num  xiv,  11,  Dan. 
vi,  24,  is  a  reduplication,  like  "for  because,"  Gen.  xxii,  16. 
There  are  also  forms  of  expression  which  wrere  quite  correct  and 
current  in  the  days  of  Elizabeth  and  James,  and  common  to 
the  contemporaries  of  the  translators,  which  are  now  regarded 
as  out  of  rule,  as  Matt,  v,  23,  "  if  thou  bring  thy  gift  to  the 
altar,  and  there  rememberest  that  thy  brother  hath  aught 
against  thee,"  both  verbs  being  attached  to  the  same  conjunc 
tion  ;  John  ix,  31,  "  if  any  man  be  a  worshipper  of  God,  and 
doeth  his  will";  the  same  form  of  the  English  verb  should 
have  been  kept  in  the  successive  clauses.  Sometimes  a  strong 
preterite  is  found  in  the  one  clause  and  an  auxiliary  used  in  the 
next :  Matt,  xxv,  26,  "  reap  where  I  sowed  not,  and  gather 
where  I  have  not  strawed,'!  are  not  out  of  harmony.  The 
reverse,  however,  is  awkward :  "  doth  he  not  leave  the  ninety 
and  nine,  and  goeth  and  seeketh";  Acts  xxvii,  21,  "and  not 
have  loosed  from  Crete,  and  to  have  gained  this  harm  and 
loss " ;  Jeremiah  xxvi,  19,  "  did  be  not  fear  the  Lord,  and 
besought  the  Lord,  and  the  Lord  repented  ? "  clauses  of  the  same 
question ;  Matt,  xxvi,  67,  "  then  did  they  spit  in  his  face,  and 
buffeted  him  "  ;  Mark  viii,  22,  "  they  bring  a  blind  man  unto 
him,  and  besought  him,"  a  mistranslation.  A  double  nega 
tive  occurs  in  2  Sam.  xiv,  7,  "  shall  not  leave  neither  name  nor 
remainder " ;  also,  1  Cor.  x,  32.  The  old  use  of  grammatical 
numbers,  according  to  sense  and  not  technical  canon,  occurs, 
Acts  i,  15,  "the  number  of  names  together  were."  On  the 
other  hand,  "  an "  is  used  before  a  plural,  when  the  objects 
are  taken  as  a  unity :  "  an  eight  days  after  these  sayings  " 
1  See  vol.  I.,  p.  284. 


(Luke  ix,  28).  There  are  other  peculiarities:  Gen.  xxvii,  15, 
"goodly  raiment  which  were  with  her  ";  Luke  v,  10,  "so  was  also 
James  and  John."  "  There  was  taken  up  twelve  baskets"  (Luke 
ix,  17);  "Agrippaand  Bernice  was  entered"  (Acts  xxv,  23).  A 
singular  verb,  especially  the  substantive  verb,  is  often  connected 
with  two  or  more  nominatives,  as  in  the  concluding  clause  of 
the  Lord's  Prayer — "  Thine  is  the  kingdom,  and  the  power,  and 
the  glory."  Compare  Heb.  ix,  4;  Ezek.  ii,  10;  Dan.  v,  11 
vii,  14  ;  Haggai  ii,  19  ;  and  many  other  places.  In  such  con 
nections  each  nominative  is  singled  out  in  succession,  for  the 
sake  of  emphasis :  "  the  kingdom  is  thine,  and  the  glory 
is  thine,"  &c.  In  the  clause,  John  xi,  57,  "  If  any  man 
knew  where  he  were,"  "  were  "  was  apparently  not  taken  as 
a  subjunctive.  "Generation"  is  represented  by  "they"  in 
one  clause,  "they  seek  a  sign";  and  by  "it"  in  the  next,  "no 
sign  shall  be  given  it"  (Luke  xi,  29) ;  Jer.  xviii,  15,  similarly, 
"  My  people  hath  forgotten  me,  they  have  burned  incense  "  ; 
Matt,  xv,  8,  "  This  people  draweth  nigh  with  their  mouth." 
Want  of  uniformity  occurs  also  in  these  verses  in  the 
use  of  numerals :  "  One  and  twentie  yeere  old "  (Jer.  lii, 
1) ;  "threescore  and  two  yeere  old"  (Dan.  v,  31);  "thirty 
change  of  garments  "  (Judges  xiv,  13)  ;  "  in  the  sixth 
hundredth  and  one  yeere "  (Gen.  viii,  13),  corrected  in  1629 ; 
"  upon  the  eight  day "  (Ezek.  xliii,  27).  "  Then,"  according 
to  old  custom,  is  used  as  a  conjunction  in  the  clause,  aa  fool's 
wrath  is  heavier  then  them  both"  (Prov.  xxvii,  3).  The  expres 
sions  "  asked  an  alms  "  and  "  so  great  riches  is  come  to  naught," 
are  correct,  both  nouns  being  really  singular.  The  phrase, 
"  the  which  "  (Luke  xxi,  6 ;  Acts  xvii,  31  ;  Colos.  iii,  7 ;  Heb. 
vii,  19  ;  James  ii,  7),  common  in  old  English,  has  all  but 
passed  away  ;  as  also  Philemon  C,  "  much  bold."  Modern  usage 
would  condemn  the  connection  of  "  each  "  or  "every  one"  with 
a  plural  following,  as  in  Song  of  Solomon  iv,  2,  "whereof  every 
one  bear  twins";  Matt,  xviii,  35,  "if  ye  forgive  not  every  one 
his  brother  their  trespasses,"  and  this  was  a  common  Eliza 
bethan  idiom,  each  having  the  sense  of  both  the  one  or  the 
other  in  combination.  The  two  last  words  are,  however, 
not  genuine  in  this  place,  but  are  an  exegetical  supplement ; 


Philip,  ii,  3,  "let  each  esteem  other  better  than  themselves. 
"  Both  "  is  used  \vith  more  than  two,  as  in  Ezek.  ix,  6,  "  both 
maids,  and  little  children,  and  women."  "Whom"  is  not  accu 
rate  in  such  phrases  as  Matt,  xvi,  13,  15;  Mark  viii,  27,  29; 
Luke  ix,  18,  20,  "  Whom  do  men  say  that  I  am?"  "whom  say 
ye  that  I  am?"  "whom  think  ye  that  I  am?"  The  law  of  the 
succession  of  tenses  is  sometimes  violated,  as  where  "  might "  is 
used  frequently  for  "  may,"  Eph.  iii,  19,  "  might  "  being  a  past 
form.  "  What  wilt  thou  that  I  should  do  unto  thee  ?  The 
blind  man  said  unto  him,  That  I  might  receive  my  sight," 
an  impossible  reference  to  a  past  time,  and  the  present  "  may  " 
is  therefore  the  appropriate  auxiliary ;  so  also  Luke  viii,  9 ; 
John  v,  40.  There  is  a  peculiarity  in  Prov.  vi,  19,  "a  false 
witness  that  speaketh  lies,  and  him  that  soweth  discord 
among  brethren";  "him"  remained  in  the  text  through  many 
editions,  even  in  that  of  1638,  and  apparently  was  not 
changed  till  1769.  In  Heb.  ix,  11,  12,  we  have  "  Christ  being 
come  an  high  priest  ...  he  entered,"  with  the  other  and 
real  nominative  in  the  previous  verse,  "Christ."  There  is 
also  the  double  comparative  "lesser,"  used  three  times  in 
the  text  and  once  in  the  margin,  but  occurring  a  score  of 
times  in  Shakespeare ;  and  the  double  superlative,  "  most 
straitest  sect "  (Acts  xxvi,  5),  an  idiom  called  by  Ben  Jonson 
"  a  certain  kind  of  Atticism " ;  such  double  degrees  occur 
often  in  Shakespeare,  "  the  most  unkindest  cut  of  all."  There 
are  also  double  possessives,  "  a  servant  of  the  king's  (2  Kings 
xxii,  12);  "a  cunning  man  .  .  .  of  Huram  my  father's"  (2 
Chron.  ii,  13) ;  "  a  servant  of  the  high  priest's  "  (Matt,  xxv,  51); 
"  hired  servants  of  my  father's  "  (Luke  xv,  17).  Other  instances 
have  been  changed,  but  in  the  first  edition  we  have,  Deut. 
xxiii,  25,  "the  standing  corn  of  thy  neighbour's";  Lev.  xxii, 
10,  "  a  sojourner  of  the  priest's."  We  have  also  these  peculiar 
forms — Exod.  ix,  4,  "  the  children's  of  Israel "  ;  Deut.  x,  14, 
"the  heaven  and  the  heaven  of  heavens  is  the  Lord's  thy  God." 
But,  in  fine,  many  of  the  licenses  taken  by  Elizabethan 
authors  were  refused  by  the  framers  of  the  present  version,  for 
they  wrought  under  the  condition  and  necessary  constraint  of 
translators,  so  that  they  did  not  and  could  not  follow  Shakes- 


peare  in  using  an  adverb  as  a  verb  or  a  noun,  in  employing  a 
noun  as  an  adjective  or  as  an  active  verb,  or  in  setting  an 
adjective  to  do  duty  as  an  adverb  or  a  noun.  Such  irregular 
facilities  tended  to  vigour,  clearness,  and  immediateness  of 
expression,  but  they  could  not  be  adopted  in  all  their  exuber 
ance  into  a  work  which  was  to  live  on  untouched  by  changing 
literary  styles  and  fashions,  and  to  sustain  a  fresh  and  long 
protest  against  ephemeral  crudities,  affected  verbal  com 
binations,  and  ponderous  Latinisms  in  the  style  of  English 


HHHE  translators  were  quite  aware  of  the  enmity  and  oppo 
sition  which  their  work  was  sure  to  meet  with,  and  their 
preface  opens  with  distinct  anticipations  of  the  calumnies  that 
would  be  poured  upon  them. 

"Zeale  to  promote  the  common  good,  whether  it  be  by 
deuising  any  thing  our  selues,  or  reuising  that  which  hath  bene 
laboured  by  others,  deserueth  certainly  much  respect  and 
esteeme,  but  yet  findeth  but  cold  intertainment  in  the  world. 
It  is  welcommed  with  suspicion  in  stead  of  loue,  and  with 
emulation  in  stead  of  thankes  :  and  if  there  be  any  hole  left 
for  cauill  to  enter,  (and  cauill,  if  it  doe  not  finde  a  hole,  will 
make  one)  it  is  sure  to  bee  misconstrued,  and  in  danger  to  be 
condemned.  This  will  easily  be  granted  by  as  many  as  know 
story,  or  have  any  experience.  For,  was  there  euer  any  thing 
projected,  that  sauoured  any  way  of  newnesse  or  renewing,  but 
the  same  endured  many  a  storme  of  gaine-saying,  or  opposi 
tion  ?  A  man  would  thinke  that  Ciuilitie,  holesome  Lawes, 
learning  and  eloquence,  Synods,  and  Church-maintenance,  (that 
we  speake  of  no  more  things  of  this  kind)  should  be  as  safe  as 
a  Sanctuary,  and  out  of  shot,  as  they  say,  that  no  man  would 
lift  vp  the  heele,  no,  nor  dogge  mooue  his  tongue  against  the 
motioners  of  them.  .  .  .  Thus  not  only  as  oft  as  we  speake, 
as  one  saith,  but  also  as  oft  as  we  do  any  thing  of  note  or  con 
sequence,  we  subiect  our  selues  to  euery  ones  censure,  and 
happy  is  he  that  is  least  tossed  vpon  tongues ;  for  vtterly  to 
escape  the  snatch  of  them  it  is  impossible." 

The  version,  as  had  thus  been  anticipated,  soon    encoun- 


tered  opposition,  its  first  antagonist  being  the  scholarly  but 
impracticable  Hugh  Broughton.  He  had  not  been  chosen 
one  of  the  revisers,  though  he  had  been  all  his  life  writing 
on  the  nature  and  necessity  of  Biblical  revision.  On  account 
of  his  arrogant  and  perverse  temper  he  was  not  a  "  club- 
able  "  man.  His  great  erudition  was  undoubted,  though 
much  of  it  was  spent  on  smaller  matters,  especially  in 
discussing  the  genealogies  of  Scripture.  The  learned  Light- 
foot,  his  biographer,  calls  him  on  the  title-page  of  the 
volume  of  his  collected  works,  "the  great  Albionian  Divine, 
renowned  in  many  nations  for  his  skill  in  Salem's  and 
Athens'  tongues."  His  style,  as  admitted  by  Lightfoot,  was 
"  curt,  something  harsh,  and  obscure."  He  wrote  sharp  criti 
cisms  on  his  rival  Lively,  and  he  attacked  unsparingly  the 
Bishops'  Bible.  To  crown  all,  he  fell  upon  Bancroft  himself 
and  with  poor  wit  brands  him  as  "  the  bane  of  the  banned 
croft,"  and  hints  to  him  in  reference  to  a  notorious  theological 
dispute  about  a  middle  state,  that  when  his  soul  shall  ascend 
to  Hades,  he  may  find  Gehenna  there,  and  that  for  his  raving 
against  truth,  King  James,  to  whom  the  tract  is  dedicated, 
"  shall  behold  him  from  Abraham's' bosom."  Broughton,  being 
passed  by,  and  not  engaged  in  the  work,  was,  according  to 
Walton,1  so  highly  offended  that  he  wrote  with  more  than 
usual  asperity  against  the  Authorized  Version.  "  The  late 
Bible  was,"  he  intimates,  "  sent  me  to  censure,  which  bred  in 
me  a  sadness  which  will  grieve  me  while  I  breathe.  It  is  so 
ill  done.  Tell  his  Majesty  that  I  had  rather  be  rent  in  pieces 
with  wild  horses  than  any  such  translation,  by  my  consent, 
should  be  urged  on  poor  churches.  .  .  .  My  advertisement  they 
regarded  not " — the  allusion  being  to  their  translation  of  the 
last  clause  of  Gen.  iv,  26.  In  reference  to  Luke  iii,  and 
the  phrase  "the  Son  of  God,"  he  maintains  that  in  fifteen 
verses  they  have  "fifteen  scores  of  idle  words  for  account  in  the 
day  of  judgment,  the  relation  of  each  name  being  to  Christ." 
He  adds,  "  when  the  genealogy  was  attacked,  I  cleared  our 
Lord's  family " ;  Bancroft  raved  and  gave  the  anathema, 

1  Todd's  Memoirs  of  "Walton,  vol.  I,  p.  92;  Lewis'  History  of  Transla 
tions,  p.  297,  3rd  edition. 


"Christ  judged  his  own  cause."  Broughton's  other  charges 
are  based  on  St.  Stephen's  speech,  on  which  he  dogmatizes 
without  throwing  light  upon  it;  on  the  Seventy  Weeks  in 
Daniel ;  on  the  translation  of  the  names  of  precious  stones ; l 
the  spelling  of  proper  names ;  and  on  Daniel  xi,  38,  "  where 
they  leave  atheism  in  the  text,  and  put  my  translation  into 
the  margent."  He  admits,  however,  "  I  blame  not  this  that 
they  keep  the  usual  style  of  former  translations.  For  the 
learned  the  Genevan  might  be  made  exact,  for  which  pains 
for  whole  thirty  years  I  have  been  called  upon,  and  I  spent 
much  time,  to  my  great  loss,  by  wicked  hindrance." 2 

Such  were  the  impressions  of  Broughton's  erudition  and 
vanity  that  when  he  went  to  the  continent  it  was  said  that 
he  had  gone  to  teach  the  Jews  Hebrew.  His  "coat  bare  the  bird 
of  Athens  "  ;  and  as  he  helped  Speed  to  compile  the  genealo 
gies  found  in  the  earlier  edition  of  the  present  Bible,  the  two 
owls  with  a  burning  torch  found  at  the  top  corners  of  the 
first  page  mean  that  "  it  was  Mr.  Broughton  that  gave 
the  light  in  that  work."  3  There  is  a  sprightly  caricature  of 
Broughton's  subjects  and  style  in  Ben  Johnson's  Alchemist, 
act  iv,  scene  3. 

Dr.  Gell,  who  had  been  chaplain  to  Archbishop  Abbot,  pub 
lished,  in  1659,  an  attack — "a  skeleton  of  mere  criticisms" — 
upon  the  version  and  its  framers.  Some  of  his  accusations  are 
very  trivial,  and  many  of  his  statements  are  drawn  out  into 
prolix  allegorical  sermons.  He  objects  to  their  inversion  of 
the  order  of  words,  to  their  undue  use  of  supplemental  terms, 
and  to  their  translation  as  being  moulded  to  suit  their  own 
opinions,  while  they  put  the  better  and  truer  rendering  in  the 
margin.  Especially  does  he  censure  their  Bible  as  obscuring 

1  Bancroft,  in  writing  to  Cowell,  touching    Translating     the    Bible," 

Vice-Chancellor  of  Cambridge,  says  1595. 

in  a  postscript  that  he  had  sent  for  2  Works,  p.  661,  &c.,  London,  1662. 

the  translators  "  a  copy  of  a  learned  3  The  genealogies  and  the  descrip- 

epistle  of  Mr.  Broughton's,  though  tion  of  the  Holy  Land,  in  the  first 

it  was  of  old  date."  There  is  no  doubt  edition,  were  compiled  by  royal  au- 

that    this    work  was    his    "Epistle  thority,  as  was  told  by  the  delegates 

to  the  learned  nobilitie  of  England  at  the  Synod  of  Dort. 


on  purpose  the  doctrine  of  perfection,  for  he  regarded  such  a 
state  as  attainable  in  the  present  life.1     They  predicted  that 

"  uncharitable  imputations  "  would  be  cast  on  them  and  their 


work,  and  Broughton  and  Gell  soon  verified  the  prophecy.2 
Nor  have  they  been  the  only  opponents.     But  such  baseless 
objections  as  those  brought  by  Bellamy  and  Sir  James  Burges,  ^/£  /t* -*•"-' 
and  recently  renewed  by  Mr.  Street,3  against  the  version  that  it 
was  taken  from  the  Septuagiut,  have  been  sufficiently  exposed  ,. 
by  Brett,  Whittaker,  and  Todd. 

A  portion  of  the  arguments  which  Gregory  Martin  had  used 
many  years  before  against  the  current  Protestant  versions  was 
taken  up  and  repeated  by  Thomas  Ward  4  against  the  present 
Bible,  the  edition  singled  out  being  that  of  Bill  and  Barker, 
1683.  This  book,  "Errata  of  the  Protestant  Bible,"  seems  to 
have  been  published  anonymously  in  the  reign  of  James  II ; 
and  a  second  edition  appeared  in  1688.  It  was  reprinted 
in  Dublin  in  1807,  issued  with  a  preface  by  Lingard  in 
1810,  and  with  a  letter  by  Milner  in  1841.  Ward  calls  his 
work  an  abridgment,  "suited  not  only  to  the  purse  of  the 
poorest,  but  to  the  capacity  of  the  most  ignorant."  He  excels 
his  predecessor  in  ferocity  of  epithet,  accuses  King  James's 
translators  of  blasphemy,  most  damnable  corruptions,  intoler 
able  deceit,  and  vile  imposture,  these  epithets  not  being  "  the 
dictates  of  passion,  but  the  just  resentment  of  a  zealous  mind." 
Of  damnable  corruptions  there  are  one  hundred  and  twenty, 
and  twenty  errors  in  addition  are  not  regarded  as  the  pro 
duct  of  ill  design.  Many  of  Ward's  alleged  corruptions  are 
now  found  in  the  Catholic  version  itself:  it  has  been  so 

1  Essay  towards  the  amendment  in."     By  the  Rev.  B.  Street,  vicar  of 
of    the    last    English    Translation,  Barnsley-le-Wold.     London,  1872. 
London,  1659.  4  Ward  was  a  schoolmaster  who 

2  Baxter  refers  to  Gell  as  one  of  had  gone   over  to   the   Church    of 
the   sowers  of  religious   discord    in  Rome  in  the  days  of  James  II.     He 
the  Parliamentary  army,  especially  then  travelled  in  Italy,  and  served 
in      Colonel     Whalley's     regiment,  as  a  soldier  in   the  Papal   Guards. 
These    "  sectmasters    fiercely    cried  He  also  published   "  England's  Re- 
down  the  present  translation  of  the  formation,    in   Hudibrastic  verse." 
Scripture."  Ward  was  replied  to  by  Grier,  Ryan, 

3  Restoration  of  Paths  to   Dwell  and  Hamilton. 


much  altered  from  time  to  time.  The  answer  of  Fulke  to 
Martin  still  suffices  to  refute  such  polemical  objections,  and 
some  of  the  older  incorrect  renderings  have  been  changed  in 
our  present  version.  One  grievous  complaint  was  the  use  of  the 
term  "  images,"  as  in  1  John  v,  "  Babes,  keep  yourselves  from 
images";  2  Cor.  vi,  1C,  "how  agreeth  the  temple  of  God 
with  images?  "  Eph.  v,  5,  "nor  covetous  person  who  is  a  wor 
shipper  of  images."  The  Catholics,  allowing  idolatry  to 
be  wrong,  felt  that  these  renderings  condemned  their 
practice  of  having  images  in  their  churches,  and  suggested  to 
the  people  the  destruction  of  them.  But  the  accusation  does 
not  apply  to  the  Authorized  Version,  for  the  Greek  word  and 
its  compounds  are  rendered  idol,  idolater,  and  idolatry.  Many 
of  the  Fathers,  indeed,  as  Jerome,  could  not  distinguish 
between  the  worship  of  images  and  that  of  idols,  and  prac 
tically  to  the  masses  they  are  the  same ;  yet  it  was  right 
to  indicate  the  distinction  between  two  Greek  terms.1 
The  Genevan  had  already  set  the  example  of  a  correct 

Among  the  charges  brought  against  the  new  version  the  most 
absurd  and  ludicrous  is,  that  through  royal  influences  the  trans 
lation  was  worded  so  as  to  countenance  the  notion  of  witchcraft. 
Dr.  Samuel  Johnson, 2  after  telling  of  James's  great  skill  in 
witchcraft  and  referring  to  his  Treatise  on  Demonology  printed 
at  Edinburgh  and  reprinted  in  London  soon  after  his  accession, 
adds  that  "  as  the  ready  way  to  gain  King  James's  favour  was 
to  flatter  his  speculations,  the  system  of  Demonology  was 
adopted  by  all  who  desired  either  to  gain  preferment  or  not  to 
lose  it."  These  words  do  not  contain  any  definite  accusation 
against  the  translators,  though  they  have  been  supposed  to  do 
so.  But  Bishop  Huchinson  in  his  "Historical  Essay  on 
Witchcraft "  asserts  in  the  same  spirit  and  more  directly,  after 
referring  to  the  statute  against  conjuration,  "  The  translation 
of  the  Bible  being  made  soon  after,  by  King  James's  particular 
desire,  hath  received  some  phrases  that  favour  the  vulgar 
notions  more  than  the  old  translations  did.  At  that  unhappy 

1  Such  as  etKwv  and  ei'ScoAov. 

-  Works,  vol.  X,  p.  76,  London,  1S23. 


time  was  brought  in  the  gross  notion  of  a  familiar  spirit  .  .  . 
these  translations  being  introduced  for  the  great  reverence 
they  had  to  the  King's  judgment  and  the  testimony  he  gave 
them  of  facts  from  Scotland."  A  professed  commentator  also, 
Rev.  John  Hewlet,  B.D.,  who  published  an  exposition  of  the 
Bible  in  1812 — the  notes  of  which  were  reprinted  in  1816 — 
declares  without  reserve  that  the  translators  introduced  the 
term  "  familiar  spirit,"  "  witch,"  and  "  wizard,"  to  flatter  the 
notions  of  royalty. 

But  whatever  the  king's  opinions  were  on  this  subject,  the 
terms  objected  to  occur  in  the  earlier  versions,  and  were  there 
fore  not  introduced  by  the  king's  translators.  Both  the  two 
preceding  versions  in  concurrent  use  had  in  the  story  of  her  of 
Endor  the  phrase  "  familiar  spirit  "  three  times  (1  Sam.  xxviii, 
7,  8),  though  they  rendered  the  phrase  "them  that  had 
familiar  spirits  and  the  wizards "  in  3,  and  in  9  by  "  sor 
cerers"  and  "soothsayers."  In  the  Great  Bible,  1540,  a  "familiar 
spirit"  is  rendered  a  "spirit  of  prophecy,"  and  by  Coverdale, 
"spirit  of  soothsaying."  Both  the  Genevan  and  the  Bishops' 
have  in  Exodus  xxii,  18,  "thou  shalt  not  suffer  a  witch  to  live," 
and  the  Bishops'  has  the  following  note,  "  the  word  in  Hebrew 
signifieth  a  witch  or  sorcerer,  or  an  enchaunter,  or  any  that 
by  devilish  means  hurteth  either  cattle,  corn,  or  men."  The 
translators,  though  they  accepted  the  text,  pointedly  refused 
this  note  which  was  after  the  king's  own  heart.  "Witch"  is  also 
the  translation  of  the  other  earlier  versions.  Nay,  in  Isaiah 
Ivii,  3,  where  the  Genevan  has  "witches  children,"  the  Authorized 
does  not  copy,  but  has  used  "  sorceress."  In  both  the  Wyclifnte 
versions  Simon  is  called  a  witch,  the  noun  being  at  that  early 
period  of  both  genders.  Belief  in  witchcraft  was  very  current 
in  Europe  before  the  period  of  James  I.  Many  mediaeval 
councils,  synods,  and  papal  Bulls  had  maintained  the  reality  of 
it,  and  there  is  an  immense  body  of  literature  on  the  subject. 
Wierus  had  written  in  1583,  and  Reginald  Scott  in  the  follow 
ing  year.  A  statute  had  been  passed  against  witchcraft  in  1541 
(33  Henry  VIII,  c.  8),  and  it  was  renewed  at  the  accession  of 
Elizabeth  before  any  law  was  enacted  in  Scotland.  Witch 
craft  figures  prominently  in  many  dramas.  At  a  later  period 


Glanville,  Henry  More,  Sir  Matthew  Hale  (who  condemned 
two  women  to  death  at  Bury  St.  Edmunds  in  1665),  the 
Mathers  in  America,  Professor  Sinclair  of  Glasgow  University,1 
Sir  Thomas  Brown,  the  "  Exposer  of  Vulgar  Errors,"  and  good 
John  Wesley,  expressed  their  firm  conviction  of  the  reality 
of  it.  The  penal  laws  in  existence  at  that  time  against  it, 
which  had  been  passed  (1  James  I,  c.  12)  when  Coke  was 
Attorney-General,  and  Bacon  a  member  of  Parliament,  were 
not  repealed  till  1736.2  Chief-Justice  Holt,  in  1702,  punished 
witchcraft  as  an  imposture.  The  belief  in  witches  was  also 
intensely  prevalent  in  Scotland.  The  General  Assembly  had 
often  taken  up  the  matter,  and  the  early  Seceders  set  down 
among  the  signs  of  spiritual  declension  the  cessation  of  witch- 
burning.  The  last  instance  in  England  of  witch-burning 
occurred  in  1716,  and  in  Scotland  in  1720. 

Most  extraordinary  statements  have  also  been  made  about 
the  relations  of  the  translators  and  their  work  to  the  king. 
Two  Transatlantic  authors,  in  a  joint  production  written  in 
defence  of  the  "  Bible  Union "  and  its  avowedly  Baptist 
version,  affirm  amidst  much  wrathful  and  senseless  vituperation 
that  the  translators  intended  to  flatter  James  by  the  rendering 
"God  save  the  king" — "a  phrase  at  war  with  all  of  God's 
revelations  on  kingly  governments,"  and  they  give  us  the 
astounding  intelligence  that  the  monarch  himself  was  the 
manager  and  final  reviser  of  the  Authorized  Version — "those 
royal  hands,  dripping  with  the  blood  of  hundreds  of  innocent 
human  beings,  gave  the  final  touches  to  it."  3  Such  statements 

1  See  vol.  I,  p.  236.  Look,  "  New  Testament  Studies  by 

2  See      Huchiuson's     Essay     on  Aliquis,"  London,    1870,    it  is   said 
Witchcraft,  1718  ;    Upham's  Salem  that   King  James    probably   intro- 
Witchcraft,  Boston,   1867;  the  first  duced  the  word  "Easter"  in  Acts 
chapter  of  Lecky's  Rationalism,  vol.  xii,  5.     But  "Easter"  is  as  old  as 
I,  London,  1866,  3rd  ed.,  and  De  la  Tyndale's    first    edition.      Another 
Demonialite,     par    Isidore    Liseux,  conjecture  of  the  same  author  may 
Paris,  1875.  be  taken  for  what  it  is  worth,  when 

3  Discussion   on   Revision   of  the  he   hints  that  it  is  not  improbable 
Holy    Scripture,   p.    113,    208.     By  that  the  king  wrote  the  "  flattering 
James  Edmunds,   and  T.    S.   Bell,  dedication"  to  himself. 
Louisville,    Ky.,  1856.     In  a  small 


need  no  reply.  The  phrase  "God  save  the  king"  was  not 
coined  by  the  translators — they  found  it  both  in  the  Bishops' 
and  in  the  Genevan  ;  the  Great  Bible  and  Matthew  (Tyndale) 
having,  in  1  Sam.  x,  24,  "  God  lend  the  king  life,"  and 
Coverdale,  "  God  save  the  new  king." 

Undue  ecclesiastical  predilections  have  been  charged  against 
the  revisers.  Thus  the  rendering  "  tables "  in  Mark  vii,  4, 
has  been  branded  as  an  attempt  to  hide  the  meaning  of  immer 
sion  as  identified  with  washing.  But  the  margin  has  "  beds  " 
from  the  Rheims,  and  "  tables  "  is  as  old  as  Tyndale's  first 
edition,  and  is  found  in  subsequent  versions.  It  has  also  been 
alleged,  and  not  without  some  reason,  that  in  Acts  xx,  28,  the 
rendering  of  the  clause  "  over  which  the  Holy  Ghost  hath  made 
you  overseers  "  is  a  deflection  from  the  true  translation,  and 
conceals  the  identity  of  the  "  elders  "  with  the  office-bearers 
usually  named  "bishops."  It  is  quite  true  that  the  word 
given  as  "  overseer  "  is,  even  as  applied  to  Christ,  everywhere 
rendered  "  bishop  ";  but  perhaps  the  translation  in  Acts  was 
meant  to  bring  out  the  duties  or  functions  of  the  office — 
"  bishop  "  being  a  foreign  term  with  a  technical  signification. 
But  while  it  would  have  been  better  to  preserve  uniformity, 
it  must  be  added  at  the  same  time  that  our  translators  did  not 
introduce  the  variation,  for  "overseers"  is  in  Tyndale  1526 
and  1534,  in  Cranmer  1540,  in  both  Genevan  versions,  and 
in  the  Bishops' ;  "  bishops  "  being  found  in  Wycliffe,  Coverdale, 
and  the  Rheims.  WyclifFe  often  renders  "high  priest"  by 
"  bishop,"  and  the  note  of  the  Rheims  is  "  bishops  or  priests." 

Dr.  Hill  is  reported  by  Henry  Jessey,  in  a  paper  on  revision, 
to  have  said  in  open  assembly,  "  It  was  commonly  reported 
that  Bancroft,  in  order  that  the  translation  should  '  speak 
prelatical  language '  had  altered  it  in  fourteen  places ;  and 
that  Dr.  Miles  Smith's  complaint  was  that  'he  is  so  potent 
that  there  is  no  contradicting  him.'  " l  But  we  have  no  direct 
means  of  ascertaining  whether  the  statement  be  true,  only  we 
know  that  Bancroft  was  among  the  first  to  defend  episcopacy 

1  Henry  Jessey  was  the  author  of  the  words  of  the  New  Testament," 
an  English-Greek  Lexicon  "for  all  London,  1GC1. 


as  of  absolute  divine  right,  and  he  certainly  had  a  temper 
and  a  will  that  could  bear  down  all  opposition.1  This  story, 
however,  had  so  firm  a  hold  on  the  popular  mind  that  about 
1657  it  formed  the  preamble  of  a  "  bill  for  revising  the 
English  translation  of  the  Scriptures,"  in  the  following 
terms : — 

"  Whereas  by  the  reverend,  godly,  and  learned  Dr.  Hill,  it 
was  publicly  declared  in  his  sermon  before  an  honourable 
assembly,2  and  by  himself  since  that  time  published  in  priirt, 
that  when  the  Bible  had  been  translated  by  the  translators 
appointed,  the  New  Testament  was  looked  over  by  some  pre 
lates  (that  he  could  name)  to  bring  it  to  speak  the  prelatical 
language,  and  he  was  informed  by  one  that  lived  then,  a  great 
observer  of  those  times,  fourteen  places  in  the  New  Testament, 
whereof  he  instanceth  these  in  five  or  six  places  by  them 

"  The  like  testimony  of  these  prelates  wronging  that  new 
and  best  translation  being  given  by  some  other  ancient  and 
godly  preachers  also,  who  lived  in  those  times. 

"  And  some  appearance  hereof  may  yet  be  seen  in  part  of 
that  very  copy  of  these  translators."3 

Questions  of  doctrines  are  said  to  have  warped  the  judgment 
of  the  translators.  A  passage  often  adduced  in  proof  is  Heb. 
vi,  4,  5,  6,  and  attention  is  called  to  the  misrendering  "  if  they 
shall  fall  away,"  which  certainly  ought  to  have  been  "  and  have 
fallen  away,"  for  it  is  in  a  line  with  the  previous  past  partici 
ples.  But  if  the  mistranslation  had  been  chosen  to  guard  the 
indefectibility  of  grace  the  artifice  is  an  early  one,  for  it  is  found 
in  the  older  versions  from  Tyndale  downwards,  with  the  ex 
ception  of  the  Rheims.  The  revisers  did  not  introduce  the 
mistranslation,  and  they  so  often  follow  the  old  versions,  that 
all  we  are  warranted  to  say  is  that  their  theology  may  have  in 
clined  them  to  contentment  with  the  established  rendering. 

1  He  died  Nov.  2,  1610.     He  be-     "  Speaking  the  truth  in  love,"  pp.  24, 
came  Bishop  of  London  in  1597,  and     25. 

Archbishop  of  Canterbury  in  Dec.,         3  State  Paper  Office,  Domest.  In- 
1604.  terreg.,  Bundle  662,  f.  12. 

2  Spittal  Sermon,  on  Eph,  iv,  15 — 


Beza  encouraged  them.1  They  might  have  got  rid  of  the 
difficulty  by  saying,  with  Calvin  and  Beza,  that  the  persons 
described  and  characterized  in  the  previous  clauses  have  never 
been  regenerate  ;  or,  with  Alford,  that  "  the  regenerate  may  fall 
away,  but  the  elect  never  can. "  ;  "  All  elect  are  regenerate,  but 
all  regenerate  are  not  elect."  Still,  and  at  whatever  hazard,  they 
ought  to  have  given  the  right  translation,  which  in  this  clause 
does  not  declare  a  contingency,  but  a  fact  ranked  in  the  same 
category  with  enlightenment,  tasting  of  the  heavenly  gift,  and 
participation  of  the  Holy  Ghost. 

In  the  first  clause  of  Matt,  v,  21,  "  said  by  them  of  old  time," 
our  translators  forsake  the  older  versions  and  follow  Beza,2 
the  rendering  being  vindicated  by  him  only  for  its  fitness,  as 
singling  out  the  teachers  not  the  auditors ;  though  they  put 
"  by  "  into  the  text,  they  give  us  "  to  "  in  the  margin. 

No  little  censure  has  been  pronounced  upon  the  rendering  of 
Heb.  x,  38,  "  now  the  just 3  shall  live  by  faith  ;  but  if  any  man 
draw  back,  my  soul  shall  have  no  pleasure  in  him."  The  words 
"  any  man "  represent  no  corresponding  Greek  term  in  the 
original,  and  though  they  are  a  supplement,  -they  were  not 
printed  as  such  in  the  early  editions,  as  only  since  1638  are 
they  presented  in  italics.  Our  translators  were  very  careless  and 
inconsistent  about  what  are  now  called  italics  ;  but  in  this 
case  they  could  not  be  ignorant  of  the  bearing  of  their  version 
on  the  doctrine  of  the  perseverance  of  the  saints,  and  they 
ought  to  have  anxiously  attended  to  the  printing.  They  knew 
that  there  was  no  nominative  expressed  ;  that  their  rendering 
was  based  on  an  interpretation  which  to  be  borne  out  supposed 
that  the  phrase  "  any  man  "  is  fairly  and  fully  implied  in  the 
verse;  so  that  their  supplement, as  it  was  exegetical  and  liable  to 
be  contraverted,should  have  been  honestly  and  carefully  marked. 
But  as  we  know  their  practice  as  to  italics  was  in  defiance  of 
all  uniformity,  we  dare  not  say  that  the  non-marking  of  the  two 
words  was  intended  to  serve  any  polemical  purpose,  for  such 

1  By  his  si  prolabantur,  the  Vul-         3    The     best    text     gives     "  my 
gate  having  et  prolapsi  sunt.  righteous  one." 

2  Dictum  a  veteribus,  the  Vulgate 
having  dictum  est  antiquis. 

VOL.  II.  S 


a  device  would  have  been  too  transparent ;  and  if  they  had  any 
theological  bias,  they  were  not  such  simpletons  as  to  endeavour 
in  this  way  to  vail  it.  Now  we  are  not  going  to  expound 
the  verse,  but  as  some  apology  for  them  it  may  be  noted  that 
in  the  quotation  from  the  Septuagint  Version  of  Habakkuk 
ii,  4,  there  is  a  transposition  of  the  clauses,  and  that  scholars 
who  do  not  hold  the  dogma  supposed  to  have  suggested  the 
rendering  agree  with  them  in  the  supplement.  Capellus, 
Scholefield,  and  Grotius  give  "  any  one,"  and  so  does  Bishop 
Middleton  ;  while  Winer  and  De  Wette  supply  "  a  man  "  as  a 
general  term  abstracted  from  the  epithet  "just  man."  A 
similar  nominative  would  be  supplied  to  the  verb  as  it  stands 
in  the  first  clause  in  the  Septuagint ;  but  Bleek  is  at  a  loss  as  to 
the  nominative  which  should  be  taken,  while  Delitzsch  argues 
that  the  clauses  are  inverted  by  the  Apostle  to  make  the  sub 
ject  no  longer  doubtful.  Besides  the  original  clause  carries 
a  meaning  very  different  from  that  found  in  the  quotation,  as  it 
reads,  "Behold  his  soul  which  is  lifted  up  is  not  upright  in 
him,"  or  "  puffed  up  with  pride  his  soul  is  not  right  in  him." 
Owen,  Lindsay,  and  many  others  consider  that  two  classes 
of  persons  are  contrasted  ;  Beza  explaining,  "a  just  man  is 
opposed  to  an  impious  one,"  l  as  in  the  Septuagint.  In  their 
difficulty  the  translators  followed  Beza,2  but  when  they  left  the 
natural  and  grammatical  connection  of  the  clauses,  they  ought 
not  only  to  have  imitated  Beza's  honest  italics,  but  to  have 
given  the  other  rendering  in  the  margin,  "if  he  draw 
back."  Nay,  it  was  the  more  incumbent  on  them  to  append 
such  a  marginal  alternative,  because  they  have  forsaken  all  the 
older  versions  with  the  exception  of  the  Genevan,  since  from 
Tyndale  down  to  the  Bishops'  the  rendering  is,  "and  if  he  with 
draw  himself." 

Theological  prepossession  is  also  ascribed  to  the  rendering  of 
Acts  ii,  47,  "  and  the  Lord  added  to  the  church  daily  such  as 
should  be  saved."  This  rendering  of  the  Greek  participle  is 
certainly  unfortunate — for  it  is  present — literally  "of  those  being 
saved."  Had  they  followed  their  theology,  they  might  have 

1  "  Fidelis  opponitur  impio." 

2  "  At  si  quis  se  subduxerit,"  printing  quis  in  italics. 


rendered,  "the  saved,"  as  they  have  done  in  2  Cor.  ii,  15,  men 
being  saved  as  soon  as  they  believe — "  he  that  believeth  hath 
life,"  and  in  consequence  it  was  held  that  their  ultimate  salva 
tion  was  certain,  or  that  they  "  should  be  saved."  But  in 
their  translation  they  simply  follow  the  older  versions  and  they 
accept  the  Vulgate.1  Wycliffe  in  defiance  of  his  Latin  text 
renders,  "them  that  weren  maad  safe."  One  objection  to  the 
rendering  "  are  saved  "  is  that,  while  in  form  it  is  an  English 
present,  in  sense  it  is  really  a  past,  and  there  is  also  an  objec 
tion  to  the  phrase,  "  should  be  saved,"  since  it  shows  a  close 
similarity  to  another  translation  of  different  Greek  in  Acts 
xxiii;  27,  "  this  man  was  taken  of  the  Jews,  and  should  have 
been  killed." 

Anti-Popish  leanings  are  also  alleged  to  shine  through  in  the 
version.  Thus,  in  1  Cor.  xi,  27,  "  wherefore  whosoever  shall 
eat  this  bread  and  drink  this  cup  unworthily,"  the  translation 
ought  to  be  "  or  drink  this  cup,"  "  or  "  being  corrupted  into 
"  and  "  to  destroy  a  possible  argument  for  communion  in  one 
kind.  The  particle2  stands  unchallenged  in  Stephens  and  Beza, 
and  there  is  no  allusion  to  any  other  reading.  Codex  A  was 
not  accessible  to  them,  but  the  Vulgate  and  the  Peshito  read 
"and,"  as  also  Clement,  and  Origen  in  his  Commentary.  When 
they  saw  that  "and"  occurred  in  26,  28,  29,  they  were  naturally 
tempted  to  insert  it  here.  They  found  also  the  older  versions 
divided — Tyndale  and  Cranmer  having  "or,"  and  Coverdale, 
the  Genevan,  and  the  Bishops'  having  "  and."  Macknight 
too,  who  had  little  sympathy  with  their  theology  and  no  great 
admiration  of  their  learning,  justifies  their  preference  of  "  and," 
giving  among  other  reasons  the  false  one  that  though  rj  may 
be  the  right  reading,  it  often  means  "  and,"  and  ought  to  be  so 
translated  in  this  verse,  as  determined  by  v.  29.  But  though  they 
never  render  this  conjunction  by  "and,"  they  seem,  however, 
to  have  persuaded  themselves  that  "  and  "3  was  the  right  read 
ing  here  ;  for  though  they  knew  little  of  MSS.,  they  knew  some 
thing  of  the  Peshito  and  of  Patristic  quotations.  They  were 
too  shrewd  not  to  perceive  on  the  one  hand  the  utter  worth- 

1  "  Qui  salvi  fierent."  2  ri  3  KGU. 


lessness  of  the  Popish  argument  in  defence  of  communion  in 
one  kind,  and  not  to  feel  on  the  other  hand  that  the  use  of 
'•'  and "  narrows  the  range  of  the  Apostle's  warning,  which 
with  "  or  "  affixed  the  penalty  to  either  act  of  eating  or  of 

Gregory  Martin  finds  fault  with  the  rendering,  Heb.  xi,  21, 
"  worshipped,  leaning  on  the  top  of  his  stafF,"  as  directed 
against  the  adoration  of  creatures  called  "dulia."  But  the 
version  is  correct,  and  the  supplementary  word  conveys  the 
real  sense,  while  the  Rheirns  translators,  after  the  Vulgate, 
have  "  adored  the  top  of  his  rod  " ;  the  rod  is  Jacob's  own, 
and  not,  as  many  Catholic  interpreters  suppose,  the  sceptre  of 
Joseph,  on  the  top  of  which  was  some  image  or  symbol.  The 
pointing  of  the  Hebrew  noun  is  doubtful,  and  it  may  mean 
either  "  bed  "  or  "  rod." 

The  Authorized  Version  has  been  often  accused,  as  by  Mac- 
knight,  Campbell,  and  many  others,  of  following  Beza  in  its 
translation.  Such  imitation  was  natural  in  the  circumstances, 
for  Beza  was  a  Greek  scholar,  with  few  equals  or  superiors  in 
those  times.  "Without  controversy"  (1  Tim.  iii,  16)  is  from 
Beza  and  Erasmus.  The  misrendering, "  the  terror  of  the  Lord" 
(2  Cor.  v,  11),  came  from  the  Genevan,  and  it  from  Beza.  The 
wrong  translation  in  Jude  12,  "  trees  whose  fruit  withereth," 
came  also  from  Beza,  the  sense  being  "  autumn  trees  without 
fruit." l  "  If  any  man  be  in  Christ,  he  is  a  new  creature  " 
(2  Cor.  v,  17)  is  after  Beza,  Tyndale,  and  the  Great  Bible ;  but 
another  rendering,  that  of  the  Genevan,  is  given  in  the  margin 
— "  let  him  be  a  new  creature."  Yet,  while  Beza  was  closely 
consulted  and  frequently  followed,  it  is  also  certain  that  his 
influence  was  not  uniformly  paramount,  even  in  cases  where  a 
similar  theological  bias  might  be  anticipated.  In  rendering 
the  clause,  Matt,  iii,  15,  "  suffer  it  to  be  so  now,"  the  revisers 
refuse  "let  be,"  the  equivocal  version  of  the  Genevan  1560,  and 
also  Beza's  strange  translation.2  They  translate  fairly  in  places 
where  he  paraphrases  wrongly,  as  Matt,  vii,  23,  "  ye  that  work 
iniquity,"  Beza  having,  "  who  sin  on  purpose."  3  Nor  do  they 

1  "  Frugiperdae."  3  "  Qui  operam  datis  iuiquitati." 

2  "  Omitte." 


copy  his  annotation  in  Matt,  v,  20,  where  he  virtually  identifies 
righteousness  with  orthodoxy,  and  explains  "  entering  into  the 
kingdom"  by  "  becoming  teachers  in  the  church."  They  indeed 
appear  to  follow  him,  and  not  the  Vulgate,1  in  rendering  "  his 
faith  was  counted  for  righteousness  "  (Rom.  iv,  3),  and  yet  they 
are  only  keeping  by  the  earlier  Protestant  versions  of  Tyndale, 
Coverdale,  Matthew,  Cranmer,  the  Genevan,  and  the  Bishops'. 
They  do  not  accept  Beza's  rendering  when  they  translate  in 
Acts  iii,  21,  "  whom  the  heaven  must  receive" ;  nor  in  ii,  27,  31, 
"  leave  my  soul  in  hell '' ;  Beza's  first  rendering  being,  "  my 
corpse  in  the  grave  "  ;2  and  though  he  changed  it  because  it  gave 
offence,  he  still  upheld  it  to  be  correct;  the  two  Genevan 
versions  follow  him,  and  he  vindicates  the  rendering  in  a  full 
note.  Beza  is  not  followed  in  John  i,  12,  "  dignity  to  be  sons 
of  God  "  ;  but  "  power "  is  the  word  selected — the  Genevan 
having  in  the  margin  "  privilege  or  dignity."  Nor  is  he 
followed  in  Acts  i,  14,  where  he  renders  "  with  their  wives,"  the 
proper  translation  being,  "  with  the  women  "  ;  nor  do  they  take 
his  and  the  Vulgate  rendering,  "  spirit  of  santification,"  in  Rom. 
i,  1,  nor  in  Heb.  ix,  15,  for  he  has  "covenant,"  and  in  the 
passage  he  is  followed  once  by  the  Genevan  of  1557  and  twice 
by  the  Bishops'  which  has  "  testament  "  in  the  margin. 
They  also  forsake  Beza  in  Gal.  i,  24,  "  they  glorified 
God  in  me " — he  having,  "  concerning  me,"  and  Tyndale 
having,  "on  my  behalf."  Nor  do  they  take  instruction 
from  Beza  in  James  ii,  14,  where  they  render  "  can  faith 
save  him  1 "  Beza  having  "  can  that  faith  save  him  ? "  3 
They  were  under  sore  temptation  to  preserve  the  "  ilia," 
but  they  go  away  so  far  from  Beza  that  they  even  ignore 
the  article,  which  may  have  its  contextual  sense.  The  one 
Genevan  has  "  that  faith,"  and  the  other,  "  the  faith."  In 
1  Cor.  xiii,  2,  Beza  renders  the  same  adjective  first  by 
"  all,"  4  and  then  by  "  whole," 5  and  vindicates  the  alteration 
on  polemical  grounds  ;  but  the  English  version  has  rightly 
given  "  all  knowledge,"  and  "  all  faith." 

1  "  Ad  justitiam."  4  "  Omnia." 

2  "  Cadaver  meum  in  sepulchre."  5  "  Totam." 

3  "  Num  potest  fides  ilia  eum  servare  '?  " 


Rom.  ii,  7,  is  translated,  "  To  them  who  by  patient  continu 
ance  in  well-doing  seek  for  glory,  and  honour,  and  immor 
tality,  eternal  life."  But  Beza,  as  if  afraid  of  the  connection 
of  the  patient  continuance  in  "well-doing"  with  glory  and 
ultimate  eternal  life,  separates  the  words  and  renders,  "  to 
them  who  according  to  patient  expectation  seek  the  glory  of 
a  good  work."  There  are  different  modes  of  construction; 
but  Beza's  exegesis,  "  that  is,  who  seek  eternal  life,"  is  wholly 
unjustifiable.  Rom.  v,  16,  "judgment  was  by  one  to  condem 
nation,"  Beza  translates,  "the  guilt,  indeed,  is  of  one  offence 
to  condemnation,"  implying  a  distinct  doctrinal  bias  and  a 
mistranslation  of  the  noun. 

Rom.  viii,  4,  "  That  the  righteousness  of  the  law  might  be 
fulfilled  in  us  " ; x  here  the  Greek  term,  however,  is  not  that 
rendered  usually  by  righteousness,  but  a  word  which  may  mean 
the  whole  requirement  of  the  law.  Whether  he  be  right  or 
wrong,  Beza  did  not  lead  them;  they  virtually  followed  Tyn- 
dale,  "  the  righteousness  required  by  the  law." 

Rom.  xi,  32,  "  That  he  might  have  mercy  upon  all."  Beza 
renders  the  last  words,  "  all  these," 2  his  explanation  being 
"  elect,"  viz., — but  he  was  not  imitated. 

1  Tim.  ii,  4,  "  Who  will  have  all  men  to  be  saved " ;  Beza 
translates,3  "  who  will  have  any  men  to  be  saved." 

1  Tim.  ii,  6,  "  Gave  himself  a  ransom  for  all " ;  Beza  render 
ing4  by  the  same  pronoun.  But  the  revisers  of  1611  without 
hesitation  disavow  these  unfaithful  versions.  1  Tim.  iv,  10, 
"  Who  is  the  Saviour  of  all  men,  especially  of  those  who 
believe";  Beza  preserves  the  "all,"  and  he  could  not  well 
attempt  its  alteration  ;  but  he  changes  "  Saviour  "  into  "  Pre 
server,"  as  if  the  statement  referred  to  temporal  preservation  ; 
and  to  show  under  what  pressure  he  must  have  made  the 
change,  this  is  the  only  place  in  his  New  Testament  where 
he  has  ventured  on  such  a  translation,  which  our  version  at 
once  tosses  aside,  and  follows  all  the  earlier  English  transla 

1 "  Ut  jus  illud  legis  compleatur        3  "  Qui  quosvis  homines." 
in  nobis."  4  "  Pro  quibusvis." 

2 "  Omnes  illos.'' 

sxvi.  ]      FULL  AND  LITERAL  SENSE  NO  T  AL  WA  YS  GI VEN.       279 

If  the  Authorized  Version,  in  connecting  "all  men"  with 
"  appeared,"  steps  back  from  the  true  translation  in  Titus 
ii,  11,  it  is  put  in  the  margin;  and  there  is  no  hesitation  in 
rendering  Heb.  ii,  9,  "  that  he  ...  should  taste  death 
for  every  man,"  the  defining  supplement  "  man  "  not  even 
printed  in  italics.  Thus,  while  the  revisers  of  1611  were 
often  tempted  to  follow  Beza,  they  had  often  the  courage  to 
judge  for  themselves.  At  the  same  time  some  of  the  most 
erroneous  marginal  renderings  came  from  Beza :  Mark  i,  34, 
"  or,  to  say  that  they  knew  him  " ;  similarly,  Luke  iv,  41 ;  Acts 
i,  8,  "  or,  the  power  of  the  Holy  Ghost  coming  upon  you  "  ; 
Rom.  xi,  17,  "  or,  for  them." 

The  revisers  occasionally  fall  from  the  full  and  simple 
meaning  of  the  text.  Sometimes  they  insert  a  diluting  supple 
ment.  2  Thess.  iii,  5,  in  rendering  the  last  clause  "into  the 
patient  waiting  for  Christ,"  after  Beza's  "  expectationem,"  they 
shrank  from  the  real  translation  and  put  it  into  the  margin, 
''into  the  patience  of  Christ."  It  was  probably  some  felt 
incongruity  in  the  true  rendering,  "leadeth  us  in  triumph" 
(2  Cor.  ii,  14),  that  prompted  the  inferior  version,  "  causeth 
us  to  triumph,"  after  Beza. 

Though  the  charge  of  theological  bias  cannot  be  fully  sup 
ported  against  the  text,  the  margin,  however,  yields  some 

Rom.  iii,  25,  text,  "  set  forth  "  ;  margin,  "  foreordained  " — a 
verb  taken  from  the  Vulgate,  and  occurring  only  once  in  the 
version,  1  Pet.  i,  20,  where  it  should  be  "  foreknown."  Rom. 
v,  12,  text,  "for  that1  all  have  sinned";  margin,  "in  whom  all 
have  sinned,"  after  Augustine  and  Beza — a  rendering  which 
even  Calvin  himself  did  not  adopt.  "  In  which  "  is  used  in  the 
Rheims,2  but  "forasmuch  as"  is  the  translation  both  in  the 
Genevan  and  in  the  Bishops'. 

1  €</>'  oL  2  Vulgate,  "  in  quo." 


fTlHERE  are,  however,  several  things  about  the  translation 
which  detract  somewhat  from  its  great  excellence.  They 
can  scarcely  be  said  to  be  of  the  essence  of  it,  but  they 
are  very  closely  connected  with  it.  The  fourteen  original 
rules  given  to  the  Companies  at  Westminster,  Oxford,  and 
Cambridge,  make  no  rfeerence  to  the  use  of  supplemental 
words ;  but  the  sixth  rule  presented  by  the  English  deputies 
to  the  Synod  of  Dort  was  to  this  effect,  "  that  the  words 
necessary  to  be  inserted  into  the  text,  in  order  to  complete 
the  sense,  were  to  be  distinguished  by  being  printed  in 
another  and  smaller  character." l  In  a  popular  translation, 
such  as  that  of  the  Bible,  such  supplemental  words  are 
indispensable  in  many  places.  But  whatever  accuracy  might 
appear  in  their  own  copy,  the  printing  was  done  in  a  very 
careless  way,  being  devoid  of  all  uniformity ;  and  in  the 
anxiety  to  be  intelligible,  or  in  their  own  phrase,  "  to  be  under 
stood  even  of  the  very  vulgar,"  the  supplemental  words  were 
inserted  with  liberal  allowances.  To  show  how  the  supple 
mented  words  have  been  treated,  and  how  largely  such  words 
have  been  put  into  italic  types,  it  may  be  mentioned  that  in 
the  first  edition  the  eleventh  chapter  of  John  has  no  supple 
ments  printed  in  italics;  that  in  the  revised  edition  of  1638  it 
has  fifteen  words  so  marked ;  while  some  modern  editions  have 
as  many  as  sixteen  such  terms.2  In  Exodus  xxxii,  18,  in  the 
midst  of  twenty-five  words,  there  are  now  eleven  italic  words, 

1  See  page  201. 

2  Turton's  Text  of  the  English  Bible,  passim,  Cambridge,  1833. 


but  only  five  in  the  first  edition.  In  some  New  Testaments 
issued  at  Edinburgh,  of  last  century,  there  is  not  a  single 
word  printed  in  italics  from  beginning  to  end  of  the  volume. 
In  the  first  edition  these  words  were  printed  in  Roman,  the  text 
being  in  black  letter,  but  when  it  was  printed  in  Roman,  they 
were  presented  in  italic  letter.  Some  supplemental  words  are 
indispensable:  Genesis  xxi,  33,  "Abraham  planted";  xxv,  8, 
"  full  of  years " ;  Exodus  xxxiv,  7,  "  clear  the  guilty "  ; 
Numbers  xv,  26,  "  gathered  iinto  his  people  " ;  John  iv,  33, 
"  brought  him  ought  to  eat "  ;  vi,  1,  "  the  sea  of  Galilee,  which, 
is  the  sea  of  Tiberias";  xv,  18,  "ye  know  that  it  hated 
me  before  it  hated  you  "  ;  25,  "  this  cometh  to  pass "  ; 
xix,  5,  "  and  Pilate  said  unto  them "  —  the  proper  name 
being  introduced  to  give  consecutive  clearness  to  the  nar 
rative  ;  1  John  ii,  2,  "  the  sins  of  the  whole  world  " ;  ii,  19, 
"  they  ^uent  out."  The  Saviour's  name  is  inserted  often  in  the 
gospels  where  it  is  not  required. 

Not  a  few  of  the  numerous  italic  words  should  be  excluded. 
In  many  cases  the  supplement  is  included  in  the  original 
idiom,  as  that  of  the  substantive  verb  between  a  subject 
and  a  predicate — or  in  a  simple  assertion  :  Genesis  ii,  12,  "  the 
gold  of  that  land  is  good,"  or  Matt,  v,  3,  "blessed  are  the  poor 
in  spirit."  The  supplied  verb  is  really  borne  in  by  the  original 
phrase  as  an  essential  portion  of  it,  and  needs  not  be  put  in 
italics.  Of  this  kind  there  are  numerous  instances.  There  are 
other  cases  where  the  italic  words  introduced  for  the  sake  of 
connection  may  be  often  omitted,  as  the  participle  "  saying " 
when  the  oblique  form  suddenly  changes  into  the  direct :  "  He 
spake,  saying,"  "to  curse  and  to  swear,  sayirfg."  Instances 
are  perpetually  occurring :  Ps.  xlv,  8,  "  an  evil  disease,  say 
they,  cleaveth  fast  unto  him"  ;  1  Chron.  xxiii,  5,  "the  instru 
ment  which  I  made,  said  David  " ;  Acts  i,  4,  "  which,  saith  he, 
ye  have  heard  of  me."  The  result  of  a  previous  condition, 
or  contingence,  is  omitted  sometimes  in  the  original,  but 
is  supplied  in  the  version ;  Luke  xiii,  9,  "  if  it  bear  fruit, — 
^ueU."  The  emphasis  is  more  striking  without  any  insertion 
in  Exodus  xxxii,  32,  "  yet  now,  if  thou  wilt  forgive  their  sin — ; 
and,  if  not,  blot  me,  I  pray  thee,  out  of  thy  book."  There  is 


a  host  of  idiomatic  adjectives  which  contain  their  object  in 
themselves,  and  many  verbs  have  a  similar  pregnancy — as 
"  dry  land"  "  bitter  herbs"  "  cold  water"  "  draw  sword" 
"  draw  ivater,"  "  set  in  array"  "  tread  grapes"  "  shut  the  door," 
"  sitteth  on  eggs"  "  feed  the  flock  " — and  there  is  no  weighty 
reason  why  such  supplied  terms  should  be  in  italics.  Many 
particles  are  found  in  italics — "  like"  "  as,"  a  weakening  of  the 
Hebrew  metaphor  ;  "and"  "when,"  "  though,"  "  that,"  having 
their  origin  in  the  change  of  the  simple  and  sequent  Hebrew 
clauses  into  the  more  intricate  English  syntax.  Italics  may 
be  allowed  for  such  words,  if  they  cannot  be  omitted  without 
detriment.  There  are  also  cases  of  zeugmas,  as  1  Tim.  iv,  3, 
"  forbidding  to  marry,  and  commanding  to  abstain  from 
meats  "  ;  1  Cor.  xiv,  34,  "  they  are  commanded  to  be  under" ;  or 
the  supplement  is  suggested  by  a  previous  clause,  "as  thou 
didst  deal  with  my  father,  even  so  deal  with  me"  2  Chron.  ii,  3 ; 
Ps.  ix,  18,  "the  expectation  of  the  poor  shall  not  perish,"  the 
negative  being  carried  from  a  previous  clause.  There  are  many 
expletives  which  might  be  dispensed  with,  as  "  even "  and 
"  namely."  In  John  viii,  6,  the  whole  clause  inserted,  "  as 
though  he  heard  them  not"  is  from  a  various  reading  of  no 
authority.  Besides,  many  of  the  supplied  words  are  directly 
expository:  Gen.  xviii,  28,  "for  lack  of  five";  Num.  xiv,  28, 
"  as  truly  as  I  live " ;  2  Sam.  v,  8,  "  he  shall  be  chief  and 
captain"  taken  from  1  Chron.  xi,  6 ;  2  Kings  x,  24,  " he 
that  letteth  him  go " ;  Psalms  Iviii,  7,  "  his  bow  to  shoot " ; 
1  Peter  v,  13,  "the  church  that  is  at  Babylon."  The 
same  practice  is  found  in  some  doubtful  cases:  Job  iii,  23, 
"why  is  light  given";  1  Chron.  ix,  41,  "and  Ahaz"  taken 
from  viii,  35 ;  1  Chron.  xxiv,  23,  "  the  sons  of  Hebron " ; 
"  Jeriah,  the  first"  taken  from  xxiii,  19.  2  Chron.  xxiv, 
6,  "  according  to  the  commandment " ;  Job  xix,  26,  "  and 
though  after  my  skin  worms  destroy  this  body  "  ;  xxxv,  3,  "  if 
I  be  cleansed" ;  Ps.  vii,  11,  "God  is  angry  with  the  wicked 
every  day  "  ;  liv,  7,  "  his  desire  "  ;  Ixix,  22,  "  that  which  should 
have  been  .  .  .  let  it  become  " ;  1  Cor.  i,  26,  "  not  many  noble 
are  called";  Deut.  xxxiii,  6,  "let  not  his  men  be  few," 
directly  the  opposite  of  what  the  Hebrew  asserts ;  Exodus, 


xii,  36,  "they  lent  unto  them  such  things  as  they  required"; 
Nehem.  xii,  31,  "  companies  of  them  that  gave,"  also  in  38  and 
40 ;  2  Sam.  xxiii,  8,  "  he  lift  up  his  spear."  Several  instances 
found  in  Samuel  are  borrowed  from  Chronicles.  *  "  From " 
might  be  omitted  three  times  in  Matt,  iv,  25,  and  "  pray 
God "  might  be  omitted  in  1  Thess.  v,  23,  and  in  2  Tim. 
iv,  16;  "which  is"  might  disappear  from  1  Tim.  i,  1;  "who 
is  "  in  Eev.  i,  5  ;  "  with  thee"  in  2  Tim.  iv,  13  ;  Eccles.  viii,  2, 
"  I  counsel  thee ;  Ps.  Ixx,  1,  "  make  haste " ;  Judges  vii,  7,  8, 
"  the  other  people  .  .  .  the  rest  of  Israel ;  2  Sam.  i,  21,  "  as  though 
he  had  not  been" ;  2  Sam.  xv,  32,  "  the  mount."  Might  not, 
"if  possible"  suffice  for  "if  it  were  possible"  Matt,  xxiv, 
24 ;  "  the  passover  "  for  "  the  feast  of  the  passover  "  ?  Matt. 
xxvi,  2 ;  "  a  wine-fat "  for  "  a  place  for  the  wine-fat,"  Mark 
xii,  1  ;  "  between  us "  might  be  omitted  in  Eph.  ii,  14 ; 
"  manner  of"  in  Rev.  xxii,  2.  In  1  Cor.  xiv,  33,  the  supple 
ment,  "  the  author"  should  go  out— "God  is  not  the  God  of 
confusion"  ;  nor  is  "fellow"  very  appropriate  in  Matt,  xxvi,  61, 
and  in  various  other  places — it  came  from  Tyndale.  The 
supplied  phrase,  "  and  looked,"  is  wholly  uncalled  for  in  John 
xx,  11.  The  words  "that  had  been"  are  wrong  in  Matt,  i,  6, 
though  they  are  true  in  themselves,  and  "  in  "  is  wrong  in  ii,  6  ; 
"  the  Father  "  is  a  direct  and  doubtful  exegesis  in  Col.  i,  19. 
The  words  "  it  will  be  "  only  weaken  the  saying  in  Matt,  xvi, 
2,  3 ;  the  verses,  however,  are  doubtful.  The  epithet  "  un 
known  "  as  applied  to  tongues  in  1  Cor.  xiv,  2,  4,  13,  14,  has 
no  right  to  be  there,  for  it  is  an  assumed  explanation ;  while 
in  the  other  verses  it  is  not  given,  though  the  reference  be  the 
same  as  in  verse  5,  6,  18,  &c.,  and  the  words  "they  are  com 
manded  "  are  quite  superfluous  in  the  34th  verse  of  the  same 
chapter,  so  is  "  kind  of"  in  xv,  39  ;  and  "  w~as  made  "  in  verse 
45 ;  "  henceforth  "  in  Eph.  iv,  14,  and  it  was  not  so  printed 
in  the  first  edition.  1  Cor.  v,  3,  reads,  "  for  I  verily  as  absent 
in  body,  but  present  in  spirit,  have  judged  already  as  though 
I  were  present  concerning  him  that  hath  so  done  this  deed  "  ; 
but  "  concerning "  may  be  omitted,  as  "  him"  is  the  direct 
accusative  or  object  to  the  verb  judged,  "concerning"  being 
1  See  Scrivener's  Introduction  to  the  Cambridge  Bible,  p.  xxxiv. 


probably  suggested  by  the  marginal  reading  "  appointed "  for 
judged,  and  as  it  is  not  printed  in  italic  in  the  first  edition. 
The  epithet  "  venomous "  is  wholly  unwarranted  in  Acts 
xxviii,  4 ;  the  beast  was  venomous,  as  the  cry  of  the  natives 
implies,  but  it  is  not  called  so  by  the  historian,  nor  did  the 
older  versions  use  the  adjective,  and  it  is  not  printed  in  italics  in 
the  first  edition.  It  may  have  been  supposed  to  be  contained  in 
the  Greek  substantive,  which  is  sometimes  rendered  "wild 
beast,"  but  most  frequently  simply  "  beast,"  as  in  the  following 
verse  5,  and  throughout  the  Apocalypse.  Matt,  xx,  23,  reads, 
"  to  sit  on  my  right  hand  and  my  left  is  not  mine  to  give,  but 
it  shall  be  given  to  them  for  whom  it  is  prepared  of  my  father." 
This  translation  virtually  represents  Jesus  as  denying  his 
supreme  and  blessed  prerogative,  and  the  italic  words  help 
out  the  perversion.  The  idiomatic  brevity  of  the  original 
must  be  made  intelligible  by  some  supplement,  "  is  not  mine 
to  give  but  to  them  for  whom."  In  the  first  edition  the  words 
are  not  italicized  in  the  corresponding  passage  in  Mark.  In 
Ps.  xix,  3,  the  italic  words  "  there  is  "...  "  where  "  completely 
mar  the  meaning,  the  margin  giving  the  true  sense.  In  2  Cor. 
viii,  4,  the  phrase  "  take  upon  us  "  may  be  dispensed  with,  and 
a  different  reading  justifies  the  omission.  The  words  printed 
in  italic  in  Heb.  ii,  16,  "him  the  nature  of  angels,"  are  wrong 
in  every  sense,  and  the  margin  gives  the  true  rendering.  In 
Heb.  vii,  19,  "did"  presents  a  wrong  exegesis;  "the  Lord" 
is  not  needed  in  James  ii,  1 ;  and  "for  us  "  should  not  be  in 
Heb.  ix,  12. 

Many  supplements  are  thus  interpretations.  Num.  v,  13, 
"ivith  the  manner";  1  John  iii,  1C,  "of  God" ;  "  God"  "calling 
upon  God"  Acts  vii,  59;  2  Cor.  vi,  1,  "with  him" ;  Ps. Ixxiii,  25, 
"but  thce" ;  1  John  ii,  19,  "no  doubt";  Ps.  xxvii,  8,  "  ivhen 
thou  saidst" ;  13,  "/  had  fainted"  ;  Ps.  cix,  4,  "  give  myself 
unto" ;  Ps.  xxxiv,  17,  "the  righteous";  Ps.  cxi,  10,  "his  com 
mandments" ;  Ps.  cxxxix,  16,  "ray  members";  1  Cor.  iv, 
7,  "from  another " ;  1  Peter  i,  22,  "  see  that  ye " ;  Rev.  iii, 
12,  "/  will  write  upon  him" ;  Mark  xii,  34,  "any  question" ; 
Matt,  xxii,  46,  "  questions " ;  Luke  xx,  40,  "  question  at 
all"  not  found  in  italics  in  the  earlier  edition,  and  rightly, 


because  they  are  distinctly  contained  in  the  Greek  verb.  An 
opposite  change  has  also  been  made  in  the  edition  of  1611. 
Gal.  i,  8,  has  in  different  type  the  words,  "  any  other  gospel  "; 
and  in  the  following  verse  the  same  Greek  is  rendered  by  the 
same  words,  but  without  any  change  of  type.  The  words  are 
contained  in  the  Greek  verb,  and  since  1638  italics  have  been 
properly  dispensed  with.  Why  intrude  the  words  "because  I 
know  "  in  Acts  xxvi,  3  ?  The  literal  rendering  does  not  stand 
in  need  of  any  ekeing  out  whatever  :  "  I  think  myself  happy 
that  I  am  to  answer  for  myself  this  day  before  thee  . 
because  thou  art  expert  in  all  customs  " — the  verbose  supple 
ment  may  have  been  suggested  by  the  change  of  case  in  the 

The  following  are  unwarranted  supplements  :  Acts  xxvii,  44, 
"  broken  pieces  of  the  ship  " — the  words  are  an  interpolation. 
Gal.  iii,  24,  "  our  schoolmaster  to  bring  us  unto  Christ," 
"  schoolmaster  "not  being  the  true  rendering ;  Col.  i,  4,  "  which 
ye  have";  v.  16,  "they  be" ;  iii,  4,  "who  is" ;  Luke  xviii,  16, 
"  unto  him,";  31,  " unto  him"  for  in  both  the  compound  verb 
contains  the  idea  conveyed  in  the  italic  words ;  Matt,  xxiv,  40, 
reads,  "  then  shall  two  be  in  the  field,"  but  "  two  men  "  should 
have  been  the  rendering;  and  with  the  usual  inconsistenc}^  the 
following  verse  reads,  "two  ivomen-  shall  be  grinding  at  the 
mill,"  the  proper  translation,  but  women  should  not  be  in 
italics,  as  the  gender  of  the  participle  suggests  or  demands  it. 
Similarly  in  Luke  xvii,  34,  "  men  "  is  implied  in  the  gender  of 
the  numeral  and  adjective,  and  "  women "  in  the  participle 
"  grinding  "  ;  in  verse  36  the  same  thing  occurs,  but  the  margin 
declares  that  the  verse  is  "wanting  in  most  of  the  Greek 
copies."  A  possessive  pronoun  representing  the  article  need 
not  in  ordinary  cases  be  put  into  italics  :  Matt,  x,  1,  "  he 
called  unto  him  his  twelve  disciples";  and  "unto  "  need  not  be 
put  in  italics,  for  it  is  in  the  compound  middle  verb  ;  Romans 
xi,  4,  "  the  image  of  Baal,"  the  italicized  words  being  quite 
needless ;  and  in  Psalms  cxxxvii,  5,  "  her  cunning "  is  an 

According  to  the  statement  of  the  English  deputies  at  the 
Synod  of  Dort,  the  Headings  were  made  by  command.  The 


last  or  seventh  rule  which  they  enumerated,  was  that  "  new 
arguments  should  be  prefixed  to  each  book,  and  new  contents 
to  each  chapter."1  The  headings  or  contents  of  the  chapters  are 
interesting,  and  their  quaint  language  has  been  glanced  at. 
But  some  are  manifestly  wrong  :  2  Sam.  xxiv,  "  eleven  thousand 
fighting  men,"  for  "  thirteen  hundred  thousand "  ;  1  Cor.  v, 
"  human  offenders  to  be  shamed,"  instead  of  "  shunned."  Some 
of  them,  instead  of  being  a  brief  index,  are  a  commentary, 
which  is  occasionally  doubtful,  and  at  other  times  wrong.  Luke 
vii,  the  woman  that  was  a  sinner  is  called  Mary  Magdalene, 
Gen,  xxxii,  24,  Jacob  wrestleth  with  "  an  angel,"  but  "  a  man  " 
is  the  'language  of  the  text.  Similarly,  Gen.  xviii,  Abraham 
entertaineth  three  "  angels,"  three  "  men  "  being  the  phrase  in 
the  text ;  Ps.  cxxvii,  "  Good  children  are  his  gift,"  but  the 
text  has  no  allusion  to  their  character ;  Acts  vi,  "  appoint  the 
office  of  deaconship  to  seven  chosen  men,"  but  the  office  is  not 
so  named  in  the  text ;  Acts  vii,  44,  "  ceremonies  to  last  but 
for  a  time."  The  prophecies  are  usually  expounded,  as  in  Deut. 
xviii,  Christ  the  prophet ;  Psalms  ii,  the  kingdom  of  Christ ; 
Isaiah  ii,  iv,  and  in  many  other  places  ;  nay,  "  his  Substitution  " 
occurs  in  Isaiah  xxii,  by  a  far-fetched  exegesis.  In  like 
manner,  the  church  is  often  set  forth  as  a  distinct  application 
of  prophecy.  The  headings  of  the  Song  of  Solomon  are  a 
continuous  commentary,  Christ  and  the  church  being  prefixed 
to  every  chapter.  The  edition  of  Matthew  or  Rogers  had  set 
the  example  in  1537.1  Such  commentary  goes  far  beyond 
translation,  and  intrudes  into  a  forbidden  province.  There  is 
also  a  peculiar  comment  on  1  Tim.  ii,  15,  and  there  is  a  long 
note  in  the  heading  of  1  John  i,  whether  true  or  false.  Surely 
the  phrase  Ps.  cxii  is  more  than  the  psalm  warrants,  "Godliness 
hath  the  promise  of  this  life  and  of  the  life  to  come."  Yet  those 
who  made  these  summaries  must  have  acted  under  some 
restraint,  for  in  spite  of  temptation  to  expound,  they  give  at 
Num.  xxiv,  "  He  prophesieth  of  the  star  of  Jacob,"  and  they 
do  not  uniformly  spiritualize  in  the  Song,  but  say  once  with  a 
hybrid  application,  "Christ  directeth  her  to  the  shepherds' 
tents."  There  is  no  proof  that  Nimrod  was  "  the  first  monarch," 
1  See  vol.  I,  p.  329. 


as  stated  in  Gen.  x.  It  is  one  thing  that  the  text,  2  Kings  xx, 
speaks  of  "the  shadow"  returning  backwards  ten  degrees,  but 
quite  another  thing  that  the  summary  says,  "  the  sun  goeth 
ten  degrees  backward,"  though  the  language  occurs  in  Isaiah 
xxxviii.  At  Rev.  xxii  it  is  said,  "  nothing  may  be  added  to 
the  word  of  God  nor  taken  therefrom,"  but  the  text  speaks 
only  of  "  the  book  of  this  prophecy,"  that  is,  the  Apocalypse. 
One  heading  is  of  a  peculiar  character,  Ps.  cxlix,  "  the  prophet 
exhorteth  to  praise  God  for  his  love  to  the  church,  and  for  that 
power  which  he  hath  given  to  the  church  to  rule  the  con 
sciences  of  men."  But  by  and  by  it  ended  at  the  first  clause, 
"  love  to  the  church."  One  edition  of  1649  with  Genevan  notes 
makes  the  last  clause  "  power  .  .  .  for  the  conversion  of  sinners." 
Blayney  changed  the  heading  into  "  that  power  which  he  hath 
given  to  his  saints,"  and  it  is  found  sometimes  more  briefly  "  the 
prophet  exhorteth  to  praise  God." 

So  vague  was  the  information  on  some  of  these  points,  that  in 
the  Committee  of  the  House  of  Commons,  appointed  to  examine 
into  the  Queen's  printer's  patent,  and  which  sat  in  I860,  it  was 
asked  of  one  person  examined  before  it,  "  If  the  Authorized 
Version  in  Scotland  was  the  same  as  that  in  England  ? "  The 
Chairman  put  the  question,  "  Was  it  not  in  the  year  1G80 
that  the  italics  were  first  introduced  ? " — Answer  :  "  I  do  not 
know."  "  Do  you  know  with  what  object  they  were  intro 
duced  ? "  A  well-known  publisher  could  not  tell  the  year  in 
which  the  Authorized  Version  was  first  published.  Another 
witness,  "  a  prophet  and  a  prophet's  son,"  used  these  words, 
"  The  Conference  at  Hampton  Court,  usually  called  the  Savoy 
Conference,"  and  apparently  no  one  corrected  him. 


HHHE  printing  of  the  Bible  seems  up  till  1576  to  have  been 
open  to  any  who  could  obtain  a  royal  license.  Wilkes, 
Queen  Elizabeth's  ambassador  to  France,  Holland,  and  Germany, 
enjoyed  for  some  time  the  privilege  of  being  "  her  Majesty's 
printer  of  the  English  language."  This  patent  was  sold  in 
part  to  John  Jugge,  the  son  of  the  printer  of  the  Bishops' 
Bible,  amidst  the  protests  of  175  members  of  the  Stationers' 
Company,  and  of  185  dealers  in  books.  Another  patent,  more 
extensive,  was  sold  by  Wilkes  in  1579  to  Christopher  Barker  for 
a  "great  sum."  In  1589  Christopher  Barker  obtained  a  direct 
patent  for  himself  and  his  son  Robert  who  outlived  him  forty- 
six  years,  and  died  an  imprisoned  debtor.  This  patent  em 
braced  "  all  Bibles  and  Testaments  whatever  in  the  English 
tongue,  with  notes  or  without  notes,  printed  before  then  or 
afterwards  to  be  printed  by  our  command."  Robert  Barker 
obtained  in  1612  a  patent  for  his  eldest  son  Christopher,  to  be 
held  after  his  father's  death ;  but  this  son  dying  in  1C17,  the 
patent,  to  last  for  thirty  years,  was  transferred  to  the  second 
son  Robert.  The  Barkers  then  assigned  their  right  to 
Bonham  Norton  and  John  Bill;  and  in  1G35  Robert  Barker 
paid  £600  for  the  patent  already  enjoyed  by  his  two  elder 
sons,  to  be  held  in  reversion  by  his  younger  sons,  Charles  and 
Matthew.  The  Barkers  thus  held  the  patent  virtually  till  1709, 
a  period  of  130  years,  when  the  Basketts  got  it  and  kept  it  for 
90  years  or  till  1799,  the  last  thirty  years  of  this  term  being 
assigned,  however,  to  Charles  Eyre  and  his  heirs  for  £10,000. 
Eyre  took  possession  in  1769,  and  assumed  William  Strahan 


as  partner,  and  the  patent  came  in  course  of  time  into  the 
hands  of  the  present  possessors,  Eyre  &  Spottiswoode.1 

As  told  on  page  33,  Barker  had  been  in  the  service  of  Wal- 
singham  and  had  his  patron's  crest,  a  tiger's  head,  over  his 
shop  in  Paternoster  Row ;  and  the  same  symbol  occurs  in  the 
initial  letter  of  Psalm  cxii,  in  the  edition  of  1611,  and  similarly 
at  Psalms  xxxv,  cxii,  cxiii,  in  the  edition  of  1617.  The  Barkers 
honoured  Cecil,  also,  in  a  similar  way,  by  inserting  his  arms  in 
capital  letters  in  their  Bibles,  as  in  the  initial  B,  of  Psalm  i,  of 
the  editions  of  1034  and  164-0. 

But  as  the  patent  descended  through  these  years  there  were 
various  changes  in  the  names  appearing  on  the  title-page  of 
the  Bible,  and  though  only  one  date  is  given  in  the  following- 
clauses,  the  same  names  usually  continued  for  several  years. 
In  1620  the  printers  are  Robert  Barker  &  John  Bill;  in  1631, 
Robert  Barker  &  the  Assignees  of  John  Bill;  in  1666,  John 
Bill  &  Christopher  Barker ;  in  1679,  John  Bill,  Thomas  New- 
comb,  &  Henry  Hills ;  in  1690,  Charles  Bill  &  the  Executrix 
of  Thomas  Newcomb ;  in  1728,  John  Baskett  &  the  Assigns 
of  Henry  Hills ;  in  1769,  Thomas  Baskett  &  the  Assigns  of 
Robert  Baskett;  in  1806,  George  Eyre  &  Andrew  Strahan. 
The  Universities  at  the  same  time  had  their  own  printers. 

It  is  a  gross  but  a  natural  mistake  to  imagine  that  these 
patents  were  given  to  secure  correct  and  careful  printing. 
They  are  simply  a  royal  gift  to  a  public  servant  or  a  favourite, 
with  or  without  a  pecuniary  return.  They  contain  110  in 
junction  as  to  correctness,  and  provide  no  penalty  for  inac 

The  following  pages  are  not  meant  to  present  a  systematic 
Bibliography;  only  a  very  few  distinctive  editions  of  the 
English  Bible  are  noticed,  so  that  we  do  not  stir  the  ques 
tion  as  to  the  names  that  ought  to  be  given  to  certain 
forms  and  sizes  of  the  volumes.  A  description  of  various 
lists  of  English  Bibles  (Tutet,  Ducarel,  and  Ames  being  in 
cluded),  may  be  found  in  Cotton's  preface  to  his  "  Editions  of 
the  English  Bible."  The  long  list  published  by  Lea  Wilson  con 
tains  only  the  copies  in  his  own  library ;  and  though  he  got 

1Eeport  of  a  Select  Committee  of  the  House  of  Commons.  1860. 
VOL.  II.  T 


into  confusion  about  the  issues  of  1  Gil,  he  has  given  useful 
accounts  of  many  editions.  Loftie's  "  Century  of  Bibles " 
contains  much  interesting  information;  and  in  his  Appen 
dix  he  has  printed  a  list  of  the  copies  of  the  Authorized 
Version  in  the  British  Museum,  in  the  Bodleian  Library,  in  the 
Library  of  Canterbury  Cathedral,  in  that  of  Mr.  Francis  Fry 
of  Bristol,  and  in  the  Royal  Library  at  Stuttgart.  The  large 
collection  of  Bibles  belonging  to  the  late  Mr.  Euing,  of 
Glasgow,  has  been  bequeathed  by  him  to  the  library  of  the 

The  revised  copy  or  copies  of  the  Bishops'  Bible  used  at 
press  have  not  been  preserved.  A  volume  in  the  Bod 
leian  Library,  an  edition  of  1602,  with  corrections,  has  been 
sometimes  taken  for  one  of  them;  but  Canon  Westcott 
clearly  proves  the  incorrectness  of  the  opinion,  from  the 
nature  of  the  marks  and  notes.  Kilburne's  Tract,1  published 
in  1659,  contains  this  curious  protest,  that  the  printing  of 
Bibles  should  "not  be  solely  appropriated  to  Mr.  Hill  and 
Mr.  Field,  on  pretence  of  their  purchasing  the  translated 
copy  made  in  anno  1611,  and  unduly  entering  it  lately  as  their 
private  copy,  and  for  their  sole  property  in  the  Stationers' 
Register."  It  seems  to  be  beyond  doubt  that  the  revisers 
wrought  upon  a  copy  of  the  edition  of  1602,  a  reprint  of  that 
of  1 572,  and  certainly  not  upon  a  copy  of  the  first  edition  of 
1568,  as  has  been  sometimes  conjectured. 

It  might  be  anticipated  that  a  patentee  would  at  a  new 
epoch  endeavour  to  produce  an  immaculate  edition,  as  he  had 
no  fear  of  rivalry,  and  could  command  his  own  price.  But 
the  result  has  been  far  otherwise.  Barker  looked,  however,  to 
the  sale  and  dispersion  of  the  first  editions,  for  there  were  two 
competitors  in  the  market.  It  was  meant  to  succeed  and  sup 
plant  the  Bishops',  of  which  it  was  a  professed  revision,  and 

1  Kilburne's  Tract    has  been   re-  Bibles;  to  the  great  scandal  and  cor- 

printed  by  Mr.  Loftie  in  his  Cen-  ruption  of  sound  and  true  religion, 

tury  of  Bibles,  London,  1872.     The  Discovered  by  William    Kilburue, 

title  of  the  Tract,  a  copy  of  which  Gent.      Printed  at  Fiusbury,  anno 

is  in  the  British  Museum,  is  "  Dan-  1659. 
gerous  Errors  in  several  late  printed 


the  change  was  speedily  and  easily  effected.  The  two  books 
were  brought  into  artistic  correspondence  by  the  employment 
in  King  James'  Bible  of  the  same  head  pieces,  woodcuts,  and 
other  embellishments,  which  had  appeared  in  the  Bishops'. 
The  figure  of  Neptune  with  his  trident  and  horses,  which 
appears  so  often  in  the  Bishops',  stands  at  the  beginning  of 
Matthew.  The  figure  wants  freshness,  for  the  cut  had  not  even 
been  touched  up  for  its  present  position.  But  the  Genevan  was 
a  more  formidable  rival ;  and  the  new  Bible  was  also  made  to 
correspond  externally  in  many  ways  with  this  older  and  very 
popular  version.  The  title-page  of  the  smaller  editions  of 1612- 
1613  is  a  facsimile  in  its  ornamentation  of  that  so  often  found 
in  copies  of  the  Genevan,  the  title  being  in  the  heart-shaped 
oval,  with  the  twelve  tribes  and  the  twelve  apostles  in  the 
margin.  The  quarto  Bibles  and  the  octavo  New  Testaments 
had  usually  this  plate.1  The  issue  of  1616,  the  first  folio  in 
Roman  letter,  appropriated  a  design  already  used  in  the 
Bishops',  the  arms  of  James  being  substituted  for  those  of 
Elizabeth,  and  the  dragon  giving  way  to  the  unicorn.  Before 
the  year  1640,  Barker  and  his  successors  had  issued  fifty  edi 
tions,  five  in  goodly  black  letter  folio  in  1611,  -13,  -17,  -34,  -40. 
By  this  time  also  two  editions  had  also  been  published  in 
Edinburgh,  and  ten  at  Cambridge. 

But  the  printing  itself  is  from  the  beginning  marked  by  many 
serious  blunders,  and  those  who  saw  the  first  edition  through 
the  press  did  not  exercise  a  strict  and  continuous  supervision. 
What  are  called  the  first  and  second  issues2  of  1611  are  dis 
figured  by  many  errors.  A  portion  of  a  verse  is  printed  twice 
in  the  one  issue,  Exodus  xiv,  10.  "Judas"  stands  for  "Jesus"3 
in  the  other  (Matt,  xxvi,  36),  with  Christ  spelled  "Chkist," 

1  Cotton  says  that  the  latest  Geneva  Genevan,  and  as  often  after  1611  as 

Bible  he  had  seen  was  one  of  1644,  before  it. 

printed   at  Amsterdam.      It  might  2  See  page  202. 

have  been  stated  on  a  previous  occa-  3  When  a  copy  came  into  my  pos- 

sion    that    Andrewes,    one  of    the  session,  it  had  a  slip  with  "Jesus" 

translators  and  the   director  of  the  printed  on  it  very  neatly  pasted  over 

Westminster  Old  Testament  Com-  "  Judas." 
pany,  usually  took  his  text  from  the 


and  "OE"  for  "OF"  in  the  Dedication,  while  in  the  list  of  books 
1  and  2  Chronicles  are  put  down  as  1  and  2  Corinthians. 
Exodus  ix,  13,  reads,  "Let  my  people  go  that  they  may  serve 
thee,"  for  "  serve  me."  The  following  are  a  sample  of  misprints 
in  what  has  been  commonly  called  the  first  issue  :  Gen.  x,  16, 
"Emorite"  for  "Amorite";  Exodus  xxxviii,  11,  "hoops"  for 
"  hooks  "  ;  Lev.  xiii,  5G,  "  the  plaine  be  "  for  "  the  plague  be  " ; 
xvii,  14,  "ye  shall  not  eat"  for  "ye  shall  eat";  Ezra  iii,  5, 
the  word  "  offered "  is  repeated.  Isaiah  xlix,  20,  "  the  place 
is  too  straight"  for  "strait,"  though  the  first  is  an  older  form  of 
spelling  ;  Jer.  xxii,  3,  "  deliver  the  spoiler  "  for  "  the  spoiled  " ; 
1,  29,  "she  hath  done  unto  her"  for  "she  hath  done,  do  unto 
her  "  ;  Ezek.  vi,  8,  "  that  he  may  have  "  for  "  ye  may  have  "  ; 
xxiv,  7,  "poured  it"  for  "poured  it  not";  Hosea  vi,  5,  "shewed 
them"  for  "hewed  them";  Mai.  i,  8,  "if  he  offer"  for  "if  ye 
offer";  Matt,  vi,  3,  "right"  for  "right  hand";  viii,  25,  "awoke" 
for  "awoke  him";  xvi,  25,  "his"  is  repeated;  1  Cor.  xiv,  23, 
"  come  together  into  some  place,"  but  rightly  given  in  xi,  20, 
"into  one  place."  The  headline  2  Chron.  xxix  is  printed  xxxix, 
and  the  headline  Micah  iv  is  printed  "  Joel " ;  Gen.  xvii, 
heading  Isaac  is  spelled  "  Izsaac."  On  the  top  of  the  column 
containing  the  portion  of  1  Esdras  iv,  Apocrypha  is  printed 
Anocrynha.  For  its  errors  and  inconsistencies  the  first  edition 
cannot,  therefore,  be  regarded  as  a  standard  edition.  There 
are  also  capricious  irregularities  in  the  printing  of  the  supple 
mental  words.  The  edition  of  1613  is  still  worse,  for  though  it 
corrects  some  errors  of  the  first  issues,  it  has  many  of  its  own ; 
Lev.  vii,  25,  "  the  fast  of  the  beast "  for  "  the  fat  of  the  beast  "  ; 
xix,  10,  "  shall  glean  "  for  "  shall  net  glean  "  ;  xxvi,  24,  "  wake 
contrary  "  for  "  walk  contrary  " ;  Deut.  xix,  5,  "  slippeth  from 
the  helm"  for  "the  helve";  1  Sam.  x,  16,  "water"  for 
"  matter  "  ;  2  Kings  xxii,  3,  "  were  "  for  "  year  "  ;  2  Chron.  vi, 
10,  "  in  the  throne  of  David  "  for  "  in  the  room  of  David  " ; 
Neli.  x,  31,  "  we  would  not  leave  "  for  "  we  would  leave  " ; 
Job  xxix,  3,  "shined  through  darkness"  for  "walked  through 
darkness  "  ;  Isaiah  lix,  7,  "  shed  bleed "  for  "  shed  innocent 
blood  " ;  Ezek.  xxiii,  7,  "  she  delighted  herself"  for  "  she  defiled 
herself";  Dan.  iv,  13,  "a  watcher  holy  and  an  one"  for  "a 


watcher  and  an  holy  one  "  ;  1  Cor.  xi,  17,  "  I  praise  you  "  for 
"  I  praise  you  not "  ;  2  Cor.  ii,  8,  "  continue  your  love  "  for 
"  confirm  your  love."  There  are  several  clauses  and  verses 
omitted  altogether,  as  1  Kings  iii,  15,  the  clause  "and  offered 
peace  offerings " ;  Hab.  ii,  5,  "  nations,  and  heapeth  unto  him 
all";  Matt,  xiii,  8,  "and  some  sixtyfold";  xvi,  11,  "I  spake 
it  not  to  you  concerning  bread,  that  "  ;  John  xx,  25,  "  put  my 
finger  into  the  prints  of  the  nails";  and  verses  13  and  14  in 
Ecclesiasticus  xvi  are  also  left  out.  In  fact,  between  the 
edition  of  1611  and  that  of  1G13  there  are  more  than  three 
hundred  variations,  and  such  differences  as  the  following 
occur  in  the  headings,  in  1G11,  2  Sam.  xxiv,  eleven 
thousand,  but  in  1618  thirteen  hundred  thousand ;  in  the 
one  edition,  "  Haggai  promiseth  God's  assistance,"  but  in 
1613,  "promiseth  God,  assistance."  Some  of  the  changes 
look  like  attempted  improvements,  as  Gen.  xxvii,  44,  "fury 
pass  away  "  for  "  turn  away  " ;  Mark  ix,  24,  "  help  my  un 
belief"  for  "help  thou  mine  unbelief";  John  v,  3,  "a  great 
company "  for  "  a  great  multitude."  In  the  edition  of  1634, 
there  is  an  important  change  which  has  kept  its  ground. 
Heb.  xii,  1,  "  let  us  runne  with  patience  the  race  set  before  us," 
the  issues  of  1611,  -13,  -17  having  "let  us  runne  with  patience 
unto  the  race,"  the  Great  Bible  and  the  Bishops  had  "  into  the 
battayle."  One  deviation  occurred  very  early :  Ruth  iii,  15, 
"  and  she  went  into  the  city,"  "  he  "  being  in  the  so-called  first 
issue,  but  "she,"  a  mistranslation,  found  its  way  into  the  second, 
and  kept  its  place  in  both  the  folio  and  smaller  edition  of  1613. 
"  She  "  is  preferred  by  Jerome,  but  the  Hebrew  verb  is  mas 
culine.  A  similar  variation  occurs  in  the  Song  of  Solomon  ii, 
7 ;  iii,  5  ;  viii,  4,  "  till  she  please  "  being  the  rendering  in  the 
first  place,  but  "  till  he  please  "  being  the  rendering  in  the 
second  and  third  places,  while  the  same  Hebrew  is  found  in  all 
the  instances.  In  the  second  issue  "  till  he  please "  is  the 
uniform  rendering.  The  first  New  Testament  in  12mo,  black 
letter,  appeared  in  1611,  and  is  now  in  the  collection  of  Mr. 
Lenox  of  New  York.  The  first  quarto  edition  of  the  Bible 
in  Roman  letter  has  the  date  of  1612,  and  has  in  it  several  of 
the  errors  already  specified  in  the  issues  of  1611.  The  names 


of  Bonham  Norton  and  John  Bill  appear  first  on  a  quarto 
edition  of  1619.  In  an  edition  printed  by  Barker  &  Bill  in 
1631,  the  "not"  was  left  out  in  the  Seventh  Commandment, 
Exod.  xx,  14,  and  it  stood,  "Thou  shalt  commit  adultery."1 
The  printer  was  fined  £300  by  Laud,  the  money  being  used 
to  purchase  a  fount  of  Greek  types  for  the  use  of  the 
Universities.  It  would  take  a  goodly  volume  to  contain 
the  misprints  of  the  various  editions.  There  are  also  many 
variations  from  the  issues  of  1611.  Rom.  xii,  2,  "what 
is  that  good,  that  acceptable,  and  perfect  will  of  God," 
passed  into  the  present  more  literal  reading  in  1629.  In  the 
same  way  "  helps  in  government,"  1  Cor.  xii,  28,  became  in  the 
same  year,  more  correctly,  "  helps,  governments " ;  "  ap 
proved  to  death,"  1  Cor.  iv,  9,  became  "  appointed  to  death  " 
as  early  as  1616;  and  the  clause  "hath  not  the  Son," 
1  John  v,  12,  had  the  "of  God"  rightly  added,  according  to 
the  original  text.  "  Brasilia  which  was  a  Jew,"  Acts  xxiv,  24, 
became  in  1629  "  which  was  a  Jewess,"  as  in  Acts  xvi,  1.  In 
1  Tim.  i,  4,  "  godly  "  was  inserted  before  "  edifying  "  as  early 
as  1633 ;  and  in  1  Cor.  iv,  13,  "  world  "  of  the  early  editions 
was  turned  into  "  earth  "  in  an  edition  of  1806. 

A  folio  edition,  London  (Augustine  Matthews),  1633,  is  a 
reprint  of  Fulkes'  edition  of  1589,  the  "  Text  of  the  New 
Testament,"  which  had  the  Rheims  version  printed  in 
the  one  column,  and  the  Bishops'  in  the  other;  but  in  this 
edition  the  Authorized  is  substituted  for  the  Bishops'. 

The  Cambridge  edition  of  1629  was  revised  with  some  care, 
and  many  necessary  alterations  were  made,  the  editor  being- 
unknown.  Yet  out  of  this  revision  sprang  an  error  which  kept 
its  place,  in  hosts  of  editions,  for  more  than  a  hundred  years — 
viz.,  "  thy"  for  "the  "  in  1  Tim.  iv,  16,  "take  heed  to  thy  doc 
trine  "  for  "  the  doctrine." 

But  the  good  example  of  1629  was  not  followed.  An 
edition  in  12mo,  professing  to  be  by  Barker  and  assignes 
of  Bill,  in  1638,  abounds  in  errors.  The  following  may 
be  noted :  Gen.  xxxvii,  2,  "  Belial "  for  "  Bilhah " ;  Num. 
xxv,  18,  "wives"  for  "wiles";  xxvi,  10,  "two  thousand 
1  It  has  1631  both  on  title  and  colophon. 


and  fifty  "  for  "  hundred  and  fifty  " ;  2  Sam.  xxiii,  20,  "  slew 
two  lions  like  men  "  for  "  lion  like  men  "  ;  2  Chron.  xxxvi,  14, 
"  had  polluted  "  for  "  had  hallowed  " ;  Nehem.  iv,  9,  "  read  our 
prayer"  for  "made  our  prayer";  Isa,  i,  6,  "purifying  sores," 
for  "putrefying  sores";  xxix,  13,  "taught  by  the  people"  for 
"  taught  by  the  precept "  ;  xlix,  22,  "  their  sons  "  for  "  thy 
sons";  Ezek.  v,  11,  "any  piety"  for  "any  pity";  Luke  vii,  47, 
"  her  sins  which  are  many  are  forgotten  "  for  "  forgiven  "  ; 
xix,  29,  "  ten  of  his  disciples  "  for  "  two " ;  John  xviii,  29, 
"Pilate  went  not"  for  "went  out";  1  Cor.  vii,  34,  "praise 
her  husband"  for  "please";  1  Tim.  ii,  9,  " shamefulness "  for 
"  shamefacedness  "  ;  iv,  16,  "  thy  "  for  "  the  "  doctrine.1 

The  first  edition  avowedly  printed  abroad  appeared  in  1642 
folio  (Joost  Broerss,  Amsterdam),  and  it  was  furnished  with  the 
Genevan  notes.  Another  and  similar  edition  was  published 
in  the  same  place  in  1683,  as  the  maps  have  engraven  on  them 
"  At  Amsterdam,  by  Nicolaus  Visscher,  with  privilege  of  the 
Lords  the  States  Generall,"  and,  as  some  suppose,  it  was  printed 
probably  by  Swartz  or  his  widow.  In  1645  were  published 
two  editions  "  according  to  the  copy  printed  by  Roger  Daniel," 
and  a  third  issue,  in  12mo,  by  Joachim  Nosche,  dwelling  upon 
the  Sea  Dijck. 

In  1638  appeared  the  famous  folio  of  Buck  &  Daniel.  The 
edition  of  1611  was  thoroughly  revised  by  such  scholars  as 
Ward,  Goad,  Boyse,  and  Mead,  &c.  This  revision,  said  to  have 
been  made  by  royal  command,  was  much  needed.  Greater 
consistency  was  secured  in  the  printing  of  the  italic  words,  and 
many  useful  changes  were  introduced ;  so  that  it  was  regarded 
as  the  "  authentique  corrected  Bible."  Yet,  with  all  the 
earnest  care  and  labour  given  to  this  issue,  there  began  in 

1  This   edition   is  referred  to  by  Bibles,  in  the  Tract  referred  to,  that 

Baillie  in  his  "  Opus  Historicum  et  though  dated  1638,  they  were  im- 

Chronologicum,"    p.     55,     Arnstelo-  ported   in    1656,   adding    "  wherein 

dami,  1663.     Baillie  says  that  the  Mr.  Kiffiu  and  Mr.  Hills  cannot  be 

edition  was  printed  at  Amsterdam,  excused,  being  contrary  to  the  seve- 

and  was  one  among  many  sent  across  ral  Acts  of  Parliament  of  20th  Sept., 

from  Holland,  all  of  them  abounding  1649,  and  7th  Jany.,  1652,  for  regu- 

in  blunders.     Kilburne  says  of  these  lating  of  printing." 


it  an  error  which  lived  for  half  a  century — viz.,  the  printing 
of  "ye"  for  "we" — "whom  ye  may  appoint,"  Acts  vi,  3. 
The  Independents  were  blamed  for  making  the  change,  to  favour 
their  own  polity.  But  they  had  no  power  in  1638  to  secure 
such  an  alteration,  for  Laud  was  still  primate,  and  also  a  visitor 
of  the  University  of  Cambridge.  As  the  error  appeared  also 
in  two  Scottish  editions  of  1673  and  1675,  a  similar  charge  was 
made  against  Presbyterians,  that  they  "  handled  the  Word  of 
God  deceitfully."  l  The  accusation  must  have  been  made  in 
ignorance  of  what  Presbyterian  administration  really  is,  for  it 
has  never  dreamed  of  assigning  to  the  laity  the  power  of  ordi 
nation.  Presbyterians  were  utterly  powerless  in  those  years ; 
but  the  General  Assembly  felt  hurt  by  the  insinuation,  and  at 
their  meeting  in  January,  16.98,  they  solemnly  declared  that  they 
do  not  "own  any  other  reading  of  that  text,  but  '  whom  we 
may  appoint/ "  Mr.  Loftie  speaks  of  the  misprint  as  being 
"found  in  many  Bibles  supposed  to  be  printed  for  the  Puritans." 
What  editions  are  those  which  are  so  specified — for  the  mis 
print  was  apparently  in  the  great  majority  of  editions?  Did 
any  disciple  of  Owen,  or  any  intelligent  Congregationalist, 
ever  base  an  argument  on  the  misprint?  It  is  notable,  too, 
that  in  an  edition  of  1649,  furnished  with  Genevan  Notes,  and 
therefore  favoured  by  Puritans,  the  reading  is  correct. 

This  fine  folio  was  highly  coveted.  Sir  Matthew  Hale,  the 
Chief  Justice,  in  his  will  left  Richard  Baxter  "forty  shillings  as 
a  token  of  his  love."  Baxter  records,2  "I  purchased  the  largest 
Cambridge  Bible,  and  put  his  picture  before  it,  as  a  monument 
to  my  house.  But  waiting  for  my  own  death,  I  gave  it  Sir 
William  Ellis,  who  laid  out  about  ten  pounds  to  put  it  into  a 
more  curious  cover,  and  keep  it  for  a  monument  in  his  honour." 
A  shrewd  observer  of  manners  and  habits  tells  of  a  lady  in 
Edinburgh  who  had  fallen  into  poorer  circumstances,  and 
lived  in  a  room  "  on  the  head  of  the  highest  stair  in  the  Cove 
nant  Close," — that  "  she  never  read  a  chapter  except  out  of  a 
Cambridge  Bible,  printed  by  Daniel,  and  bound  in  embroidered 
velvet."  3 

1  The  accuser  was  Mr.  Gipps,  Eec-         2  Baxter's  "Works,  vol.  I,  p.  337. 
tor  of  Bury.  3  Scott,  in  Redgauutlet. 


A  12mo  edition  of  1653  is  sometimes  called  the  Quaker's 
Bible,  for  no  other  apparent  reason  than  that  the  publisher, 
Giles  Calvert,  printed  for  many  Friends.  But  some  Friends 
at  a  later  season  did  contemplate  an  edition  for  themselves, 
so  remodelled  as  to  be  fitted  "for  audible  and  social  reading." 
The  Pentateuch  alone  was  published.  York,  1835.  An  octavo 
edition  of  1655  (E.  T.  "for  a  Society  of  Stationers"),  has  the 
honour  of  being  correct  in  the  two  places  where  so  many 
issues  blundered,  having  "  we "  in  Acts  vi,  3,  and  "  the "  in 
1  Tim.  iv,  16. 

At  an  early  period,  good  people  became  alarmed  by  the 
number  and  variety  of  the  readings,  and  in  1644  some 
members  of  the  Westminster  Assembly  complained  to  the 
House  of  Commons,  "  that  there  were  errors  and  corruptions  in 
diverse  Bibles  of  an  impression  from  beyond  the  seas,  and  they 
prayed  the  House  to  suppress  the  circulation  of  them."  l  The 
result  was  that  foreign  Bibles  were  not  to  be  sold  or  circulated 
till  they  had  been  "passed  and  allowed"  by  the  Assembly 
of  Divines.  In  1656,  the  "Grand  Committee  for  Religion" 
took  into  consideration  an  edition  by  Field,  1653,  especially 
an  impression  in  24mo  of  which  he  had  sold  2,000  copies, 
and  they  got  into  their  possession  no  less  than  7,900  copies. 
Kilburne  in  his  Tract  stigmatizes  the  impressions  of  Henry 
Hill  and  John  Field,  particularly  Field's  edition  of  1656,  as 
containing  91  notorious  faults,  2  Cor.  xiii,  6,  being  omitted 
altogether. 2 

1  Christopher  Eavius,  in  the  pre-  in   the   wilderness"    for    "mules"; 
face  to  Prima  Pars  Alcorani  Arabico-  Euth  iv,  13,  "  corruption  "  for  "  con- 
Latini,     Amsterdam,     1646,    states  ceptioii";  Luke  xxi,  28,  "condem- 
without  hesitation  that  an  English  nation"    for     "redemption";     the 
printer  had  within  the  last  five  years  omission  of   a   clause    in    John   xi, 
sent  out  from  his  press  not  fewer  21;  "the  unrighteous  shall  inherit 
than  40,000  copies  of  the   English  the   kingdom    of   God,"   in    1    Cor. 
Bible,    that    his    last    edition   con-  vi,    9 ;    "  instruments  of    righteous- 
sisted  of  12,500  copies,  and  that  in  ness  for  sin,"  Eom.  vi,  13  ;  John  v, 
the  same  city  as  many  as  150,000  23,    "Bethsaida"   for   "Bethesda"; 
English  Bibles  had  been  printed.  "their  flesh"  for  "fish."    An  edition 

2  Such  errors  are   in  the  various  by  Mr.  Eobinson,  "  a  Scotch  Eabbi," 
editions,  as  Gen.  xxxvi,  24,  "  rulers  is  condemned  as  having  2,000  faults, 


Kilburne  asserts :  "  Moreover  during  the  time  of  the  late 
parliament,  great  numbers  of  Bibles,  in  a  large  12mo  volume, 
were  imported  from  Holland  in  1656  with  this  false  title, 
Imprinted  at  London  by  Rob.  Barker,  &c.,  anno  1638,  wherein 
Mr.  Kiffin  and  Mr.  Hills  cannot  be  excused  (if  reports  be  true), 
being  contrary  to  the  several  Acts  of  Parliament  of  20th 
September,  1649,  and  7th  January,  1652,  for  regulating  of 
printing.  Wherein  are  so  many  notorious  Erratas,  false  Eng 
lish,  Nonsense,  and  Corruptions,  that  in  reading  part  of  Genesis 
I  found  80  grand  faults,  as  chap,  xxvii,  16,  'mouth  of  his  neck' 
for  'smooth  of  his  neck' ;  chap,  xxix,  13,  'she'  for  'he  ran  to 
meet  him ' ;  chap,  xxx,  40,  '  put  them  unto '  for  '  put  them 
not  unto  Laban's  cattle.'  And  in  reading  Ecclesiastes, 
Canticles,  and  the  first  twenty-seven  chapters  of  Isaiah,  I 
found  almost  an  hundred  gross  faults,  which  I  did  specifie  to 
the  Parliament,  and  therefore  omit  them  here.  The  very 
importation  of  the  books  being  an  offence  contrary  to  the  said 
Statutes  and  ought  deservedly  to  be  suppressed;  which 
notwithstanding  are  dispersed  in  the  country  as  aforesaid." 
And  he  thus  concludes:  "That  it  will  graciously  please  his  divine 
Majesty  of  his  infinite  goodness,  and  mercy,  to  bless  this 
Common-wealth  with  the  like  dispensation  of  his  blessed 
Word  in  our  proper  Dialect,  and  speech  as  it  is  in  the  original 
Idiomes,  by  the  Zeal  and  Patronage  of  his  Highness,  and  the 
Parliament.  And  that  for  the  private  Emolument  of  any 
persons  (how  great  soever),  the  Scriptures  may  not  be  hereafter 
carelessly  and  erroneously  printed,  whereby  to  save  the  charge 
of  good  Correction  and  Printing,  as  may  be  plainly  proved  by 
such  Bibles,  which  have  been  printed  in  late  years,  or  else  (as 
is  pretended)  the  profit  will  not  countervail  the  charge.  For, 
as  it  is  credibly  reported,  Mr.  Hills  and  Mr.  Fields  have  several 
times  affirmed,  that  they  are  engaged  to  pay  £500  per  Annum 

besides  base  paper  and  printing, —  Luke  xxii,  34,  "  I  tell  thee.  Philip," 

"  loves "   for   "  loaves,"    "  ram "    for  for  "  Peter,"  predicting  the  denial, 

"lamb,"  "good"  for  "god,"  "mount"  In  a  Cambridge  Bible  of  1816  "sun" 

for  "  smooth."     Six  thousand  errors  is  given  as  "son"  in  the  phrase  "Sun 

are  said  to  be  in  one  edition.  of  righteousness,"  Mai.  iv,  2. 
As  late  as  1792,  an  Oxford  copy  has, 


to  some,  whose  names  out  of  respect  to  them  I  forbear  to 
mention,  over  and  above  £100  per  Annum  to  Mr.  Marchamont 
Needham,  and  his  wife,  out  of  the  profits  of  the  sale  of  their 
Bibles,  deriding,  insulting,  and  triumphing  over  others  of  the 
Printing  Mysterie,  out  of  their  confidence  in  their  great  Friends 
and  purse,  as  it  is  said,  as  if  they  were  lawlesse,  and  free 
(notwithstanding  the  truth  of  the  premises  and  other  grand 
enormities  often  committed  by  them)  both  from  offence  and 
punishment,  to  the  great  dishonour  of  the  Common- wealth  in 
general,  and  daminage  of  many  private  persons  in  particular." 

During  the  Commonwealth,  very  many  editions  bear  on  the 
title-page  "London  Company  of  Stationers,"  and  many  after  1675 
are  dated  "  Oxford  at  the  Theater."  Those  last  copies  were  sold 
in  London  by  various  booksellers.  The  colophon  of  one  edition 
has,  "  Printed  at  the  Theater  in  Oxford,  and  are  to  be  sold  by 
Moses  Pitt,  at  the  Angel  in  St.  Paul's  Churchyard ;  John 
Parker,  at  the  Leg  and  Star  over  against  the  Exchange  in 
Cornhill;  Thomas  Guy,  at  the  corner  of  Little  Lombard  Street; 
and  William  Leake,  at  the  Crown  in  Fleet  Street."  Many 
copies  were  disposed  of  by  Thomas  Guy,  who  also  imported  Bibles 
from  the  Continent,  and  left  his  fortune  to  build  the  great 
Hospital  that  bears  his  name.  The  story  about  Field's  Pearl 
Bible,  as  told  by  Isaac  Disraeli,  is  exaggerated,  and  the  errors 
are  at  once  ascribed  by  him  to  the  wilful  perversions  and 
malignity  of  the  "  Sectarists."  One  specimen  may  suffice.  His 
words  are,  "  It  is  said  that  Field  received  a  present  of  £1,500 
from  the  Independents  to  corrupt  a  text  in  Acts  vi,  3,  the 
corruption  being  the  easiest  possible,  to  put  a  ye  instead  of  a 
ive."  l  But  Field  had  nothing  to  do  with  the  error,  for  it  had 
appeared  fifteen  years  before,  and  is  first  found,  as  we  have  seen, 
in  the  Cambridge  folio  of  1638,  revised  by  divines  of  the 
Church  of  England,  at  a  time,  too,  when  Disraeli's  idol,  King 
Charles  I,  was  upon  the  throne. 

As  late  as  the  period  of  the  Commonwealth,  there  was  still 

a  hankering  after  notes,  similar  to  the  Genevan  ones.     "  Divers 

of  the*printers  and  stationers  of  London  were  induced  to  petition 

the  Committee  of  the  House  of  Commons  for  license  to  print 

1  Curiosities  of  Literature,  vol.  Ill,  p.  427,  London,  1858. 


them,  after  some  revision  fitting  to  the  present  version.''  The 
petition  was  granted  in  1644,  with  an  order  for  revision  and 
correction,  "for  which  letters  were  directed  to  some  of  us 
from  the  Chair  of  the  Committee  for  religion,  and  invitations 
to  others  to  undertake  and  divide  the  task,  being  furnished 
with  whatever  books  were  needful."  About  five  years  after, 
the  fruit  of  these  labours  appeared  in  a  folio  volume,  known  by. 
the  name  of  the  "Assembly's  Annotations."  The  second 
edition,  1651,  grew  into  two  volumes;  but  in  the  preface  the 
authors  say  that  the  comments  were  really  and  originally 
meant  for  marginal  notes,  "of  the  same  size  as  the  text,  lest 
the  border  should  be  larger  than  the  skirt  of  the  coat,  and  the 
wing  of  the  page  than  the  main  book."  What  was  intended 
for  mere  marginal  notes  grew  into  "  an  entire  commentary  on 
the  Sacred  Scriptures,  the  like  never  before  published  in 
English."  These  volumes  are  usually,  but  wrongly,  called  the 
Assembly's  Annotations.  Several  of  those  that  were  con 
cerned  in  it  were  members  of  the  Assembly;  but  it  was 
not  undertaken  by  the  direction  or  with  the  consent  of  the 
Assembly ;  nor  were  the  "  more  part "  of  the  authors  ever 
members  of  the  Assembly ;  nor  did  the  Assembly  revise 
or  sanction  the  work  when  it  was  finished.  "  How 
ever,"  says  Calamy,  "it  was  a  good  work  in  its  season, 
and  I  shall  add  the  names  of  the  true  authors,  as  far  as  my  best 
inquiry  would  help  me  to  intelligence — Mr.  Ley,  Sub-Dean  of 
Chester,  did  the  Pentateuch  ;  Dr.  Gouge  had  the  two  books  of 
Kings  and  Chronicles,  Ezra,  Nehemiah,  and  Esther  for  his  pro 
vince  ;  Mr.  Meric  Casaubon  did  the  Psalms  ;  Mr.  Francis  Taylor 
the  Proverbs ;  and  Dr.  Reynolds,  Ecclesiastes ;  Mr.  Swalwood, 
who  was  recommended  by  Archbishop  Usher,  did  Solomon's 
Song ;  the  learned  Gataker  did  Isaiah,  Jeremiah,  and  Lamenta 
tions,  and  is,  in  the  opinion  of  many  competent  judges,  ex 
ceeded  by  no  commentator,  ancient  or  modern,  on  those  books. 
Ezekiel,  Daniel,  and  the  small  Prophets,  were  in  the  first 
edition  done  by  Mr.  Pemberton,  and  in  the  second  by  Bishop 
Richardson.  The  Notes  on  the  four  Evangelists  are  Mr. 
Ley's ;  and  those  on  St.  Paul's  Epistles,  Dr.  Featley's,  which 
latter  are  broken  and  imperfect,  on  the  account  of  the  author's 


dying  before  lie  had  revised  or  finished  them.  There  were  also 
two  other  persons  concerned  in  this  work — viz.,  Dr.  Downame 
and  Mr.  Reading,  who  might  probably  have  the  other  parts  of 
Scripture  allotted  them,  that  are  not  here  mentioned." l  The 
desire  for  the  old  Notes  still  remained,  as  may  be  seen  in  this 
extract  from  a  MS.  letter,  dated  1664,  from  the  Rev.  John  Allen, 
in  London,  to  his  friend  at  Rye : — "  I  cannot  yet  get  a  Bible  for 
the  old  woman,  but  one  printed  1661,  12s.  price,  and  6d.  if 
claspet ;  but  I  count  that  too  deare,  and  not  of  the  edition  she 
desires,  with  Beza's  Annotations ;"  that  is,  some  edition  of  the 
Genevan,  or  an  edition  of  the  Authorized  Version,  with  the 
Genevan  notes,  like  that  of  1649. 2 

Lightfoot  in  1643  had  inveighed  against  the  Apocrypha 
in  a  sermon  preached  before  the  House  of  Commons,  in  St. 
Margaret's,  Westminster,  at  the  public  fast :  "The  words  of  the 
text  are  the  last  words  of  the  Old  Testament — there  uttered  by 
a  prophet,  here  expounded  by  an  angel — there  concluding  the 
law,  and  here  beginning  the  gospel.  '  Behold,'  saith  Malachi, 
'I  will  send  you  Elijah  the  prophet;'  and  he  saith,  the 
angel  '  shall  go  before  him  in  the  spirit  and  power  of  Elias.' 
And  '  he  shall  turn  the  hearts  of  the  fathers  to  the  children,' 
saith  the  one  ;  and  '  to  turn  the  hearts  of  the  fathers  to  the 
children,'  saith  the  other.  Thus  sweetly  and  nearly  should 
the  two  Testaments  join  together,  and  thus  divinely  would  they 
kiss  each  other,  but  that  the  wretched  Apocrypha  doth  thrust 
in  between,  like  the  two  cherubins  in  the  temple-oracle,  as 
with  their  outer  wings  they  touch  the  two  sides  of  the  house, 
from  '  in  the  beginning,'  to  '  come,  Lord  Jesus  ' ;  so,  with  their 
inner,  they  would  touch  each  other,  the  end  of  the  law  with 
the  beginning  of  the  Gospel,  did  not  this  patch ery  of  human 
invention  divorce  them  asunder.  .  .  .  But  it  is  a  wonder,  to 
which  I  could  never  yet  receive  satisfaction,  that  in  churches 
that  are  reformed,  they  have  shaken  off  the  yoke  of  supersti 
tion,  and  unpinned  themselves  from  off  the  sleeve  of  former 
customs,  or  doing  as  their  ancestors  have  done  ;  yet  in  such  a 

1  Calamy's  Abridgment  of  Baxter's        2  Notes  and  Queries,  2nd  edition. 
Life  and  Times,  vol.  I,  page  86,  2nd     vol.  Ill,  page  16. 
edition,  London,  1713. 


thing  as  this,  and  of  so  great  import,  should  do  as  first  igno 
rance,  and  then  superstition,  hath  done  before  them.  It  is 
true,  indeed,  that  they  have  refused  these  books  out  of  the 
canon,  but  they  have  reserved  them  still  in  the  Bible,  as  if  God 
should  have  cast  Adam  out  of  the  state  of  happiness,  and  yet 
have  continued  him  in  the  place  of  happiness.  Not  to  insist 
upon  this,  which  is  some  digression,  you  know  the  counsel  of 
Sarah  concerning  Ishmael,  and  in  that  she  outstripped  Abraham 
in  the  spirit  of  prophecy,  '  Cast  out  the  bond-woman  and  her 
son ;  for  the  son  of  the  bond-woman  may  not  be  heir  with  the 
son  of  the  free.'  " 1 

Many  members  of  the  Church  of  England  may  have  been 
of  Lightfoot's  opinion,  but  the  Puritans  were  more  decided, 
Tyndale  had  translated  some  portions  of  the  Apocrypha  to 
serve  as  church  lessons.  Coverdale  accepted  it,  Rogers  ad 
mitted  it  under  a  species  of  protest,  the  Great  Bible  and  the 
Bishops'  had  it,  and  the  Genevan  copies  usually  included  it. 
With  all  its  absurdities,  fables,  and  inconsistencies,  it  exhibits 
a  great  body  of  Jewish  thought  and  theology,  which  may  be 
faintly  traced  either  in  idea,  imagery,  or  diction,  in  a  few  parts 
of  the  New  Testament.  It  was  about  this  time  that  Bibles 
were  printed  having  the  canonical  books  only.  When,  in 
164-5,  a  Book  of  Prayers  was  compiled  for  the  navy,  the 
Apocrypha  was  ignored.  At  the  prosecution,  as  early  as  1 633, 
before  the  Star  Chamber,  of  the  Recorder  of  Salisbury, 
for  breaking  some  painted  glass  in  a  church,  Chief-Justice 
Richardson  threw  in  a  word  in  favour  of  the  defendant :  "  I 
have  been  long  acquainted  with  him,  he  sitteth  by  me  some 
times  at  church,  he  brought  a  Bible  to  church  with  him  (I 
have  seen  it),  with  the  Apocrypha  and  Common  Prayer  Book 
in  it,  not  of  the  new  cut."  5 

There  was  a  heavy  folio  on  large  paper  published  in  1660-59 
(Field,  Cambridge),  of  which  Pepys  records,  in  his  Diary,  27th 
May,  1667,  "  There  came  Richardson  the  bookbinder,  with  one 

1   "Works,   vol.    VI,    p.    130,    ed.  Erubhin  or  Miscellanies, Works,  vol. 

Pitman,    London,     1822.       Similar  IV,  p.  30. 

remarks    may    be     found     in     his  2  Campbell's   Chief   Justices,  vol. 

curious     and     interesting     treatise,  II,  p.  17. 


of  Ogilby's  Bibles  in  quires,  for  me  to  see  and  buy  .  .  .  but  it 
is  like  to  be  so  big  that  I  shall  not  use  it."  An  edition  of  1G82 
(Bill,  Newcomb,  &  Hills),  has  errors  on  nearly  every  page — errors 
like  the  following  :  Gen.  ix,  5,  "  at  the  hand  of  man,"  omitted ; 
xxi,  26,  "  neither  didst  thou  tell  me,"  omitted  ;  xxx,  35,  "  and 
all  the  brown  among  the  sheep,"  omitted  ;  Deut.  xxiv,  3,  "  if  the 
latter  husband  ate  her,"  for  "  hate  her  "  ;  Esther  vi,  2,  "  kings," 
for  "  keepers  " ;  Jerem.  xiii,  27, "  adversaries  "  for  "  adulteries  "  ; 
xvi,  G,  "  glad  "  for  "bald";  xviii,  21,  "swine,"  for  "famine"; 
Ezek.  xviii,  25,  "  the  way  of  the  Lord  is  equal,"  for  "  not  equal." 

A  folio  edition  of  becoming  appearance  was  published  in 
1701,  under  the  patronage  of  Archbishop  Tennison ;  London, 
C.  Bill,  and  the  executrix  of  T.  Newcomb.  It  was  graced 
with  chronological  notes  and  a  collection  of  parallel  pas 
sages,  by  Dr.  Lloyd,  Bishop  of  Worcester;  a  table  of  mea 
sures,  weights,  and  coins  being  added  by  Dr.  Cumberland, 
Bishop  of  Peterborough.  The  margin  also  noted  the  con 
nection  of  the  passages  with  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer. 
But  this  edition,  like  so  many  of  its  predecessors,  was  dis 
figured  by  inaccurate  printing — by  what  Lewis  calls  "  typo 
graphical  erratas."  Lewis  writes,  "Two  years  afterwards,  in 
1703,  the  Lower  House  of  Convocation  took  up  the  subject 
and  presented  to  the  Upper  House  a  humble  representation  of 
several  gross  errors  in  late  editions  of  the  Holy  Bible."  But  no 
record  of  such  transactions  survives.  It  would  seem  that  the 
privileged  presses  were  very  careless,  for  their  patent  lifted 
them  above  all  fear  of  competition. 

The  edition  of  Dr.  Paris,  Cambridge,  17G2,  though  it  embo 
died  "  large  corrections  in  the  particulars,"  left  many  places 
untouched  where  change  was  necessary,  those  changes  being 
introduced,  not  on  his  own  judgment  singly,  but  after  an 
examination  by  a  "  Select  Committee,"  particularly  the  Prin 
cipal  of  Hertford  College  and  Professor  Wheeler.  Errors, 
however,  crept  in,  especially  in  the  margin  and  in  the  italics. 
This  edition,  which  was  nearly  all  destroyed  by  a  fire,  was  far 
from  being  immaculate,  and  several  of  its  errors  were  repeated 
in  the  more  famous  edition  of  Dr.  Blayney. 

The    edition    of    Dr.     Blayney    (Oxford,   Wright    &    Gill, 


1769)    has  been  long  regarded  as  a  standard  edition.      The 
editor  bestowed  uncommon  pains  upon  it.     He  collated  the 
original  edition   of   1611,  that  of  Bishop  Lloyd,   1701,    and 
two  Cambridge  editions  in  quarto  and  octavo,  and  discovered 
and  corrected  many  errors,  "  so  that  the  text  is  reformed  to 
such  'a  standard  of  purity  as  it  is  presumed  is  not  to  be  met 
with  in  any  other  edition  hitherto  extant."     The  punctuation 
was  also  carefully  attended  to  as  to  correctness  and  uniformity, 
and  the  labours  of  Dr.  Paris  on  the  italic  words  were  largely 
supplemented.     Alterations  were  made  on  the  heads  or  con 
tents  of  the  chapters  and  the  running  titles  of  each  page  ;  and 
"  the  meaning  of  those  proper  names,  to  the  etymology  of  which 
there  is  allusion  in  the  text,  were  supplied  in  the  margin." 
Immense   pains   were   bestowed   on  the  marginal  references, 
which  had  been  erroneously  printed  in  so  many  editions.     In 
some  few  instances  Dr.  Blayney  confesses  himself  to  have  been 
"  at  a  loss  in  finding  out  the  true  reference,  though  the  cor 
ruption  was  manifest  in  the  want  of  any  the  most   distant 
resemblance  between  the  passages  compared  together."     These 
references   were   cautiously   examined,   particularly   those    of 
Bishop  Lloyd's  Bible  and  of  a  Scotch  edition,  and  were  also 
greatly  augmented,  the  purpose  being  to  make  the  collection 
"  useful  in  the  light  of  a  concordance,  material  as  well  as  verbal, 
always  at  hand."     The  quarto  copy  so  prepared  was  first  sent  to 
press,  and  first,  second,  and,  "  generally  speaking,"  third  proofs 
were  read,  besides  frequent  revisions — "a  very_  tiresome  and 
tedious  task,  but  not  more  than  was  absolutely  necessary,  in 
order  to  attain  the  degree  of  accuracy  that  was  wished."     The 
figures  belonging  to  the   marginal  references,  "where  errors 
were  perpetually  creeping  in,"  were  minutely  superintended. 
When    the   quarto   sheets  were   printed   off  the  forms  were 
lengthened  out  for  the  folio  edition,  but  the  change  so  disar 
ranged  the  references  and  chronology  that  a  fresh  collation  of 
the  whole  with  the  quarto  edition  was  gone  through,  and  in 
this  process  "  some  few  trivial  inaccuracies  "  have  been  dis 
covered  and  rectified,  "  so  that  the  folio  edition  is  rendered  by 
this  somewhat  the  more  perfect  of  the  two,  and  therefore  more 
fit  to  be  recommended  for  a  standard  copy."     New  references 


to  the  amount  of  30,495  were  inserted  in  the  margin.  "  The 
whole  was  completed  in  a  course  of  between  three  and  four 
years'  application."  Honest  and  anxious  labour  was  expended 
on  the  edition,  and  yet  it  turned  out  to  be  far  from  immacu 
late.  For  when  it  was  collated  for  Eyre  &  Strahan's  edition  of 
1806,  not  fewer  than  116  errors  were  discovered  in  it.  One  of 
these  consists  of  the  omission  of  a  whole  clause  in  Rev.  xviii, 
22,  "  at  all  in  thee,  and  no  craftsman  of  whatever  craft  he  be 
shall  be  found  any  more."  Cotton  says  that  the  omission 
occurs  only  in  the  quarto  edition ;  and  Hartwell  Home,  in  some 
earlier  editions  of  his  Introduction,  says  that  the  omission  arose 
from  the  overrunning  when  the  volume  was  changed  from  a 
folio  to  a  quarto  form.  But  the  error  occurs  both  in  the  folio 
and  quarto ;  and  according  to  Dr.  Blayney's  own  report  the 
quarto  was  the  original  form  of  the  edition.1  Principal  Lee 
justly  questions  the  perfect  accuracy  of  the  report  of  the 
collators  for  the  edition  of  1806  in  their  enumeration  of  only 
116  errors  said  to  be  found  in  the  copies  of  1769,  and  he  adds 
that  even  in  this  edition  of  1806  there  are  also  such  blunders 
as  "  holy  "  for  "  whole,"  &c.  In  Blayney's  edition  these  blunders 
are  found :  Gen.  xlix,  26,  "  thy  progenitors,"  for  "  my  progeni 
tors  " ;  Deut.  xi,  19,  "  thy  earth,"  for  "  the  earth  "  ;  Judges  xi, 
7,  "children,"  for  "  elders "  ;  2  Kings  xxiii,  21,  "  this  book 
of  the  covenant,"  for  "  the  book  of  this  covenant " ;  1  Chron. 
xxix,  6,  "  over  the  kings,"  for  "  of  the  kings  "  ;  John  xxi,  17, 
"  he  saith,"  for  "  he  said " ;  Rom.  vii,  20,  "  now  if  do,"  for 
"if  I  do";  1*  Cor.  iv,  13,  "earth,"  for  "world";  2  Cor. 
xii,  2,  "  about,"  for  "  above "  ;  1  John  i,  4,  "  our  joy,"  for 
"  your  joy " ;  and  "  godly "  omitted  in  the  clause,  1 
Tim.  i,  4.  Other  variations  might  be  given,  but  these  are 
sufficient  to  destroy  the  plea  of  perfection.  An  edition  of 
1811  has  in  Isaiah  Ivii,  12,  "  thy  works,  for  they  shall 
profit  thee,"  "  not "  being  omitted.  Eyre  &  Strahan's  quarto 
edition  of  1813  was  recommended  to  the  Protestant  Epis- 

1  Dr.  Blayney's  Report,dated  Hert-     of  the  Clarendon  Press.  It  is  inserted 
ford   College,   October  25,  1769,  is    in  the   Gentleman's    Magazine    for 
addressed   to   the   Rev.    the    Vice-     November,  1769. 
Chancellor  and  the  other  Delegates 

VOL.  II.  U 


,  copal  Church  of  the  United  States  of  America  by  its  Con 
vention;  but  it  is  by  no  means  faultless,  for  it  has,  2  Cor. 
xii,  2,  "about"  for  "above";  Eph.  iv,  16,  "holy  body,"  for 
"whole  body."  The  blunder,  "three  is  but  one  God," 
occurs  in  three  editions  of  Eyre  &  Strahan,  in  1812,  1820, 

Erroneous  printing  and  bad  paper  were  still  subjects  of 
complaint,  and  George  I,  April  2-4,  1724,  issued  an  order  to 
the  patentees,  "  that  they  shall  employ  such  correctors  of  the 
press  and  allow  them  such  salaries  as  shall  be  approved  from 
time  to  time  by  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  and  the  Bishop 
of  London  for  the  time  being." 

There  seems  to  have  been  a  scanty  issue  of  Bibles  of 
smaller  size,  and  Lemoine,  a  bookseller  in  London,  published 
in  1797  the  following  complaint:  "Neither  the  Universities 
of  Oxford  and  Cambridge,  nor  the  King's  Printers  at  London, 
have  distinguished  themselves  for  their  typographical  exertions 
in  publishing  a  pocket  Bible ;  an  article  very  much  wanted. 
The  Cambridge  Bible  in  2-ito  is  too  thick;  the  London  Bible 
is  upon  bad  paper ;  and  nothing  can  be  said  in  favour  of  the 
Oxford  pocket  Bible."  The  same  author  says  elsewhere,  speak 
ing  of  editions  undertaken  by  private  individuals,  "  The 
emulation  produced,  and  the  consequence  of  the  exercise  of  the 
liberal  arts,  has  never  manifested  itself  more  of  late  years  than 
in  this  article  of  Bible  printing ;  while  the  two  Universities 
and  the  King's  Printers  have  brought  out  nothing  above 
mediocrity.  It  would  have  reflected  honour  upon  their 
privileges  and  patents,  had  they  exerted  their  superiority, 
and  not  left  it  to  individuals  to  excel  them  in  their  own 
province."  l 

A  quarto  edition  appeared  in  1810  with  "  short  notes  by 
several  learned  and  pious  Reformers," — virtually  the  Genevan 
notes ;  hence  afterwards  called  the  "  Reformers'  Bible." 

Complaints  sprang  up  anew  in  the  year  1830  as  to  the 
unsatisfactory  state  of  the  text  of  the  English  Bible,  and  a 
committee  of  Dissenting  ministers  published  resolutions  on  the 

1  History  of  Printing,  p.  148,  London,  1797. 


subject,  declaring  that  "  extensive  alterations  had  been  intro 
duced  into  the  text  of  our  Authorized  Version " ;  branding 
these  alterations  in  unmeasured  terms  and  foreboding  dismal 
results. l  As  the  question,  after  all,  was  one  chiefly  about 
the  use  of  the  words  printed  in  italics,  Dr.  Turton  2  disposed 
of  it  in  easy  style,  and  showed  fully  the  capricious  use  of 
italics  in  the  first  edition  of  1611.  "  The  translators  produced 
a  standard  version,  but  the  printers  have  not  transmitted  a 
standard  text."  In  connection  with  this  controversy  there 
was  published  at  Oxford  in  1833  an  exact  copy  of  the  first 
edition  of  1611 — "  page  for  page  and  letter  for  letter " — 
retaining  throughout  the  ancient  mode  of  spelling  and 
punctuation,  and  even  the  most  manifest  errors  of  the  press. 
A  collation  of  the  edition  of  1611  with  that  of  1613  is  added. 
The  report  of  an  American  committee,  who  prepared  an 
unsuccessful  edition  in  1856  for  the  American  Bible  Society, 
avers  that  "in  six  copies  compared  the  number  of  variations 
in  text  and  punctuation  falls  but  little  short  of  twenty-four 
thousand."  3  The  volume,  which  was  carefully  prepared,  was 
not  accepted  by  the  American  public  for  various  reasons.  The 
Bible  Society  was  justly  accused  of  going  beyond  its  proper 
province  which  was  simply  the  circulation  of  the  Scriptures. 
The  revision  was  felt  to  be  unworthy  of  the  name,  for  it  touched 
the  text  only  in  the  smaller  matters  of  spelling,  italics,  punctua 
tion,  and  capital  letters.  The  removal  of  the  old  theological 
headings  and  contents  of  chapters,  as  in  Psalms  and  the  Song  of 
Solomon,  led  also  to  a  grievous  outcry,  in  which  many  men  of 
high  standing  seem  to  have  joined.  The  edition,  therefore, 

1  Curtis, On  the  Existing  Monopoly,     accuracy    will    be     found     in     the 
four  letters  to  the  Bishop  of  London,     examination  of  various  parties  before 
&c.,  London,  1833.  a  committee  of  the  House  of  Com- 

2  Text    of     the    English     Bible,  mons  in  1832,  1837,  1860.     Printers 
Cambridge,      1833.      Mr.     Curtis's  and     publishers      showed      special 
misrepresentations  were  also  exposed  sharpness  in  detecting  errors  in  their 
by  Edward  Cardwell,  D.D.,  Oxford,  rivals'  editions,  offering  a  remarkable 
1833.  illustration  of   the  saying  in  Prov. 

3  Interesting  information  on  the  xviii,  17.    For  the  so-called  Vinegar 
printing    of     Bibles    and     on     the  Bible  see  note,  page  15. 

question  of  comparative  expense  and 


wanting  distinctive  character,  was  soon  withdrawn  from 
circulation. a 

The  marginal  references  grew  and  multiplied  in  the  course 
of  years.  In  the  first  edition  of  1611  they  amounted  in  the 
canonical  books  to  8,418,  increasing  to  23,895  in  the  edition  of 
Hayes,  Cambridge,  1677;  to  33,000  in  that  of  Scattergood, 
Cambridge,  1678;  in  Lloyd's  to  39,466;  in  Blayney's  to 
64,983;  in  Crutwell's  to  66,955,  Bath,  1785.  Such 
references  to  parallel  passages  became,  therefore,  unduly 
multiplied  ;  especially  in  Canne's  Bibles,  which  were  long  very 
popular,  and  his  gauge  seems  to  have  been  simply  the  capacity 
of  the  margin. 

The  punctuation  has  varied  much  in  the  numerous  editions, 
and  the  stopping  was  heavy  in  the  earlier  issues.  The  con 
nection,  if  connection  there  be,  between  the  second  and  third 
verse  of  John  i,  depends  on  the  punctuation  adopted,  and 
similarly  in  Matt,  xix,  28,  and  Titus  ii,  11.  The  full  stop  at 
the  end  of  a  verse  sometimes  interrupts  the  sense:  Ps.  Ixxxiv, 
5,  6,  "  in  whose  hearts  are  the  ways  of  them,  who  passing 
through  the  valley  of  Baca  make  it  a  well " — with  a  simple 
comma  after  "  them  " — "  those  that  dwell  in  His  house  are 
blessed,  and  those  who  make  a  pilgrimage  to  it."  Luke  xiii, 
24,  25,  "  many  will  seek  to  enter  in  and  shall  not  be  able, 
when  once  the  master  of  the  house  is  risen  up  and  hath  shut 
to  the  door" — when  the  door  is  shut  but  not  till  then,  is 
entrance  impossible.  Luke  xxiii,  32,  was  printed  thus,  "  and 
there  were  also  two  other  malefactors  led  with  him."  This 
is  the  literal  rendering,  though  there  is  a  difference  of  reading. 
But  "  other"  was  then  a  plural  form,2  as  in  Gen.  viii,  10,  Matt, 
xiii,  8;  "others"  is  never  found  in  Shakespeare — the  sense  being 
that  there  were  two  other,  or  two  besides  him,  they  being 
malefactors.  "  Other"  was  by  and  by  changed  into  "others"  with 
a  new  punctuation.  "  And  there  were  also  two  others,  male 
factors,  led  with  him."  The  clause  is  liable  still  to  be 
misunderstood.  The  reading  of  the  Bishops'  is,  "  and  there 

1  Report  of  the  Committee,  New  hand  column  of  the  first  note  on 
York,  1851.  page  311. 

-  See  the  first  line  of  the  ri^ht 


were  other  two  evildoers  led  with  him."  The  Great  Bible 
cuts  the  knot  by  simply  omitting  the  word  "  other,"  "  and 
there  were  two  evildoers  led  with  him  to  be  slain  " — a  version 
unfaithful  to  the  Greek.  The  Eheims  has,  "  and  there  were 
led  also  other  two  malefactors  with  him,  to  be  executed."  l 
The  Genevan  has  "  and  there  were  two  others,  which  were 
evildoers,  led  with  him." 

It  is  strange  that  there  are  no  paragraph  marks  in  the 
Authorized  Version  beyond  the  twentieth  chapter  of  Acts,  as 
if  the  printing  had  been  hurried  toward  the  conclusion.  The 
division  into  chapters  and  verses  is  so  familiar  that  it  cannot 
be  easily  set  aside — as  Bibles  in  all  languages  adopt  it,  and  all 
concordances  are  based  upon  it.  That  there  are  unfortunate 
breaks  in  the  sense  in  several  places  no  one  questions. 
How  could  it  be  otherwise  among  1,189  chapters  and  31,173 
verses.  The  matter  contained  in  a  paragraph  might  be 
brought  more  closely  together  without  the  hiatus  of  verses, 
or  the  verses  might  be  marked  in  the  margin. 

It  would  serve  no  purpose  to  dwell  on  the  splendid  editions 
of  Macklin  or  that  of  Baskerville  for  license  to  print  which 
he  is  said  to  have  paid  a  large  sum  to  the  University  of 
Cambridge,  or  those  of  Bishop  Wilson,  Pine,  Reeves,  Heptin- 
stall,  and  Bowyer,  or  to  enumerate  many  others  of  recent 
years,  superbly  got  up,  with  good  paper,  excellent  printing,  and 
many  magnificent  illustrations.  A  Cambridge  Bible  of  1858 
may  be  for  its  general  correctness  pronounced  a  very  good 

An  edition  was  published  in  Dublin  in  1714,  and  Dr. 
Cotton,  Archdeacon  of  Cashel,  confesses,  "I  am  ashamed  to 
say  that  this  is  the  earliest  edition  of  the  Bible  printed  in 
Ireland,  which  I  have  been  able  to  discover."  The  first  New 
Testament  published  in  America  bears  the  imprint  of  Mark 
Baskett,  London,  1742.  But  it  was  stealthily  printed  in  Boston, 
and  the  issue  consisted  of  2,000  copies.  A  Bible  was  printed  in 
the  same  place,  with  the  same  fictitious  imprint  to  evade  the 
patent,  in  1752.  But  the  Bible  was  first  printed  without 
disguise  in  America  in  1782  (4to,  Philadelphia,  R.  Arthur, 
1  "  Alii  duo  nequam,"  Vulgate. 



an  emigrant  Scotchman.) 1  This  took  place  162  years  after  the 
landing  of  the  Pilgrim  Fathers ;  and,  strange  to  say,  a 
Genevan  Bible  had  been  already  published  in  1743.  The 
most  thorough  critical  examination  of  the  text  of  the 
Authorized,  with  a  collation  of  the  most  famous  editions,  has 
been  made  b}^  Dr.  Scrivener,  who  is  noted  for  his  patient, 
minute,  and  accurate  research,  and  his  long  and  intimate 
familiarity  with  the  subject.  His  Cambridge  Paragraph 
Bible,  1873,  bears  witness  on  every  page  to  the  truth  of  our 

1  Thomas's  History  of  Printing  in 
America,  vol.  I,  pp.  93,  305.  Arthur's 
daughter  carried  oil  the  business 
after  her  father's  death  in  1802,  and 
printed  the  First  English  Transla 
tion  of  the  Septuagint — The  Old 
Covenant,  by  Charles  Thomson,  late 
secretary  to  Congress,  Philadelphia, 
Jane  Arthur,  1808. 

In  mediaeval  times  Bibles  were 
often  gorgeously  apparelled,  and 
adorned  with  gold  and  jewels. 
Charlemagne,  in  795,  gave  the  monks 
of  St.  Bertin  the  right  of  hunting  in 
his  forests,  that  they  might  have 
abundance  of  skins  or  leather  with 
which  to  bind  their  books.  Strange 
stories  have  been  told  of  some  thick 
and  strongly  bound  Bibles,  and  their 
instrumentality  in  saving  life — as 
when  a  musket  ball  struck  against 
one  hidden  in  the  folds  of  a  soldier's 
uniform,  but  was  unable  to  pierce  it 
through.  The  Pocket  Bibles  of 
Cromwell's  soldiers  were  not  meant 

to  serve  such  a  purpose,  though  they 
were  usually  buttoned  between  the 
coat  and  the  vest — over  the  heart. 
They  consisted  only  of  some  extracts, 
divided  into  eighteen  chapters, 
"  which  doe  show  the  qualifications 
of  the  inner  man  that  is  a  fit  souldier 
to  fight  the  Lord's  battels,  both  be 
fore  the  fight,  in  the  fight,  and  after 
the  fight."  London,  1643.  Many 
of  the  sections  are  taken  from  the 
Genevan  version,  and  the  thin 
stitched  book,  printed  on  a  single 
sheet  folded  in  16mo,  bears  on 
it,  "  Imprimatur  Edm.  Calamy." 
The  only  known  copy  in  this  country 
is  in  the  British  Museum,  and  it  has 
been  reprinted  by  Mr.  Yry  of  Bris 
tol.  Another  copy  has  been  found 
in  America.  See  Bibliomania  in  the 
Middle  Ages,  by  F.  Somner  Merry- 
weather,  p.  152,  London,  1849,  and 
also  The  Bible  in  the  Middle  Ages, 
by  Leicester  Ambrose  Buckingham, 
London,  1853. 


TN  the  course  of  the  story  we  have  seen  that  hostility  to  a 
vernacular  Bible  was  as  intense  in  Scotland l  as  it  was  in 
England.  The  Scottish  poets,  like  Lyndsay,  often  refer  to 
English  translators,  and  the  enmity  and  terror  which  they 
created.  According  to  George  Buchanan,  the  clergy  gave  out 
that  Luther  had  composed  a  book  called  the  New  Testament.2 
The  priest  Hamilton,  whose  virulent  critical  notes  on  the 
Genevan  we  have  given  on  pp.  55,  56,  is  equal  to  his  fellows : 
"Are  all  merchands,  tailours,  souters,  baxters,  wha  cannot 
learne  thair  awin  craftes  without  skilful  maisters,  ar  thir,  I  say, 
and  uther  temporal  men,  of  whatsomever  vocation  or  degree, 
sufficient  doctor  of  thame  selfis  to  reid  and  understand  the  hie 

mysteries  of  the  Bible  ? What  folie  is  it  that  wemen,  wha 

cannot  sew,  cairde,  nor  spin,  without  they  lerne  the  same  of 
uther  skilful  wemen,  suld  usurp  to  reid  and  interpret  the 
Bible  ? " 

In  spite   of  all   hostility    and    jealous    espionage,    various 
versions  found  their  way  into  the  country,  like  the  written 

1  See  vol.  I,  p.  243.  and  other  that  were  by,  swearing  a 

2  Halle,  the  old  English  Chronicler,  great   oath,  that  if  he  thought  the 
p.  806  (ed.  1808),  records  under  date  kyngs  highness  would  set  forth  the 
25th  year  of    King    Henry  VIII,  Scripture  in  Englishe,  and  let  it  be 
"  This  yere  also,  one  Pavier,  town  red  of  the  people  by  his  authoritie, 
clerk  of    London,   hanged   himself,  rather  than  he  would  so  long  live  he 
•which  surely  was  a  man  that  in  no  would  cut  his  owne  throte,  but  he 
wise  could  abide  to  heere  that  the  brake  promise,  for  as  you  heard  he 
Gospel  should  be  in  Englishe,  and  I  hanged  himself." 

myself  heard  him  once  saie  to  me 


Bible  of  Wycliffe  and  the  volumes  of  Tyndale,  and  of  the 
Genevan  translation  which  it  reprinted,  but  it  never  had  any 
indigenous  translation.1  This  strange  negligence  is  the  more 
unaccountable  as  there  was  no  lack  in  Scotland  of  learned 
men,  and  no  scarcity  of  books  printed  at  home,  or  brought  in 
from  abroad — a  traffic  conducted  under  royal  license.  Readers 
were  also  abundant,  and  it  is  somewhat  astonishing  to  find 
that  in  fifty-six  years  (namely,  from  1558  to  1614),  fourteen 
complete  editions  of  the  works  of  Sir  David  Lindsay  were 
published,  including  two  printed  at  Paris,  and  three  in  Eng 
land.  There  were  three  editions  of  Buchanan's  History,  in 
1582,  1583,  1584;  and  there  were  thirty-one  editions  of 
Buchanan's  Psalms  between  1566  and  1610,  printed  at  Paris, 
London,  and  Antwerp,  but  not  one  in  Scotland.  Of  the  works 
of  Principal  Rollock  who  died  in  1598,  at  least  sixteen 
volumes  were  published  before  1605 ;  all  of  which  passed 
rapidly  through  successive  editions.  The  works  of  W.  Guild, 
J.  Abernethy,  A.  Symson,  P.  Symson,  and  others,  passed  through 
many  editions  between  the  year  1610  and  1633.  During  all 
this  prolific  time  no  complete  edition  of  the  Bible  was  printed  in 
Scotland,  and  no  edition  of  the  New  Testament,  Psalms,  or 
Catechism.  As  Principal  Lee  also  asks,  "  If  readers  were  not 
numerous,  how  is  it  that  there  were  so  many  printers  and  so 
many  booksellers  in  Edinburgh  in  the  time  of  Queen  Mary 
and  James  IV  ? " 

Scotland  was  a  poor  country,  and  every  one  knows  Sydney 
Smith's  humorous  translation  of  the  Latin  motto,  first  proposed 
for  the  Edinburgh  Review,  "  Tenui  musam  meditamur  avena," 
"  We  cultivate  literature  upon  a  little  oatmeal."  "  This  was  too 
near  the  truth  to  be  admitted,"  but  it  was  the  actual  truth  at  a 
bygone  time,  when  university  students  were  in  the  habit  of 
going  about  and  begging  their  bread.  An  Act  of  Parliament  of 
1579,  which  threatens  to  punish  various  kinds  of  mendicants, 
adds  with  special  emphasis,  "all  vagabound  schollers  of  the 
Universites  of  Saint  Andrewes,  Glasgow,  and  Aberdene,  not 
licensed  by  the  Rector  or  Deane  of  Facultie  of  the  Universitie 
to  ask  almes."2  Yet  Scotland,  so  poor  was  also  proud,  and  was 
1  See  p.  40.  2  Dunlop's  Parochial  Law,  p.  358. 


characterized  in  periods  before  the  Reformation  by  a  rugged 
love  of  independence,  and  when  her  coveted  freedom  was  in 
any  way  overborne,  there  was  ever  a  strenuous  kicking 
against  the  pricks.  When  Bruce  took  arms  against  the 
English  power,  many  of  the  bishops  patriotically  sided  with 
him,  and  the  Abbot  of  Inchaffray  officiated  on  the  field  of 
Bannockburn.  The  Scottish  Church,  too,  was  often  restive 
under  the  Italian  domination,  and  was  again  and  again  put 
under  papal  ban ;  but  papal  legates  durst  not  advance 
beyond  the  border,  and  the  Pope  had  his  fingers  often  jagged 
by  the  Scottish  thistle.  The  Reformation  was  a  bold 
popular  revolt  in  doctrine  and  jurisdiction.  The  Kirk,  which 
was  established  in  1560,  was  sorely  jealous  of  any  encroach 
ment  on  the  part  of  the  civil  powers,  as  is  seen  in  the  following 
procedure  :  The  Assembly  held  at  Edinburgh,  1st  July,  1568, 
in  its  third  session,  "ordained  Thomas  Bassandyne,  printer,  to 
call  in  the  books  printed  be  him  intitled  the  Fall  of  the  Roman 
Kirk,  wherein  the  king  is  called  supreme  head  of  the  primitive 
kirk,  &c.  and  to  keep  the  rest  unsold  till  he  alter  the  aforesaid 

Yet  all  this  cherished  independence  in  church  and  kingdom 
did  not  suffice  to  produce  a  native  translation  of  the  Bible. 
Scotland  was  dependent  for  its  Bibles  on  supplies  from  beyond 
itself.  It  imported  the  earlier  versions  from  Holland,  and 
especially  from  England.  Tyndale's,  the  Genevan,  and  all 
the  versions  used,  were  made  by  Englishmen,  belonging  to  a 
people  to  whom  Scotland  bore  no  good  will,  and  it  has  meekly 
bowed  its  head  to  borrow  the  Bible  and  its  other  church  books 
from  its  "  auld  enemie."  Not  only  was  its  Bible  prepared  and 
published  under  King  James,  but  its  Confession  of  Faith,  with 
the  Larger  and  Shorter  Catechisms,  are  also  importations  from 
England,  and  were  compiled  there.  Its  Bible  has  thus  been 
supplied  from  the  English  Church,  and  its  Confession  from  the 
English  Parliament  which  selected,  paid,  and  controlled  the 
divines  of  the  Westminster  Assembly,  and  sanctioned  their 
work.1  The  Psalms,  so  commonly  used  in  public  worship,  are 

1  Minutes  of  the  Westminster  Mitchell  and  Dr.  Struthers.  Intro- 
Assembly.  Edited  by  Professor  duction,  Edinburgh,  1874. 


English/  too,  in  origin  and  authorship,  having  been  twisted 
into  rhyme  by  Francis  Rouse,  Provost  of  Eton,  who  sat  in  the 
Long  Parliament,  was  Speaker  of  Cromwell's  Little  Par 
liament,  and  a  member  of  the  Westminster  Assembly.1  The 
same  tale  may  be  told  of  many  of  the  paraphrases  and  hymns 
now  used  in  Scotland. 

The  new  translation  gradually  and  slowly  made  its  way 
in  Scotland,  in  spite  of  strong  national  and  ecclesiastical  anti 
pathies.  It  had  been  made  by  the  Church  of  England  for  its 
own  members,  under  an  Erastian  or  royal  appointment.  Some 
years  afterwards  Scotland  found  itself  at  war  with  England, 
and  "  black  prelacy  "  was  accused  of  sending  many  sufferers  to 
the  dungeons  of  the  Bass,  and  the  scaffolds  of  the  Grassmarket. 
Yet  there  is  no  record  of  any  formal  opposition  made  to  the 
version  because  of  its  English  origin,  and  its  connection  with 
Laud  and  his  predecessors.  The  General  Assembly  of  Aberdeen 
in  1516,  though  it  enjoined  Scripture  reading,  does  not  select 
any  version  for  preference.  No  edict  of  a  Southern  Convoca 
tion  could  have  had  any  good  effect  in  the  north.  Probably  if  the 
new  Bible  had  been  sent  to  this  side  of  the  Solway  armed  with 
a  royal  proclamation,  or  enforced  by  Episcopal  canons,  it  would 
have  been  refused,  or  at  all  events  been  regarded  with  pro 
found  suspicion.  True,  indeed,  in  the  "Canons  Constitutional  and 
Ecclesiastical,"  published  in  1636,  xvi,  1,  it  is  enacted  that  there 
shall  be  provided  for  every  parish  "  a  Bible  of  the  largest 
volume — the  Bible  shall  be  of  the  translation  of  King  James." 
But  this  edict  could  have  little  influence,  for  in  two  years  the 
Canons  were  rejected  (in  June  and  September,  1638)  by  royal 
proclamation,  and  afterwards  by  the  General  Assembly  in 
December  of  the  same  year.  There  were  also  bitter  memories, 

1  In   April,   1646,   the    House   of  1649,  authorized  the  collection  to  be 

Commons     ordered     that      Rouse's  the  only  paraphrase  of  the  Psalms 

"  Psalms,   and    no   other,   shall    be  of  David  to  be  sung  in  the  Kirk  of 

sung  in    all   churches  arid   chapels  Scotland,   and   discharging    the  old 

within  England,  Wales,  and  Berwick  paraphrase  or  any  other  to  be  used 

upon   Tweed   after  the  1st  of  next  in  any  congregation  or  family  after 

January."     The    Lords    concurred.  1st  May,  1650. 
The  General  Assembly,  23rd  Nov., 


like  those  of  the  fields  of  Flodden  and  Pinkie.  King  Henry, 
through  his  Marshals,  had  destroyed  the  Church  of  Holyrood, 
the  Abbeys  of  Melrose,  Jedburgh,  and  Kelso,  and  having  carried 
ruthless  fire  and  sword  and  ruin  through  the  southern  counties, 
had  turned  large  tracts  into  deserts,  from  which  man  and  beast 
had  alike  disappeared.  But  the  Bible  came  alone  and  "not 
with  observation,"  having  nothing  to  recommend  it  save  its  own 
merits,  and  it  triumphed  in  the  end  over  all  these  animosities 
and  grudges.  At  an  era  when  Church  and  State  were  alike 
in  deep  confusion,  when  mitre  and  crown  had  both  passed 
away,  this  English  translation  won  for  itself  a  lasting  home 
in  Scottish  hearts,  and  at  length  displaced  a  Bible  endeared  by 
the  many  associations  that  clustered  around  the  scene  of  its 
origin.  As  Laud  had  greatly  hampered  the  importation  of 
Genevan  Bibles,  their  scarcity  must  have  somewhat  contri 
buted  to  the  circulation  of  the  Authorized  Version. 

The  success  of  the  version  was  perhaps  as  rapid  in  Scotland 
as  in  England,  for  the  Psalms  retained  in  the  English  Prayer 
Book  are  of  an  older  and  inferior  version,  and  it  was  not  till 
1061,  as  arranged  at  the  Savoy  Conference,  that  the  Gospels  and 
Epistles  were  read  out  of  the  Authorized  Translation ;  the 
Presbyterian  nonconforming  party  having  pressed  for  the 
change  and  obtained  it  with  reluctance.  The  errors  of  trans 
lation  selected  in  pleading  for  the  change  were  taken  from 
the  Great  Bible.  Rom.  xii,  2,  "be  ye  changed  in  your  shape  " ; 
Philip,  ii,  5,  "  found  in  his  apparell  as  a  man " ;  Luke  i,  36, 
"that  is  the  seventh  month  which  was  called  barren,"  a 
misprint;  and  Gal.  iv,  25,  the  verse  which  was  referred  to  at 
the  Hampton  Court  Conference ;  and  also  John  ii,  10,  "  when 
men  be  drunk  "  ;  2  Cor.  iv,  1,  "  we  go  not  out  of  kind  "  ;  Luke 
xi,  17,  "one  house  doth  fall  upon  another";  the  conclusion 
being  "we  therefore  desire  instead  thereof,  the  new  translation 
allowed  by  authority  may  alone  be  used."  The  concurrence  of 
the  bishops  is  thus  recorded,  "We  are  wishing  that  all  the 
Epistles  and  Gospels  be  used  according  to  the  last  translation."1 
The  old  translation  had  thus  been  receiving  the  assent  and 
consent  of  all  taking  orders,  to  the  disparagement  of  King 
1  Cardwell's  Conferences,  p.  307,  362. 


James's  version,  and  that  for  half  a  century.  On  the  other  hand, 
a  prominent  Covenanter,  in  a  book  published  in  1637,  speaks 
as  we  now  do  of  "our  own  English  translation."  The  Directory 
for  Public  Worship,  ratified  by  the  General  Assembly  in  1645, 
enacts,  "  All  the  Canonical  Books  of  the  Old  and  New  Testament 
shall  be  publicly  read  in  the  vulgar  tongue  out  of  the  best 
allowed  translation;"  the  words  implying  that  more  translations 
than  one  might  be  or  were  in  common  use,  and  that  no  version 
was  to  be  singled  out  and  sanctioned  by  public  authority. 
Properly  speaking,  there  is  therefore  no  Authorized  Version  in 
Scotland.  The  Westminster  Confession  (i,  8),  says,  "The  Old 
Testament  in  Hebrew,  and  the  New  Testament  in  Greek,  being 
immediately  inspired  by  God,  and  by  his  singular  care  and 
providence  kept  pure  in  all  ages,  are  therefore  authentical,  as  in 
all  controversies  of  religion,  the  church  is  finally  to  appeal 
unto  them."  The  use  of  the  Genevan  version  still  lingered,  and 
it  is  occasionally  quoted  in  the  Acts  of  the  General  Assembly, 
as  "negligently"  for  "deceitfully,"  Jer.  xlviii,  10;  "behave 
rationally"  for  "play  the  men,"  2  Sam.  x,  12;  "just"  for 
"  upright,"  Psalm  cxix,  137.  It  crops  out  also,  though  very 
rarely,  in  the  Westminster  Confession,  1647,  as  in  the  quotation 
in  the  Epistle  to  the  Reader  of  Prov.  xix,  2,  "without  know 
ledge  the  mind  cannot  be  good." 

No  edition  of  King  James's  translation  was  printed  in 
Scotland  during  his  reign.  The  New  Testament  was  pub 
lished  in  1628  (Heirs  of  Andro  Hart),  and  the  Calendar  of 
Moveable  Feasts  mentions,  with  Scottish  jealousy,  only  Whit 
sunday,  Easterday,  and  the  beginning  of  Lentron.  New  Testa 
ments  were  printed  in  Edinburgh  in  1642  by  Evan  Tyler,  R. 
Young,  and  James  Bryson ;  and  the  entire  Bible  in  connection 
with  the  coronation  of  Charles  at  Scone,  in  1633 — the  first  by  the 
heirs  of  Andro  Hart,  and  the  second  by  the  "printers  to  the  king's 
most  excellent  majesty."  Of  this  last  edition  there  are  two 
issues,  and  some  of  the  copies  have  plates  called  "Popish  pictures," 
for  which  Laud  was  greatly  blamed.  These  "pictures"  are 
remarkably  good  engravings,  the  originals  having  appeared  in 
Imagines  Vitae,  Passionis,  et  Mortis  D.  N.  Jesu  Christi, 
printed  by  Boetius  a  Bolswert,  1623.  The  writer  of  a  letter 

XLIX.  ]  A  NDEE  W  A  NDERSON  'S  PA  TENT.  3 1 7 

preserved  by  Lord  Hailes  styles  them  "such  abominable 
pictures,  that  impiety  stares  through  them."1  Scotland  was 
therefore  indebted  in  the  interval  to  England  for  its  Bibles,  and 
there  must  have  been  a  continuous  importation,  for  Kirkton,  at 
a  period  before  the  Restoration,  declares  that  "every  family 
almost  had  a  Bible."  2 

A  New  Testament  was  printed  at  Glasgow  in  1670,  and 
another,  very  badly  printed,  in  1691.  The  worst  of  all  the 
specimens  is  an  Edinburgh  one,  said,  however,  by  some  to  have 
been  imported,  and  in  it  there  is  scarcely  a  verse  without  a 

On  February  9th,  1671,  the  Lords  of  the  Privy  Council 
stigmatized  a  New  Testament,  printed  in  black  letter,  by 
Andro  Anderson,  as  having  many  gross  errors  and  faults  in  the 
impression,  and  prohibited  its  circulation,  or  "till  the  same  be 
first  amended."  But  this  very  printer,  who  had  been  so 
reprimanded,  obtained  a  gift  under  the  Great  Seal,  and  ratified 
by  Parliament,  "^constituting  him,  his  heirs,  and  assignees,  to 
be  his  Majesty's  sole,  absolute,  and  only  printer."  Anderson 
and  his  widow  after  him  were  patentees  for  many  years — from 
1671  to  1712.  It  was  strictly  forbidden  to  import  Bibles;  and 
though  the  king's  printer  was  "  holden  to  serve  the  country " 
with  Bibles  of  his  own  printing,  Anderson,  though  many 
miscellaneous  works  issued  from  his  press,  printed  only  two 
small  editions  during  the  first  five  years  of  his  appointment. 
It  was  the  age  of  patents,  for  which  money  was  given,  or 
royal  debts  discharged.  In  Scotland  the  patent  extended  to 
all  printing;  the  Act  1551,  cap.  27,  being  entitled  "printers  should 
print  nothing  without  license."  James  Watson,  in  his  "  His 
tory  of  Printing,"  says,  "  By  this  gift "  to  Mr.  Anderson  "  the 
art  of  printing  got  a  dead  stroke,  for  by  it  no  man  could  print 

1  Hailes'   Memorials  and  Letters,  lines  under  it,    the   last  of  which 

vol.  II,  p.  42.     In  the  edition  which  styles  her  "daughter,  mother,  spouse 

the  writer  possesses  there  is  no  print  of  God." 

that  might  be  called  truly  Popish  2  Secret  and  True  History  of  the 

but  one,  in    the   Common    Prayer  Church  of  Scotland,  pp.  48-50.    This 

bound  up  with  it,  which  represents  history,  however,  is  characterized  by 

the  Virgin  and  Child,  and  has  four  romantic  exaggerations. 


anything  from  a  Bible  to  a  ballad  without  Mr.  Anderson's 
license."  ...  "  Editions  of  Poole's  Annotations  and  Flavel's 
Works  are,  in  the  eyes  of  workmen,  voluminous  botches."  ]  Of 
course  many  copies  were  carried  north  from  England.  Mrs. 
Anderson  complained  to  the  Privy  Council  of  several  editions 
brought  into  the  country,  and  she  winds  up  by  asserting 
that  her  monopoly,  if  duly  guarded,  would  "hinder  the  ex 
port  of  great  summes  of  money,  which  are  daylie  taken 
furth  thereof,  for  forrayne  Bibles."  But  the  traffic  had 
been  distinctly  authorized  in  1671,  under  this  condition, 
"until  the  king's  printer  shall  have  ready  an  impression 
of  his  own."  In  1676,  all  importation  of  Bibles  in  nonpareil 
and  pearl  letter  was  prohibited,  and  all  such  copies  found  are 
"  confiscable."  It  is  not  our  purpose  to  state  at  length  how 
stoutly  Widow  Anderson  battled  for  her  patent,  year  after 
year,  against  all  intruders,  and  managed  to  have  them  fined  and 
imprisoned.  It  is  with  her  work  that  we  are  concerned.  Some 
of  the  editions  issued  by  her  husband  had  been  good,  especially 
an  octavo  of  1676;  but  her  printing  of  Scripture,  at  this  time, 
was  utterly  scandalous,  and  the  other  books  which  she  printed 
were  equally  full  of  errors.  The  patent  was  not  confined  to 
Bibles,  yet  she  aifirms  of  them,  that  they  were  much  better 
and  on  finer  paper  than  could  be  done  in  England.  Her  Bibles 
swarmed  with  deplorable  blunders,  and  the  gross  carelessness 
of  the  printing  was  fostered  by  the  want  of  all  competition.  2 

Many  of  the  errors  are  monstrous.  One  writer  gives  a  few 
of  them  in  a  list  which  fills  six  columns  of  quarto  size,  closely 
printed,  such  as  "righteousness"  for  "unrighteousness;"  "he 
killed,"  for  "  he  is  killed " ;  "  enticed  in  every  thing,"  for 

1  History  of  Printing,  Preface,  p.  did    not    forfeit    his    patent.      He 
12,  Edinburgh,  1713.  was      the     fourth     king's     printer 

2  After     Mrs.     Anderson's    time,  arraigned  for  treasonable  acts.    Lek- 
Baskett   became   king's  printer   for  previk  was  imprisoned  for  disloyalty; 
both  England  and  Scotland.      Free-  Evan  Tyler  was  declared  a  rebel  in 
bairn  had  held  the  office  for  a  time,  1650,    but    was    reinstated    at    the 
and  though  as  a  Jacobite  he  joined  Restoration ;   Waldegrave   had  also 
the  standard  of  the  Earl  of  Mar,  and  been  found  guilty,  but  no  sentence 
issued  proclamations  for  the    Pre-  was  passed  upon  him. 

tender  against  the  Government,  he 


"  enriched  in  every  thing"  ;  "either  "  for  "  neither";  "would  " 
for  "word";  "perfect"  for  "priest";  "we  know,"  for  "we 
keep  "  ;  "  hast  slain,"  for  "  wast  slain."  One  of  her  Testa 
ments  was  printed  with  worn-out  type  and  a  title-page  having 
the  names  of  Bill  and  Newcomb ;  and  in  it  there  are  five 
columns  in  which,  the  fount  being  exhausted,  the  italic  a  occurs 
700  times.  An  octavo  edition  of  1694,  sometimes  said  to 
be  spurious,  but  accepted  by  Principal  Lee  as  genuine,  is 
crowded  with  errors,  a  copy  of  which  in  the  British  Museum 
has  a  note-book  attached  to  it,  in  which  are  marked  such  errors 
as  these  :  Matt,  ii,  18,  "Rame,"  for  "Raman  ";  vii,  3,  "brackers," 
for  "  brother's  ;  "  vii,  27,  "  the  house,"  for  "  that  house  " ;  viii, 
12,  "dardness,"  for  "darkness";  viii,  27,  "obey  them,"  for 
"  obey  him  "  ;  xiii,  41,  "  them  which  do  do  iniquity  ";  xxii,  15, 
"when,"  for  "went ;  "  xxii,  46,  "and,"  for  "ask"  ;  Mark  ii,  18, 
"  the  disciples  of  John  and  of  John  "  for  "  of  John  and  of  the 
Pharisees";  vii,  35,  "his  eyes,"  for  "his  ears  ";  Luke  viii,  35,  "her 
right  mind,"  for  "  his  "  ;  xxiii,  47,  "  this  man  was,"  for  "  this 
was";  John  v,  32,  "  knoweth,"  for  "I  know";  vi,  49,  "your 
father,"  for  "your  fathers";  vii,  31,  "  peole,"  for  "people"; 
ix,  26,  "  then  said  they  to  him  again,"  repeated  ;  x,  3, 
"leadeth  them  not,"  for  "out";  Acts  ii,  6,  "speaking,"  for 
"speak  in";  x,  23,  "longed,"  for  "lodged;"  xi,  11, 
"there,"  for  "  three  "  ;  xii,  21,  "  otion/'  for  "  oration  "  ;  xiii,  23, 
"accorning,"  for  "according";  xiv,  8,  "ma,"  for  "man"; 
xx,  3,  "  spira,"  for  "  Syria  "  ;  xxiv,  24,  "  Priscilla,"  for  "  Dru- 
silla" ;  xxvi,  14,  "beaking,"  for  "speaking";  Rom.  viii,  32, 
"  forgive,"  for  "  give " ;  1  Cor.  ix,  1,  "  seen  Jesus,"  for  "  not 
seen " ;  xiii,  4,  "  wanteth,"  for  "  vaunteth " ;  2  Cor.  x,  14, 
"  preached,"  for  "  reached " ;  2  Thess.  i,  9,  "  published,"  for 
"punished";  2  Tim.  iv,  4,  "tears,"  for  "ears";  iv,  16,  "with 
stood,"  for  "  stood  with  " ;  James  v,  20,  "  which  covereth  the 
sinner,"  for  "converteth"  ;  1  Peter  iii.  11,  "speak,"  for  "seek." 
In  another  edition,  Mark  iii,  26,  has  "against  Satan,"  for 
"  against  himself  ";  Luke  i,  31,  "  bring  far,"  for  "  bring  forth  " ; 
Rom.  vi,  17,  "  ye  were  not  the  servants  of  sin,"  for  "  ye  were 
the  servants  of  sin  "  ;  Rom.  viii,  33,  "  eject  "  for  "  elect."  The 
misprints  in  spelling  were  hideous. 


Mrs.  Anderson  has  been  sometimes  imitated  by  her  suc 
cessors.  An  Edinburgh  edition  of  1760  has,  in  Heb.  ii,  16, 
"  he  took  on  him  the  nature  of  angels,"  not  being  omitted ; 
and  another  of  1791  reads,  "make  me  not  to  go  the  way  of 
thy  commandments,"  and  one  of  1816  (Blair  &  Bruce)  has, 
Luke  vi,  29,  "  forbid  to  take  thy  coat  also,"  the  omission  of 
not  reversing  the  meaning  of  the  precept.  Baskett's  patent 
rights  extended  to  Scotland,  and  his  edition  of  1742  has  these 
blunders  :  Matt,  ix,  22,  "  thy  faith  hath  made  me  whole,"  for 
"thee";  xviii,  29,  "pay  they  all,"  for  "  thee " ;  xxvi,  50, 
"  wherefore  at  thou  come,"  for  "  art "  ;  Mark  ii,  21,  "  the  rent  is 
many  worse,"  for  "  made  "  ;  John  xvi,  8,  "  reprove  the  word," 
for  "world";  xvi,  24,  "ask  and  we  shall  receive  "  for  "  ye  "; 
xvii,  2,  "  as  to  many,"  for  "  to  as  many  "  ;  Rom.  xi,  26,  "  shall 
the  deliver  come,"  for  "  deliverer  "  ;  ii,  28,  "  sake,"  for  "  sakes  "  ; 
Phil,  iii,  12,  "  Now  as  though  I  had/'  for  "  not  as  though  "  ; 
1  Peter  iv,  11,  "  to  whom  he  praise,"  for  "  be  "  ;  Job  xviii,  8, 
"be  walketh,"  for  "he  walketh";  xx,  3,  "  causeth  me  no 
answer,"  for  "  to  answer";  Isaiah  i,  9,  "let  us  a  small  remnant," 
for  "  left  unto  us,"  ;  iii,  9,  "  then  soul "  for  "  their  soul "  ;  xii,  3, 
(The  Lord  is  become  my  salvation)  "  therefore  with  joy  shall 
he  draw  water,"  instead  of  "shall  ye  draw  water  ";  xiii,  15, 
"  Every  one  that  it  found,"  for  "  is  found."  In  a  Bible  of 
1791  (Mark  &  Charles  Kerr,  Edinburgh)  1  Kings  xxii,  38,  reads, 
"the  dogs  liked  his  blood,"  for  "licked";  Psalm  cxix,  35,  "make 
me  not  to  know,"  for  "make  me  to  go."  Instances  of  a  similar 
nature  might  be  multiplied  at  great  length :  "let  all  tongues 
be  done  decently,"  in  a  copy  of  1816 ;  and  editions  of  1811  and 
1814  have  "  store  against  the  wall,"  for  "  storm,"  Isaiah  xxv,  4  ; 
"Esther"  for  "  Easter,"  Acts  xii,  4;  "  fighting  upon  him,"  in 
stead  of  "lighting  upon  him,"  Matt,  iii,  16  ;  "  Anna  lived  with 
an  husband  seventy  years  from  her  virginity,"  Luke  ii,  36. 
Copies  printed  in  Edinburgh  during  this  century  are  not  imma 
culate  ;  and  Principal  Lee  points  out  the  following :  Micah  vi, 
16,  "thereof,"  for  "therefore";  Luke  iv,  28,  "hear,"  for 
"heard  "  ;  Gal.  ii,  21,  "in,"  for  "vain  "  ;  James  i,  27,  "her,"  for 
"their"  ;  Isa.  xl,  3,  "made,"  for  "make  "  ;  Jer.  xv,  10,  "hath," 
for  "have";  Matt,  xvii,  27,  "  comest,"  for  "cometh";  xviii,  17, 


"the,"  for  "thee";  Mark  x,  52,  " the,"  for  " thee  " ;  Luke  vii, 
21,  "may,"  for  "many";  Acts  viii,  22,  "my,"  for  "may". 
Luke  viii,  14,  "they,"  for  "that";  xx,  15,  "them,"  for  "him"  ; 
Phil,  i,  25,  "you,"  for  "your";  1  Peter  iii,  18,  "offered,"  for 
"  suffered  " ;  Matt,  xvii,  27,  "  comest,"  for  "  cometh  " ;  Mark  xi,  8; 
" strayed,"  for  "strawed";  1  Cor.  iv.  6,  "puffed,"  for  "puffed 
up  "  ;  Ezek.  viii,  1,  "  fifty,"  for  "  fifth  "  ;  Zeph.  ii,  7,  "  cost,"  for 
"coast";  1  Thess.  iii,  7,  "four,"  for  "your."  Carelessness  so 
gross  is  intolerable. 

But  amidst  Scottish  editions  of  the  Bible,  those  printed  in 
Edinburgh  by  James  Watson,  his  smaller  Bibles  of  1715,  1716, 
1719,  and  especially  his  folio  of  1722,  occupy  a  conspicuous  and 
honoured  place.  He,  like  Ruddiman  the  well  known  Latin - 
ist,  was  tainted  with  Jacobitism.  The  inaccuracy  of  the 
printed  Bible  was  a  subject  often  brought  before  the  General 
Assembly  of  the  Kirk,  and  injunctions  about  it  formed  one  of 
the  annual  instructions  to  the  Commission.  But  no  effective 
step  was  ever  taken  to  remedy  the  grievance.  A  deliverance 
was  given  by  the  Assembly  itself  in  1794,  in  reply  to  an 
overture  on  the  subject  from  the  Synod  of  Glasgow  and  Ayr. 

Friday,  May  24,  1793. 

"  The  General  Assembly  resumed  the  consideration  of  the 
overture  from  the  Synod  of  Glasgow  and  Ayr,  respecting  the 
more  accurate  printing  of  common  Bibles;  and  the  Overture 
being  again  read,  a  letter  from  the  King's  printer  to  the  Moder 
ator  was  also  read,  and  along  with  it  specimens  of  a  new 
edition  of  the  common  Bible  were  produced.  The  Assembly 
feel  it  their  bounden  duty  to  pay  every  attention  to  the  print 
ing  of  the  Bible;  but  upon  considering  the  letter  from  his 
Majesty's  printer,  and  having  viewed  the  said  specimens  which 
were  given  in,  they  think  it  unnecessary  to  proceed  any  farther 
in  this  matter  at  present." 

The  New  Testaments  printed  for  use  in  schools  were  often 
nearly  illegible,  and  the  paper  was  so  bad  that  it  often  adhered 
to  the  types.  Many  editions  were  printed  in  Glasgow  ;  and  of 
these  editions  those  from  the  press  of  Alexander  Carmichacl 
and  Alexander  Melrose  &  Company,  1737,  and  those  from  the 

VOL.  II.  X 


press  of  John  Robertson  and  Mrs.  M'Lean  &  Company,  1748, 
are  fairly  legible,  though  the  supplemented  words  are  not 
printed  in  italic  type. 

But  the  desire  for  a  more  perfect  version  had  been  cherished 
in  Scotland  at  an  early  period,  and  in  1655  there  was  u 
proposal  for  a  revision,  in  the  following  significant  and  quaint 
terms : — 

For  ye  bettering  of  ye  Inglish  translation  of  ye  Bible  (1st  printed 
A.D.  1612)  by  Mr- Jn°-  Row,1  'tis  offer'd.  That  these  five  things  are 
to  be  endeavoured  : 

I.  That  evil  and  unmeet  divisions  of  chaptrs,  verses,  and  sentences 
be  rectify 'd,  and  made  more  proper,  rational!,  and  dexterous,  \vch  will 
much  clear  ye  scope. 

II.  That  needles  transpositions  of  words,  or  stories,  prtending  to 
Hypall  or  Synchyses,  be  waryly  amended  ;  or  noted  if  they  cannot. 

III.  That  all  vseles  additions  be  lop't  off,  y*  debase  the  wisdom  of 
ye  spirit ; — to  instance 

1.  All  ye  Apocryphall  writings;  being  nieerly  humane. 

2.  All  popish  and  superstitious  prints,  plates,  and  pictures. 

3.  Apotheosing  and  canonizing  of  some  (not  oth")  as  Sts.,  S1  Luke: 

not  St.  Job.  .  .  . 

4.  Spurious  additions  or    subscriptions    (to   Epistles),  words  and 


IV.  That  all  sinfull  and  needles  detractions  be  supply'd ;  and  y* 
lies  in  6  things — viz., 

1.   Let  all  sentences,  or  words  detracted,  be  added  in  ye  text. 

1  The  Rows  were  a  family  of  note  mar  School,  Perth,  and  afterwards 

and   learning.      The  first  of  them  principal  of   King's  College,  Aber- 

studied  in  Italy,  and  on  his  return  deen.    In  1644  appeared  his  Hebrew 

to   Scotland   he   adopted   the  prin-  Grammar,    Institutiones — the    first 

ciples  of  the    Reformation.      Died  book  of  the  kind  printed  in  Scot- 

1589.     Five  of  his  sons  became  min-  land,  and  it  was  printed  in  Glasgow, 

isters.      His  third  son,  John  Row,  The  Town  Council  of  Aberdeen  or- 

minister  of  the  parish  of  Carnock,  dained  their  "Tliesaurer"  to  give  the 

wrote  the   well  known   History  of  author  "  for  his  paines  four  hundreth 

the  Kirk  of  Scotland.     The  second  merks."     Died  about  1675.    A  third 

son  of  the  minister  of  Carnock  is  the  generation   of  the  name   had  their 

author  of  the  proposals  for  revision,  place  among  the  Scottish  clergy,  the 

He  was  some  timemasterof  the  Gram-  youngest  surviving  till  about  1700. 


2.  Epitomize  ye  contents  and  cliaptrs  better  at  ye  topps  of  yc  leafe. 

3.  The  parenthesis  ought  not  to  be  omitted  where  'tis. 

4.  Exhaust  not  the  emphasis  of  a  word  (as  Idols,  thirteen  wayes 


5.  Nor  ye  superlative,  left  only  as  a  positive. 

6.  Notifactum,  not  noticed  at  all. 

V.  As   respecting    mutation,    or   change,    4   things    are    needful, 
namely — 

1.  That  nothing  be  changed  but  convinc't  apparently,  to  be  bettr. 

2.  Yet  a  change  not  hurting  truth,  piety,  or  ye  text,  may  be  just 

and  needfull. 

3.  Many   evil  changes  are   to  be  amended,    as    these    9   in   par 


(1)  When  words,  or  sentences,  are  mistaken. 

(2)  When  ye  margin  is  lighter  than  ye  line,   as  in   800  places 

(and  more)  it  is. 

(3)  When  particles  are  confounded. 

(4)  When  a  word  plurall  is  translated  as  singular. 

(5)  When  the  active  is  rendered  as  if  a  passive. 

(6)  When  the  genders  are  confounded  :  as  mostly  ye  can  tic  bee. 

(7)  When  Hebrismes  are  omited,  in  silence,  or  amisse. 

(8)  When  parfcicipium  paiil  is  rendred  as  if  it  were  nyphall. 

(9)  When  conjugatio  pyel  is  Inglish't  as  if  kal. 

4.  (On  the  other  hand)  9  good  changes  are  to  be  warily  endeavour'd, 

viz  : 

(1)  Put  ye  titles  of  ye  true  God  (all  ouer)  litera  capitali. 

(2)  Let  majistrates  correct  misprinting  of  Bibles. 

(3)  Put  more  in  Inglish  (even  propria  nomina:}  less  in  Heb., 

Gr.,  and  Latin  terms. 

(4)  That     Ingl.     words    (not     understood    in     Scotland)      be 


(5)  That  all  be  analogical  to  Scripture  termes,  not  toucht   wth 

our  opinion,  or  error. 

(6)  Something  equivocal  to  Keri,  and  Kethib,  be  noticed. 

(7)  That  letters,  poynts,  and  stopps,  be  distinctly  notified. 

(8)  The  paralel  places  ought  to  be  well  noted,  in  the  margin. 

(9)  Things  not  amiss,  may  be  endeavored  to  be  bettered. 


The  like  is  (as  to  ye  N".  T.)  to  be  endeavored,  many  words  wanting 
their  owne  native  idiom  and  import,  and  sometimes  ye  translation 
overflowes  in  ye  Inglish ;  or  els  is  defective  :  and  some  words  con 
founded  :  (Ex  :  gr :  Svi/a/us,  power,  and  egowia,  in  70  or  near  80 
places  ti'anslated  power  wch  is  properly  authority,  etc. 

All  this  has  been  essayed  by  divers  able  Hebritians  :  as  Mr  H  : 
J  :  Mr  J"  C.,  &c.,  whose  notes  and  pains  are  yet  conceal' d  in 
private  hands,  but  may  come  to  light,  and  publick  use,  in  due 

But  no  action  was  taken  in  connection  with  this  minute  and 
elaborate  proposal. 

While  there  are  three  privileged  presses  in  England,  there 
was  only  one  patentee  in  Scotland,  and,  therefore,  a  complete 
monopoly.  The  last  holders  of  the  patent,  Sir  David  Hunter 
Blair  and  John  Bruce,  Esq.,  latterly  his  niece,  Mrs.  Margaret 
Tindal  Bruce,  brought  an  action  at  law  against  Bible  Societies 
in  Scotland,  and  in  1824  succeeded  in  interdicting  them  from 
bringing  into  Scotland  any  copies  of  the  Holy  Scriptures 
printed  in  England.  The  case  was  carried  by  appeal  to  the 
House  of  Lords,  and  the  decision  of  the  Court  of  Session  was 
affirmed  in  1829.  The  result  was  that  the  British  and  Foreign 
Bible  Society  might  despatch  Bibles  to  all  the  ends  of  the  earth, 
but  they  durst  not  send  down  an  English  Bible  into  Scotland, 
even  to  their  own  auxiliaries.  Had  such  a  law  been  enforced  in 
earlier  times,  what  should  have  been  the  condition  of  Scotland  ? 
It  had  plenty  of  Bibles,  but  it  printed  only  one  edition  of  the 
Genevan  in  1576-9,  and  another  in  1610,  both  issued  by  persons 
who  did  not  hold  the  king's  patent ;  and  it  did  not  print  the 
present  version  for  more  than  twenty  years  after  its  publica 
tion  in  1611.  Scotland  therefore  got  its  Bible  chiefly  from 
England,  and  the  king's  printer  did  not  then  prevent  it.  The 
monopoly  was  at  length  abolished  in  1839,  and  the  presses  are 
free  to  print  the  Scriptures,  subject  to  the  supervision  of  a 
Board  in  Edinburgh,  of  which  the  Lord  Advocate  is  the  head. 
The  printer  must  inform  the  Board  as  to  the  edition  which 
he  means  to  put  to  press,  and  enter  into  a  bond  for  £500. 
Every  sheet  printed  by  him  is  sent  for  the  inspection  of  the 
Board,  and  not  till  it  is  passed  by  them  or  their  reader  is  he 


allowed  to  issue  it,  the  Board  having  power  to  order  any 
erroneous  page  to  be  cancelled.  After  the  abolition  of  the  mono 
poly,  Bibles  fell  at  once  one-half  in  price,  and  the  "  Reports  " 
show  that  there  is  a  large  increase  of  circulation.  The  patent 
still  existing  in  England  gives  the  patentees  power,  according  to 
its  express  and  comprehensive  terms,  over  "  any  Bibles  or  New 
Testaments  in  the  English  tongue,  of  any  translation,  with  notes 
or  without  notes."  Were  this  power  to  be  exercised  to  its  full 
extent,  all  popular  and  practical  expositions  of  Scripture  would 
be  suppressed.  Dr.  Cotton,  in  1856,  had  an  edition  of  the  Four 
Gospels  printed  at  Oxford,  but  the  Delegates  of  the  University 
Press  put  it  down.  In  it  the  headings  were  omitted,  the  words 
usually  printed  in  italics  were  put  within  brackets;  and  pronouns 
referring  to  the  Saviour  began  with  a  capital  letter.  But  the 
book  was  an  infringement  of  the  patent,  and  the  plates  were 
sent  to  America.  An  attempt  was  made  in  1819  to  inhibit  a 
Family  Bible,  but  the  measure  raised  such  a  clamour  that  it 
was  not  persevered  in.  Pasham  evaded  the  patent  by  printing 
notes  at  the  bottom  of  the  page,  a  considerable  space  being  left 
between  them  and  the  text,  so  that  in  binding  the  book  the 
notes  were  cut  off,  and  the  volume  remained  in  its  symmetry. 

If  the  full  truth  must  be  told  of  the  reception  in  Scotland  of 
the  version  executed  under  King  James,  then  it  is  to  be  added 
that  there  was  a  very  small  party  that  rejected  and  maligned  it. 
This  party  was  a  little  band  of  frenzied  men  and  women,  extremer 
than  the  extremest  of  the  Covenanters,  so  rabid  and  reasonless 
that  even  Donald  Cargill,  the  intrepid  leader  and  martyr,  who 
tried  to  deal  with  them,  was  obliged  in  despair  to  give  them 
up.  They  were  called  the  "  Sweet  Singers  of  Borrowstouness," 
the  leader  being  "  Muckle  John  Gib,"  *  a  ship  captain,  belong 
ing  to  that  small  seaport  on  the  Frith  of  Forth.2  They  carried 
about  in  their  handkerchiefs  the  blood  of  two  recent  martyrs  ; 
they  scattered  anathemas  very  profusely;  and  the  Psalms 

1  Some  oiie  amused  the  Conference  here  referred  to  in  the  text  certainly 

at  Hampton  Court  by  describing  a  suited  that  definition. 
Puritan  as  a  Protestant  frayed  out         2  Woodrow's  History,  vol.  Ill,  p. 

of  his  wits,  and  the  saying  might  be  348.      Chambers's  Domestic  Annals 

regarded   as   clever  ;    but  the   men  of  Scotland,  vol.  II,  p.  414. 


which  they  delighted  to  sing  were  the  Ixxiv,  Ixxx,  Ixxxiii,  and 
cxxxvii.  They  numbered  twenty-six;  and  in  1681  they  left 
their  ordinary  occupations,  betook  themselves  to  the  moors  and 
wilds  to  be  free  of  all  "snares  and  sins,"  and  some  of  them 
attempted  to  return  to  primeval  habits ;  but  the  naked  truth 
could  neither  be  enjoyed  under  the  Scottish  climate,  nor  tolerated 
by  the  civil  magistrate.  This  last  freak  did  not  last  more  than 
two  or  three  days.  When  any  husband,  in  urging  his  wife  not 
to  go  out  with  the  party,  caught  hold  of  her  dress,  she  at  once 
washed  the  place  as  if  to  remove  an  impurity.  These  poor 
misguided  creatures  were  at  length  apprehended  by  a  troop 
of  dragoons  at  the  Woolhill  Craigs,  and  taken  to  Edinburgh — 
the  men  being  lodged  in  the  Tolbooth,  and  the  women  sent 
to  the  House  of  Correction.1  Most  of  the  women,  however, 
had  gone  home  before  the  capture,  and  those  taken  to  Edin 
burgh,  on  receiving  a  copy  of  the  manifesto  written  by  their 
leaders,  "  renounced  us  and  called  us  devils."  When  in  con 
finement,  four  of  the  men  sent  out  a  protest,  which  among 
other  things  says,  "  It  seemed  good  to  the  Holy  Ghost  and  to  us 
to  take  out  of  our  Bibles  the  Psalms  in  metre,"  quoting  in 
support  of  the  act  Rev.  xxii,  18.  "  We,  being  pressed  to  the 
work  by  the  Holy  Ghost,  do  renounce  the  impression  and 
translation  of  both  the  Old  and  New  Testament,"  their  objec 
tion  being  to  the  Dedication,  to  the  division  of  chapters  and  of 
verses  as  of  human  invention,  and  to  "the  drawing  scores  betwixt 
the  books  of  the  Bible."  They  also  denounced  the  General 
Assembly,  the  Confession,  the  Covenants,  and  all  the  allied 
documents,  even  those  that  contained  the  excommunication  of 
their  opponents.  Especially  did  they  protest  against  the 
"  limiting  of  the  Lord's  mind  by  glasses,"  that  is,  by  the  pulpit 
sand-glasses  which  regulated  the  duration  of  the  sermon.  They 
also  "renounced  and  declined  all  authority  throughout  the 
world,"  with  the  "  pagan  names  of  the  months  arid  the  days  of 

1  Crookshank's    History     of     the  Glasgow,  1836;  "Gib's  Blasphemous 

Church  of  Scotland,  vol.  II,  p.  93,  Papers,  May  1st,  1681,''  and  Cargill's 

Edinburgh,    1762  ;  Woodrow's  His-  long,   earnest,    and    sober  letter   of 

tory  of  the  Sufferings  of  the  Church  expostulation   are  given  in  Wood- 

of  Scotland,  vol.    Ill,  p.  348,  &c.,  row. 

x  LIX.  ]  S  UP  ESS  Tl  TIG  US  USE  OF  THE  BIBLE.  397 

the  week."  Their  lengthened  nocturnal  fasts  which  they  had 
kept  in  frost  and  snow,  "  while  our  clothes  were  frozen  on  us, 
and  our  feet  frozen  in  our  shoes,"  helped  to  create  their  deplor 
able  mania.  With  the  women  that  followed  them,  "  their  spirits 
were  many  a  time  burthened,"  and  they  longed  to  get  quit  of 
them  ;  and  as  they  were  afraid  of  immoral  suspicions,  they 
kept  them  in  comparative  seclusion.  The  Council  at  Edin 
burgh,  regarding  them  as  crazed  and  harmless,  set  them  at 
liberty  after  a  brief  confinement  ;  the  epidemic  soon  subsided, 
and  most  of  them  returned  to  their  "  right  mind." 

Unaccountably  backward  though  Scotland  was  to  edit  and 
print  Bibles  for  itself,  the  Scottish  people  have  been  often 
accused  of  Bibliolatry,  not  merely  of  placing  all  faith  in  Scrip 
ture,  but  of  regarding  the  mere  volume  with  superstitious 
attachment.  Mrs.  Somerville,  the  celebrated  writer  on  physical 
science,  records  in  her  Autobiography  that  "  during  a  thunder 
storm,  my  mother  always  asked  nry  father  to  shut  the  window, 
and  though  she  was  no  longer  able  to  see  to  read,  she  kept  the 
Bible  on  her  knee  for  protection."  The  following  anecdote, 
referring  to  a  period  little  more  than  twenty  years  ago,  is 
vouched  for :  A  widow  in  a  Scottish  county  town  had  been 
left  by  her  husband  at  his  death  a  considerable  amount  of 
property,  with  a  mortgage  on  it.  Her  trouble  was  whether 
she  should  pay  the  interest  on  the  mortgage,  and  keep  the 
property  entire,  or  sell  a  portion  of  it,  and  discharge  at  once  the 
encumbrance.  Many  weeks  of  thought  and  consultation  passed, 
and  at  length  one  morning  she  met  her  minister,  with  a 
blythe  countenance,  and  the  joyous  statement  that  now  she 
saw  her  way  through  the  difficulty,  and  that  her  mind  was  at 
rest.  On  being  asked  how  she  had  come  to  such  a  happy  and 
peremptory  decision,  she  told  him  that  she  had  happened  to 
read  that  morning  the  sixtieth  Psalm,  and  that  the  sixth 
verse,  which  said,  "  I  will  divide  Shechem,  and  mete  out  the 
valley  of  Succoth,"  forcibly  struck  her,  and  appeared  to  give  her 
the  light  and  direction  which  she  so  earnestly  desired.  She 
sold  at  once,  as  if  by  divine  warrant,  a  portion  of  her  inherit 
ance,  and  freed  the  remainder  from  all  pecuniary  burdens.1 
1  Personal  Kecollections,  p.  17,  London,  1873. 


So  popular  is  the  English  Bible,  and  so  cheap  withal,  that  it 
is  in  all  men's  hands,  and  many  of  its  sayings,  "graven 
with  an  iron  pen"  011  the  memory,  are  "familiar  in  their 
mouths  as  household  words."  The  following  clauses  are  often 
uttered,  without  any  conscious  recollection  of  their  origin  : 
"  escaped  with  the  skin  of  his  teeth,"  "  at  their  wit's  end," 
"  the  root  of  the  matter,"  "  the  pen  of  a  ready  writer,"  "  burden 
and  heat  of  the  day,"  "  merchant  princes,"  "  a  part  of  fat 
things,"  "  spreading  like  a  green  bay  tree,"  "  fearfully  and 
wonderfully  made,"  "the  threescore  and  ten,"  "an  uncertain 
sound,"  "  physician,  heal  thyself,"  "  nothing  new  under  the 
sun,"  "  his  long  home,"  "  the  one  thing  needful." 

But  if  the  English  Bible  be  so  good  a  translation,  and  so 
clear  and  vigorous  in  its  style,  surely  its  verses  and  clauses 
should  always  be  quoted  with  exactness.  There  are,  however, 
many  and  constant  forms  of  inaccurate  quotation  both  in  dis 
courses  and  in  prayer.  This  incorrectness  often  proceeds  from 
careless  habit,  and  it  may  be  said  to  be  inherited,  like  original 
sin.  The  changes  often  meant  as  improvements  are  useless 
and  tasteless — "  painting  the  lily."  Sometimes  it  seems  as 
if  the  figures  were  felt  to  be  too  sharp,  and  thev  are  blunted 

o  i  *  */ 

by  interpolating  "  as." l 

Psalms  xlv,  1,  "  My  tongue  is  as  the  pen  of  a  ready  writer." 

1  Tim.  iv,  2,  "  Having  their  consciences  seared  as  with  a  hot  iron." 

Heb.  x,  22,  Our  bodies  washed  as  with  pure  water." 

There  are  many  forms  of  misquotation,  which  arise  from  a 
desire  to  add  emphasis — 

Deut.  xxxiii,  25,  "  As  thy  days,  day  is,  so  shall  thy  strength  be." 
Eccles.  xi,  1 ,  "  Cast  thy  bread  upon  the  waters  ;  for  thou  shalt  find  it 

again  after  many  days." 
Hab.  ii,  2,   "  Write  the  vision,  and  make  it  plain  upon  tables,  So 

plain  that  he  that  runneth  may  read. 
John  viii,  7,  "  He  that  is  without  sin  among  you,  let  him  first  cast  a 

stone,  cast  the  first  stone,  at  her." 
Gen.  xxviii,  17,  "  This  is  none  other  but  the  house  of  God,  and  this  is 

the  gate  of  heaven." 

1  The  changed  or  added  words  are  printed  in  italics. 


1  Kings  iv,  25,  Micah  iv,  4,  "  Every  man  under  his  own  vine,"  &c. 
Job  xiii,  11,  "  Shall  not  his  excellency  make  you  suitably  afraid  1 " 
Ps.  xxiii,  4,    "Yea  though  I   walk  through  the  dark  valley  of  the 

shadow  of  death." 
Ps.  xc.  12,  "  So  teach  us  to  number  our  days  that  we  may  apply  our 

hearts  unto  true  wisdom." 
Eccles.  i,  10,  "  Whatsoever  thy  hand  findeth  to  do,  do  it  with  all  thy 

Ezek.  xxxiii,  11,  "I  have  no  pleasure  in  the  death  of  the  wicked  ; 

but  rather  that  the  wicked  turn,"  <fec. 
John  xvi,  8,  "  He  will  reprove  the  world  of  sin,  and  of  righteousness, 

and  of  jiidgment  to  come." 

Acts  xxiv,  25,  "  Go  thy  way  for  this  time  ;  when  I  have  a  more  con 
venient  season  I  will  call  for  thee." 
Bom.  vii,  24,  "  Oh  wretched  man  that  I  am  !  who   shall  deliver  me 

from  the  body  of  this  death?  this  body  of  sin  and  death." 
1  Cor.  xi,  26,  "  Ye  do  showforth  the  Lord's  death  till  he  come." 
Heb.  ix,  27,  "  And  as  it  is  appointed  unto  all  men  once  to  die." 
Ps.  Ixxv,  G,  "  For  promotion  cometh  neither  from  the  east  nor  from 

the  west,  nor  from  the  north,  nor  from  the  south." 
Isaiah  i,  G,  "  From  the  sole  of  the  foot  even  unto  the  crown  of  the 

head,  there  is  no  soundness  in  it." 
Isaiah  Iviii,  13,  "  Not  doing  thine  own  ways,  nor  thinking  thine  own 

thoughts,  nor  finding  thine  own  pleasure." 
Hab.  i,  13,  "  Thou  art  of  purer  eyes  than  to  behold  evil,  and  canst  not 

look  oil  iniquity  but  with  abhorrence." 

Matt,  xviii,  20,  "  For  where  two  or  three  are  gathered  together  in  my 
name,  there  am  I  in  the  midst  of  them,  and  that  to  bless  them." 

1  Cor.  ii,  9,  "  Eye  hath  not  seen,  nor  ear  heard,  neither  have  entered 

into  the  heart  of  man,  to  conceive  the  things,"  &c. 

2  Cor.  xiii,  14,  "  The  grace  of  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  and  the  love  of 

God,  and  the  communion  and  fellowship  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  rest 

and  abide  with  you  all,  now,  henceforth,  and  forever. 
Rev.  xxii,  18,  "And  the  Spirit  and  the  bride  say,  Come.     And  let 

him  that  heareth  say,  Come.     And  let  him  that  is  athirst  come. 

And   whosoever  will,  let  him  come  and  take  the  water  of  life 

Isaiah  xxxv,   8,   "  The   wayfaring  men,  though  fools,  shall,  need,  not 

err  therein." 
Rom.  xii,  11,  "Diligent  in  business." 


Ps.  Ixxxiv,  9,  "  Look  upon  us,  in  the  face  of  thine  anointed." 

Dan.  iv,  35,  "  None  can  stay  his  hand/rom  working." 

Job  xv,  1C,  "Which  drinketh  up  iniquity  as  the  thirsty  ox  drinketJi 

up  the  water." 
Job  xx,  12,  The  confession  in  prayer  is  frequent :  "  We  roll  sin  as  a 

sweet  morsel  under  our  tongue"  the  true  words  being  simply, 

"  though  wickedness  be  sweet  in  his  mouth,  though  he  hide  it 

under  his  tongue." 

Ps.  iv,  6,  "The  light  of  thy  reconciled  countenance." 
Heb.  xii,  29,  "  God  out  of  Christ  is  a  consuming  fire,"  but  the  text  is, 

"  our  God  is  a  consuming  fire." 
Ps.  cxlv,  9,  "  His  tender  mercies  are  over  all  his  other  works." 

Somebody  has  taken  in  hand  the  thankless  and  mechanical 
task  of  counting,  not  only  the  chapters  and  verses,  but  also  the 
words  and  letters  of  the  English  Bible ;  the  result  may  be 
regarded  as  a  curiosity  in  its  way. 

Old  Testament.  New  Testament.  Total. 

Books,                   .                 39                      27  GG 

Chapters,      .         .                929                     260  1,189 

Verses,         .         .          23,214                  7,959  31,173 

Words,         .         .        592,439              181,258  773,697 

Letters,        .         .     2,728,100             868,388  3,500,480 


Chapters,  183.     Verses,  6,081.     Words,  152,185. 
The  middle  chapter,  and  the  least  in  the  Bible,  is  Psalm  cxvii. 


The  middle  book  is  Proverbs. 

The  middle  chapter  is  Job  xxix. 

The  middle  verse  is  2  Chron.  xx,  and  between  17th  and  18th  verses. 

Tli3  least  verse  is  1  Chron.  i,  1. 


The  middle  book  is  2  Thessalonians. 
The  middle  chapter  is  between  Romans  xiii  and  xiv. 
The  middle  verse  is  Acts  xvii,  17. 
The  least  verse  is  John  xi,  35, 

The  21st  verse  of  the  7th  chapter  of  Ezra  has  all  the  letters  of  the 
alphabet. x 

1  Notes  and  Queries,  Second  Series,  vol.  VII,  p.  481. 


Such  has  been  the  varied,  wonderful,  and  suggestive  history 
of  the  English  Bible.     The  Divine  Record,  even  in  its  earliest 


form,  was  intended  for  universal  diffusion — to  guard  men 
against  Atheism,  Polytheism,  and  Pantheism;  to  keep  them 
from  forgetting  God  by  the  deification  of  second  causes,  by 
the  formation  of  local  and  limited  divinities,  or  by  merging 
the  finite  in  the  infinite ;  and  at  the  same  time  to  exhibit 
His  character  as  a  Being  near  them,  and  not  far  away 
above  the  stars,  that  they  might  be  induced  to  trust,  wor 
ship,  and  serve  him.  Such  teaching,  as  human  history  has 
shown,  was  needed  everywhere,  and  everywhere  was  it  to  be 
carried.  Its  first  language,  indeed,  in  the  older  form  of  Phoe 
nician,  was  employed  by  the  earliest  merchants,  seafaring- 
adventurers,  and  colonists ;  but  in  its  Biblical  uses  and 
aspects,  it  became  very  much  confined  to  Canaan,  and  was 
unknown  to  the  successive  great  empires  around  it,  though 
Nineveh  and  Babylon  spoke  a  varying  dialect  of  it.  So  that, 
while  Judaism  was  organized  as  a  standing  protest  in  behalf 
of  the  Divine  Personality,  Spirituality,  and  Fatherhood,  it  did 
not  formally  proclaim  those  truths  to  the  world  on  all  sides  of 
it.  It  never  so  awoke  as  to  realize  its  position  of  being  "  in 
the  midst  of  many  people  as  a  dew  from  the  Lord."  It  did  not 
care  to  spread  itself;  it  might  welcome  proselytes,  but  it  never 
went  in  search  of  them.  No  ships  left  Joppa  bearing  prophets 
and  precious  parchments.  The  Alexandrian  Version  at  length 
unlocked  the  Hebrew  treasures  to  the  western  world — Tarshish 
and  the  Isles  of  the  Gentiles.  "  In  the  fulness  of  the  time  "  ap 
peared  the  Son  of  God,  who  "  spake  as  never  man  spake,"  in 
words  fitted  to  all  ears  and  hearts,  and  died  as  never  man 
died — died  in  Palestine,  but  died  for  all  the  world  ;  founding, 
in  his  Self-offering  on  Calvary,  a  universal  dispensation,  with 
out  distinction  of  age,  race,  or  country.  His  first  followers  had 
learned  to  speak  another  tongue  than  that  of  their  fathers, 
though  they  used  it  also.1  This  second  tongue  had  been  carried 

1  When  the  apostle  addressed  the  heard   him   speak    in   the    Hebrew 

mob  at  Jerusalem  they  expected  a  tongue  to  them,"  just  as  a  crowd  iu 

Greek   oration,  and   they  naturally  Inverness  some  years  ago  would  have 

"kept  the  more  silence"  when  "they  acted,  if  they  had  expected  an  Eug- 


by  the  Grecian  arms  around  the  shores  of  the  Mediterranean, 
and  over  the  East,  and  therefore  the  Gospels  and  Epistles  were 
written  in  it,  for  it  was  everywhere  current.  It  was  not, 
indeed,  Greek  in  its  glory,  but  such  was  its  versatility,  copious 
ness,  and  force,  that  it  nobly  bore  upon  it  a  message  which  it 
had  never  carried  in  the  Porch  or  the  Academy.  The  power 
of  the  case-endings  had  ceased  to  be  felt  as  formerly,  and  pre 
positions  were  employed  to  mark  relations ;  simple  verbs  often 
gave  place  to  compound  forms ;  thoughts,  words,  and  syntactic 
structure  had  a  Hebrew  tinge,  and  now  and  then  terms  were 
coined  to  convey  the  new  ideas  essentially  connected  with  the 
New  Covenant.  But  it  was  the  Greek  of  the  time,  and  a  popular 
faith  was  preached  in  a  popular  tongue,  easily  understood  by  all 
classes.  At  length  the  Latin  tongue  shared  in  the  supremacy  of 
the  people  that  spoke  it,  and  into  it  the  inspired  collection  of 
Lives  and  Letters  was  translated  for  the  European  and  North 
African  churches.  The  Latin  Bible  held  a  lofty  place  for  cen 
turies,  and  the  Latin  Church  was  very  unwilling  that  its  Book, 
though  only  a  translation,  should  be  turned  into  any  living 
dialect,  and  laboured  to  keep  all  knowledge  locked  up  in  the 
brains  and  libraries  of  its  own  ministers.  There  had  been  a 
Syriac  and  Gothic  version  at  a  bypast  time,  but  the  battle  for 
vernacular  Scripture  was  fought  out  on  this  island,  and,  through 
fire  and  blood,  truth  and  freedom  at  length  conquered.  A  few 
faint  efforts  had  been  made  at  a  remote  epoch,  and  with  such 
efforts  the  names  of  Bede  and  Alfred  are  immortally  associated. 
Their  successors  did  what  they  could  in  fragments  and  para 
phrases.  Wycliffe  at  length  gave  his  nation  a  whole  Bible, 
and  many  accorded  to  the  gift  a  grateful  reception.  The 
branches  of  the  fig-tree  had  become  tender,  and  "  were  putting 
forth  leaves,"  for  summer  was  coming,  with  its  life  and  warmth. 
In  the  meantime  books  and  men  alike  were  sacrificed  to  the 
ecclesiastical  Moloch.  Two  centuries  afterwards  Tyndale  trans 
lated  the  New  Testament  from  the  original  Greek.  His  ver 
sion  was  reprinted  by  Coverdale,  had  a  place  in  the  Great 
Bible,  was  revised  in  the  Genevan  and  the  Bishops',  and  then 

lish  speech,  and  they  too  would  have    bespoke  their  attention  in  a  Gaelic 
•"kept  the  more  silence"  if  the  orator    preamble  (Acts  xxii,  2). 


took  its  present  place  as  a  portion  of  the  Authorized  Version. 
The  Old  Testament,  chiefly  produced  by  Coverdale,  has  come  to 
us  by  a  similar  course  of  successive  revisions.  The  ancestral 
history  of  our  Bible  shows  that  spiritual  despotism,  in  its  sel 
fish,  short-sighted  policy,  defeats  its  cherished  ends,  and  that 
liberty  and  progress,  connected  with  the  open  Book  of  God, 
must  at  length  triumph.  The  English  Bible  is  consecrated  by 
the  blood  of  martyrs.  Wycliffe  was  not  murdered,  but  in  re 
venge  for  his  exemption  his  bones  were  exhumed  and  burned  ; 
Tyndale  was  strangled  and  consumed  to  ashes;  Coverdale  escaped 
almost  by  miracle  ;  Rogers  and  Cranmer  "  loved  not  their  lives 
unto  the  death " ;  the  Genevan  scholars  were  exiles,  while 
many  of  their  brethren  at  home  were  perishing  at  Smithfield ; 
the  Elizabethan  bishops  had  been  in  imminent  peril  during  a 
season  when  the  "hour"  was  ruled  by  "the  power  of  dark 
ness."  The  divine  presence  was  frequently  and  palpably 
apparent  in  moulding  circumstances,  in  paralyzing  the  arm  of 
opposition,  and  in  cheering  and  supporting  those  who  were 
walking  in  the  furnace.  We  have  enjoyed  this  Bible  for  two 
centuries  and  a  half ;  and  its  general  fidelity,  and  the  nervous 
and  beautiful  diction  in  which  it  clothes  the  divine  counsels, 
have  always  commended  it ;  while  the  blessed  results  of  its 
spiritual  power  make  themselves  visible  in  myriads  of  ways, 
through  all  the  shires  and  cities  of  the  land. 

Having  survived  all  perils,  and  having  had  many  romantic 
"  crooks  in  its  lot,"  it  is  still  abroad  in  its  might — not  as  of  old, 
in  heavy  folios,  but  in  handy  volumes — closet  and  pocket  com 
panions.  It  costs  only  a  trifle,  so  that  it  is  within  the  reach  of 
every  one.  It  has  found  a  home  under  the  Southern  Cross — in 
Australia  and  New  Zealand,  and  in  the  United  States  it  has 
multiplied  itself  with  inconceivable  rapidity.  The  sun  never 
sets  upon  it.  It  has  spread,  and  will  spread  with  the  English 
name  and  influence  round  the  globe.  All  people  speaking 
our  tongue  are  united  by  their  common  Bibles,  common 
temples,  and  the  blessing  of  a  "  common  salvation."  Our  fore 
fathers  gave  it  welcome,  and  their  descendants  can  never  bid 
it  farewell,  for  the  oracle  is  always  fulfilling  itself,  "  Tell  ye 
your  children  of  it,  and  let  your  children  tell  their  children, 


and  their  children  another  generation."  Englishmen  shall 
never  weary  of  reading  the  Blessed  Life  told  in  these  Gospels, 
and  in  that  charming  style  which,  rising  above  all  provincial 
peculiarities,  forms  one  fraternal  speech  to  all  that  "  in  every 
place  call  upon  the  name  of  Jesus  Christ  our  Lord,  both  theirs 
and  ours."  Centuries  have  passed  over  it,  but  its  youth  abides. 
Many  volumes  far  younger  than  it  have  perished  in  the  wreck 
of  years.  The  majority  of  books  published  among  us  are  con 
nected  with  it — either  against  it,  or  for  it,  or  upon  it.  Though 
revised,  it  will  ever  preserve  its  identity ;  as  the  statue  is  the 
same  though  its  features  be  brightened  when  the  dust  is  blown 
oft*  it.  It  can  be'superseded  only  when  the  higher  relations  and 
developments  of  its  truths  are  revealed  to  us  in  another  sphere, 
where  we  "shall  know  even  as  we  are  known." 

"  Now  blessed  be  the  Lord  our  God, 

The  God  of  Israel, 
For  He  alone  doth  wondrous  works, 

In  glory  that  excel. 
And  blessed  be  His  glorious  name 

To  all  eternity : 
The  whole  earth  let  his  glory  fill. 

Amen,  so  let  it  be." 


"  Count  it  as  a  thynge  not  havynge  his  full  shape,  but  as  it  were  borne 
afore  hys  tyme,  even  as  a  thynge  begunne  rather  than  fynyshed.  In 
tyme  to  come  ...  we  will  give  it  hys  full  shape." — Tyndale,  Epilogue 
to  his  New  Testament,  152G. 

"  For  the  which  cause,  according  as  I  was  desyred,  I  took  the  more  upon 
me  to  set  forth  this  special  translation,  not  as  a  checker,  not  as  a  reprover 
or  despiser  of  other  men's  translations  ;  for  among  many  I  have  as  yet 

found  none  without  occasion  of  great  thanksgiving  unto  God 

Howbeit,  whereinsoever  I  can  perceive  by  myself,  or  by  the  information  of 
other,  that  I  have  failed  (as  it  is  no  wonder),  I  shall  now,  by  the  help  of 
God,  overlook  it  better  and  amend  it." — Prologue  to  Coverdale's  Bible. 

"  No  offence  can  be  justly  taken  for  this  new  labom-,  nothing  prejudicing 
any  other  man's  judgment  by  this  doing,  nor  yet  hereby  professing  this  to 
be  so  absolute  a  translation  as  that  hereafter  might  follow  no  other  that 
might  see  that  which  as  yet  was  not  understood." — Preface  to  the  Bishops' 

"  If  hereafter  we  espie  any  of  our  owne  errors,  or  if  any  other,  either 
friend,  of  good  will,  or  adversarie,  for  desire  of  reprehension,  shal  open  to 
us  the  same,  we  will  not,  as  Protestants  doe,  for  defence  of  our  estimation, 
or  of  pride  and  contention,  by  wrangling  wordes  wilfully  persist  in  them, 
but  be  most  glad  to  heare  of  them,  and  in  the  next  edition,  or  otherwise, 
to  correct  them." — Preface  to  the  Eheims  Translation. 

".  .  .  The  translating  of  the  Scriptures;  the  which  thing  albeit  that 
divers  heretofore  have  endeavoured  to  achieve,  yet,  considering  the  infancy 
of  those  times,  and  the  imperfect  knowledge  of  the  tongues,  in  respect  of 
this  ripe  age  and  clear  light  which  God  hath  now  revealed,  the  translations 
required  greatly  to  be  perused  and  reformed.'' — Preface  to  the  Genevan 

"  As  nothing  is  begun  and  perfited  at  the  same  time,  and  the  later 
thoughts  are  thought  to  be  the  wiser,  so,  if  we  in  building  on  their  founda 
tion  that  went  before  us,  and  being  holpeu  by  their  labours,  do  endeavour 
to  make  that  better  which  they  left  so  good,  no  man,  we  are  sure,  hath 
cause  to  mislike  us." — Preface  to  the  Authorized  Version. 


exposure  of  any  one  to  suspicion  and  obloquy,  because 
lie  ventures  to  touch  the  Scriptures,  no  matter  how  rever 
ently  and  lovingly,  is  not  an  occurrence  of  yesterday.  Nor  is 
this  jealousy  to  be  wondered  at;  for,  as  the  Bible  is  the  divine 
charter,  its  words  are  of  unsurpassed  value.  The  sacred  volume 
has  naturally  come  to  be  enthroned  in  the  heart  of  myriads  as 
a  book  of  solitary  majesty.  Their  spiritual  life  has  been 
quickened  by  it  ;  they  have  felt  its  formative  power;  and  in 
calm  and  devout  moments  they  are  conscious  of  its  secret  and 
searching  influence  as  they  breathe  its  penitential  Psalms,  or 
ponder  the  wonderful  discourse  followed  by  the  more  wonder 
ful  prayer  in  the  gospel  of  St.  John.  Indignant  surprise  would 
therefore  be  excited  if  any  one  should  dare  to  deal  wickedly 
with  God's  revelation,  by  adding  to  it  or  taking  from  it,  or  in 
any  way  tampering  with  its  holy  contents.  For  such  procedure 
would  really  be  an  attempt  to  produce  a  new  Bible;  and  no  one 
within  the  pale  of  the  church  can  be  guilty  of  the  profane 
temerity  of  erasing,  changing,  superseding,  or  improving,  the 
words  of  Apostles  and  Prophets. 

But  the  Bible,  while  it  is  divine  in  the  highest  sense,  is  also 
human  in  the  truest  sense;  and  its  human  aspects  and  history 
are  never  to  be  overlooked  in  the  adoration  of  its  divine 
"  imbreathment."  While  it  is  from  heaven  in  its  blessed  and 
primary  source,  it  is  as  surely  of  earth  in  its  nearer  form  and 
delivery — God's  thoughts  in  man's  words.  While  Psalmists 
and  Evangelists  spoke  and  wrote  as  they  were  "  moved  by  the 
Holy  Ghost,"  they  were  no  mere  machines,  no  mere  passive 
recipients  and  outgivers,  like  the  strings  of  a  harp  struck  by  a 

VOL.  II.  Y 


supernatural  plectrum,  according  to  the  old  and  familiar  figure. 
They  were  not  pens,  but  penmen,  each  expressing  his  thoughts 
in  as  real  accordance  with  his  own  temperament  and  his  own 
characteristic  style  of  utterance,  as  if  no  God-given  influence 
had  been  possessed.  That  man  speaks  to  man  in  Scripture, 
is  a  fact  which  is  not  to  be  hidden  away  in  the  lustre  of  its 
heavenly  origin.  Thus  sang  the  bard,  thus  reasoned  the  apostle, 
are  facts  co-existing  in  equal  truth  with  "thus  saith  the  Lord." 

Now  we  can  only  get  at  the  divine  element  by  a  comprehen 
sion  of  the  human  terms — the  husk  is  to  be  pierced  in  order  to 
possess  ourselves  of  the  kernel.  It  is  therefore  of  supreme 
moment  to  know  what  are  the  words  which  have  been  chosen 
to  bear  upon  them  a  divine  message,  and  to  be  convinced  that 
they  have  been  faithfully  transmitted  to  us.  Why  contend  for 
the  inspiration  of  any  document,  or  attempt  to  translate  it, 
if  we  have  not  faith,  in  its  genuineness  and  integrity  ?  If 
some  essential  vocables  have  been  lost  or  changed,  if  there 
are  fragmentary  clauses  or  dismal  spaces  out  of  which  precious 
syllables  have  dropped  and  disappeared  ;  if  the  message  be  not 
given  to  us  with  substantial  fulness  and  accuracy,  we  should 
have  little  inducement  to  accept  it  and  study  it.  How  can  we 
have  faith  in  any  doctrine  if  there  be  a  serious  dispute  as  to 
the  words  in  which  it  was  delivered  ?  Therefore,  the  settle 
ment  of  the  text  takes  precedence  of  apologetics  and  theology, 
for  it  must  be  a  Bible  materially  the  same  as  when  first 
published,  that  we  either  defend  or  expound.  But  this  primary 
and  indispensable  labour  on  Scripture,  in  order  to  have  it  as 
nearly  as  possible  in  the  state  in  which  its  holy  authors  left  it 
— "the  words  which  the  Holy  Ghost  teacheth" — has,  so  far 
from  being  welcomed  with  gratitude,  been  despised  and  scorned 
with  rancorous  and  malignant  hostility.  There  are  some 
noted  examples. 

Origen's  labours  on  the  Septuagint  were  not  fully  appreciated 
in  his  own  day,1  and  Jerome's  work  on  the  Latin  version 
provoked  wretched  enmity  and  wild  misrepresentation.  The 
cry  of  falsification  and  sacrilege  was  raised  against  him  on  the 
part  of  men  "  who  thought  that  ignorance  was  holiness — biped 
1  Eedepenning's  Origenes,  vol.  II,  156,  &c.,  Bonn,  1846. 


asses  who  preferred  an  erroneous  and  unrevised  text."  1  Even 
Augustine  warned  him  that  the  task  was  profane  and  perilous. 
Men,  "  who  called  his  work  a  translation,"  accused  him  of 
undermining  the  faith,  and  disturbing  the  peace  of  the 
church  ;  but  the  peace  which  is  content  with  an  imperfect 
text  or  version  of  God's  Word  is  only  a  stolid  inertness. 
When  Robert  Stephens  published  an  edition  of  the  Vulgate, 
and  revised  it  by  the  aid  of  some  MSS.,  the  doctors  of  the 
Sorbonne  bitterly  protested  against  the  innovation,  and 
annoyed  in  many  ways  the  intelligent  and  conscientious 
printer.  On  the  publication  of  his  folio  text  of  the  Greek  New 
Testament  in  1550,  the  same  censors  prohibited  the  edition,  011 
account  of  the  "annotations,"  or  various  readings,  which  were 
taken  from  the  Complutensian  Polyglott  and  some  MSS.,  and 
put  into  the  margin.  The  editor,  apprehensive  of  personal 
danger,  felt  himself  under  the  necessity  of  quitting  Paris,  and 
taking  refuge  in  Geneva.  Had  the  doctrine  of  the  Rhemists 
and  their  contemporaries  been  current  at  an  early  period,  had 
there  been  so  bitter  hostility  to  all  vernacular  translations, 
their  own  cherished  Vulgate  could  never  have  existed  at  all. 

It  is  a  pity  that  Popish  ignorance  should  be  occasionally 
equalled  by  Protestant  jealousy,  as  blind  to  facts  as  it  is  deaf  to 
arguments.  The  controversy  between  Owen  and  Walton  about 
the  original  text  of  Scripture  is  well  known.  Owen  had  prepared 
a  small  treatise  on  "  the  divine  original,  authority,  self-evidenc 
ing  light,  and  power  of  the  Scriptures,"  and  it  was  "  about  to 
be  given  out  to  the  stationers "  when  the  Polyglott  appeared. 
The  various  readings  collected  in  the  appendix  to  it  appalled 
him,  for  they  seemed  to  loosen  the  foundation  of  the  thesis 
which  he  maintained,  and  therefore  he  published  "  Considera 
tions  on  the  Prolegomena  and  Appendix  to  the  late  Biblia 
Polygiotta."  Some  good  men,  and  learned  men  too,  like  the 
Buxtorfs,  never  dreamed  of  the  possibility  of  various  readings, 
but  imagined  that  supernatural  care  had  been  exercised  over 

1  He  confesses  that  he  rendered  a  in  a  church,  and  its  members  forsook 

certain   term   in    Jonah  by    hedera  it,  until  the  old  term  cucurbita  was 

because  he  feared  the  grammarians,  restored.     Zockler's  Hieronymus,  p. 

A  great  commotion  had  been  raised  342,  &c.,  Gotha,  1865. 


the  text  of  the  sacred  volume  in  its  transmission  to  later  times. 
Owen  could  not  deny  the  existence  of  various  readings,  but  he 
laboured  to  explain  them  away.  In  his  grief  and  surprise 
he  trembled  for  the  result,  since  the  notion  that  a  divine  volume 
had  not  been  divinely  protected,  "bordered,"  in  his  opinion,  "on 
atheism  "  ;  and  Walton  himself  held  a  similar  view  as  to  a 
special  divine  guardianship  over  the  sacred  scriptures.  Yet  life, 
though  it  is  a  divine  gift,  is  not  protected  by  any  supernatural 
shield.  Owen  praised  the  Polygiott ;  but  Walton  regarded  the 
eulogy  "  as  a  shoeing  horn  to  draw  on  some  disgraceful  asperi 
ties."1  He  could  not  bear  to  be  told  that  his  magnificent  tomes, 
the  wonder  of  the  age,  and  one  of  its  noblest  monuments,  were 
but  steps  in  a  road  leading  either  to  infidelity  or  to  Rome. 
Owen  totally  mistook  the  nature  of  textual  criticism,  when  he 
defined  it  as  an  attempt  "  to  correct  the  Scriptures  ...  to 
correct  the  Word  of  God  ...  to  amend  it  at  the  pleasure  of 
men,  so  that  men  have  no  choice  but  to  turn  atheists  or  papists."2 
The  mistake  is  a  glaring  one,  for  the  aim  of  criticism  is  not 
to  amend  the  original,  but  simply  to  restore  it,  if  possible,  to  its 
first  and  genuine  shape.  The  question  was  not  one  of  specula 
tion,  but  of  fact  and  eyesight.  Popish  writers  did  take  advantage 
of  the  existence  of  various  readings  to  show  the  necessity  of  a 
personal  living  oracle,  and  a  similar  attempt  has  been  recently 
made  in  a  volume  named  "  Bible  Difficulties." 3  The  author 
piles  up  difficulties  in  connection  with  text  and  version,  which 
he  exaggerates  and  represents  as  insoluble,  to  prove  the  need 

1  Considerator Considered,  London,  should  turn  out  a  man  so  justly  ad- 
1659.  mired   by  all  Europe   for   his    vast 

2  But  Dr.  Owen  was  not  one  of  that  knowledge  and  extraordinary  accom- 
wretched  class  that  branded  erudition  plishments,  adding  that  he  had  come 
as  fatal  to  piety,  and  accounted  learn-  "to  deliver  himself  from  such  dis- 
iiig  "  the  language  of  the  beast."  Dr.  grace  by  protesting  against  a  pro- 
Edward   Pocock  had  been    already  ceeding    so    strangely    foolish    and 
turned  out  of  his  prebend  and  pro-  unjust."      The    hearty   appeal    was 
fessorship     by    the     Parliamentary  successful.     Twell's  Life  of  Pocock, 
Committee   of    Triers  when    Owen  p.  174,  London,  1816. 

appeared  before  them,  and  insisted         3  Williams  and  Norgate,  London 
on  the  "in  finite  reproach"  that  should     1869. 
certainly   fall    upon    them  if    they 

L.]  OWEN  AND  WALTON.  341 

of  a  living  and  infallible  interpreter  who  possesses  the  "  trans 
mitted  authority  of  Christ."  It  would  be  a  strange  spectacle 
to  behold  his  Infallible  Holiness  pronouncing  from  the  chair 
of  St.  Peter  on  various  readings  in  the  Greek  text  of  which 
he  had  no  familiar  knowledge,  or  revising  translations  in  a 
foreign  language  of  which  he  did  not  understand  one  syllable. 
The  two  popes  that  tried  their  hand  on  their  own  Vulgate 
gained  no  credit  by  their  interference.1  A  freethinker,  many 
years  afterwards,  in  Shaftesbury's  Characteristics,2  asks  as  to 
Scripture,  "  Is  it  the  single  reading  or  that  of  various  readings, 
the  text  of  these  manuscripts,  or  of  those,  the  transcripts,  copies, 
titles,  catalogues  of  this  Church  or  of  that  other  ?  "  with  much 
more  to  the  same  effect,  and  in  proof  and  fortification  a  remark 
able  paragraph  is  adduced  from  Jeremy  Taylor.  Thus  infidels 
and  papists  alike  deduced  from  the  various  readings  the  un 
certainty  of  Scripture.  But  these  illogical  inferences  were  no 
reason  why  the  clear  path  of  duty  should  be  deserted,  and  they 
were  not  to  be  warded  off  by  denying  the  fact  of  collected 
and  visible  variations.  If,  however,  a  man  like  Owen,  a  great 
theologian,  and  the  head  of  a  University,  felt  such  tremors 
and  presentiments,  how  many  around  him  and  beneath  him 
must  have  been  tormented  by  similar  fears  and  anxieties  ? 
Referring  to  the  bulk  of  the  "  Variants,"  he  says,  "  I  have 
heard  the  great  Ussher  expressing  his  fears."  The  fears 
were  groundless.  The  vehicle  may  rock,  and  the  oxen  may 
stumble,  but  the  ark  is  safe,  and  Uzzah  does  not  need  in 
wanton  and  faithless  temerity  to  put  forth  his  hand  to  steady 
it.  Dr.  Chalmers,  who  had  no  great  familiarity  with  this  class 
of  subjects,  in  describing  the  collision  between  Owen  and 
Walton,  says,  "I  know  not  which  was  most  revolting,  the  | 
lordly  insolence  of  the  prelate,  or  the  outrageous  violence  of 
the  Puritan."  The  antithesis  is  only  a  rhetorical  exaggeration.  ; 
If  insolence  occasionally  gleams  out  in  Walton,  it  is  not 
"  lordly,"  for  he  was  not  a  bishop  at  the  time ;  some  might  call 
Vice-Chancellor  Owen's  Tract  a  specimen  of  ponderous  and 
solemn  incompetence ;  but  the  charge  of  "  violence  "  is  wholly 

1  See  page  109.  2  Vol.  Ill,  p.  320,  London,  1723. 


inapplicable  to  it,  for  it  is  the  outpouring  of  a  mind  over 
burdened  with  great  sorrow  and  perplexity. 

The  saintly  Albert  Bengel  was  also  malignantly  assailed 
because  he  touched  the  text  of  Scripture.  Certain  "  ministers 
of  God's  Word  "  sharply  reprimanded  him  for  "  his  audacity," 
unprecedented,  in  publishing  in  1738  a  Greek  text  so  different 
from  the  received  one;  and  a  Catholic  opponent  in  1741  branded 
him  as  a  "  Bible  murderer,"  hinting  at  the  same  time  that  the 
church  had  a  temporal  as  well  as  a  spiritual  sword  to  bring  to 
"  obedience  all  heretics."  These  and  similar  accusations  and 
threats  wrung  from  him  the  prayer,  "  O  that  this  may  be  the 
last  occasion  of  my  standing  in  the  gap  to  vindicate  the 
precious  original  text  of  the  New  Testament ! " l  Jerome  had 
met  his  opponents  in  a  different  spirit — "  A  lyre  is  played  in 
vain  to  an  ass," — "  If  they  will  not  drink  the  water  from  the 
purest  source,  let  them  drink  of  the  muddy  streams." 

The  publication  of  Mill's  New  Testament,  with  its  thirty 
thousand  various  readings,  renewed  in  England  the  panic  which 
Walton's  Polyglott  had  originated.  Unfavourable  and  unjust 
opinions  of  the  work,  the  result  of  thirty  years'  hard  labour, 
were  freely  circulated,  not  only  by  unlearned  people,  but,  as 
Bishop  Marsh  asserts,  "  not  only  by  the  clergy  in  general,  but 
even  by  professors  in  the  University."  Whitby's  Examen  is  a 
specimen  of  the  current  opinions,  which  more  than  insinuated 
that  this  New  Testament  "exposed  the  Reformation  to  the 
Papists,  and  religion  itself  to  the  atheists."  Whitby  was  more 
unreasonable  than  Owen ;  but  Mill  was  removed  from  the 
scene  before  the  Examen  appeared ;  the  Master  "  had  hidden 
him  in  his  pavilion  from  the  strife  of  tongues."  Bentley,  in  his 
most  masterly  exposition  of  such  folly,  throws  out  the  challenge, 
"  Make  your  thirty  thousand  as  many  more,  and  even  put  them 
into  the  hands  of  a  knave  or  a  fool,  and  yet  with  a  most  sinistrous 
and  absurd  choice  he  shall  not  extinguish  the  light  of  a  single 
chapter,  nor  so  disguise  Christianity,  but  that  every  feature  of 
it  will  still  be  the  same."  ~  Even  John  Selden  was  so  far 

1  Burk's   Life  of  Bengel,  English     Free-thinking,     by    Phileleutherus, 
translation,  p.  237,  London,  1837.          Lipsiensis,  Works,  vol.  III.,  p.  360, 
2Remarks  upon  a  late  Discourse  of     ed.  Dyce,  London,  1838. 


carried  away  as  to  counsel,  "  when  you  meet  with  several 
readings  of  the  text,  take  heed  you  admit  nothing  against  the 
tenets  of  your  church."1  Samuel  Clark,  in  his  Divine  Authority 
of  the  Holy  Scripture,  London,  1760,  maintains  the  divine 
authority  of  the  Hebrew  vowels,  points,  and  accents,  or  else 
"we  are  left  to  human  authority." 

These  occurrences  are  not  solitary  examples.  As  the  attempt 
to  secure  a  text  that  might  be  a  near  approach  to  the  auto 
graphs  of  the  sacred  writers — a  work  of  all  others  most 
momentous  and  indispensable,  has  created  dismay  and  appre 
hension,  so  the  effort  to  revise  a  translation  has  excited  similar 
antipathy  and  panic.  To  tell  the  truth  about  the  original 
text  has  been  stigmatized  as  the  inglorious  utterance  of  secrets 
which  should  have  been  hushed  up,  or  told  in  whispers  to  a  select 
and  initiated  circle.  The  effort  to  make  a  translation  more  faith 
ful  by  means  of  a  better  text,  and  a  thorough  and  uniform  appli 
cation  of  grammatical  canons,  has,  even  in  these  days,  drawn  forth 
earnest  deprecation  of  the  work  as  useless,  if  not  pernicious ; 
and  solemn  appeals  have  been  made  by  all  that  is  patriotic  and 
Christian,  by  all  that  concerns  the  welfare  of  the  church  and  the 
land,  to  lay  it  aside.  The  perfection  of  Scripture  has  in  some 
way  come  to  be  associated  with  the  English  Authorized 
Version,  so  that  to  touch  it  is  to  injure  it,  and  to  attempt  to 
amend  it  is  little  less  than  profanity. 

Numerous  scholars,  critics,  and  commentators  have  expressed 
their  opinion  as  to  the  desirableness,  if  not  the  necessity,  of  a 
revision :  such  men  as  Lowth,  Waterland,  Kennicott,  White, 
Blayney,  Hales,  and  many  others.  Indeed  the  attempt  to  secure 
a  revision  is  no  novelty.  The  need  of  it  has  been  often  felt 
The  era  of  the  Commonwealth,  besides  being  a  time  of  political 
convulsion,  was  a  season  of  great  religious  and  theological 
excitement.  The  English  Bible  at  such  a  period  naturally  drew 
earnest  attention  to  itself,  for  church  and  divinity  overmastered 
all  minds,  and  were  everywhere  and  always  the  centre  of  ear 
nest  discussion  and  controversy.  It  brought  back  the  older  period 
in  the  church,  when  knots  of  people  in  the  streets  of  Constan 
tinople  debated  incomprehensible  abstractions,  and  were  so  ab- 
1  Table  Talk,  p.  11,  Pickering,  London,  1847. 


sorbed  that  they  could  only  carry  on  a  disjointed  conversation 
on  common  topics  ;  when  men  talked  theology  over  their  daily 
bargains;  when  a  query  about  the  price  of  a  loaf  brought  out 
the  reply  that  "  the  Father  is  greater  than  the  Son " ;  and 
when  one  asking  for  a  bath  was  met  with  the  response,  "  The 
Son  of  God  was  created  from  nothing." 

In  a  sermon  preached  before  the  House  of  Commons  in 
August,  1645,  Dr.  Lightfoot  urged  them  "to  think  of  a  review 
and  survey  of  the  translation  of  the  Bible,"  that  "  the  three 
nations  might  come  to  understand  the  proper  and  genuine 
study  of  the  Scriptures,  by  an  exact,  vigorous,  and  lively  trans 
lation."  l 

In  April,  1653,  an  order  was  made  by  the  Long  Parliament, 
and  a  bill  was  brought  in,  for  a  new  translation  of  the  Bible 
out  of  the  original  tongues,  and  it  ran  in  these  terms  : — 

"  Whereas  in  the  original  text  of  the  Holy  Scriptures 
there  is  so  great  a  depth,  that  only  by  degrees  there  is  a 
progress  of  light  towards  the  attaining  of  perfection  of  the 
knowledge  in  the  bettering  of  the  translation  thereof;  and 
hence  the  most  learned  translators  have  found  cause  again  and 
again  of  revision  and  still  rectifying  and  amending  within  a 
few  years  of  what  they  themselves  had  translated  and  pub 
lished.  And  this  hath  been  the  commendable  practice  even  of 
some  Papists,  and  of  sundry  of  the  reformed  religion  : 

"  And  it  being  now  above  forty  years  since  our  new  trans 
lation  was  finished,  divers  of  the  heads  of  colleges  and  many 
other  learned  persons  (that  coming  later  have  the  advantage  to 
stand  as  on  the  heads  of  the  former)  in  their  public  sermons 
(and  in  print  also)  have  often  held  out  to  their  hearers  and 
readers  that  the  Hebrew  or  Greek  may  better  be  rendered,  as 
they  mention,  than  as  it  is  in  our  newest  and  best  translation  : 
some  of  the  places  seeming  to  be  very  material,  and  crying 
aloud  for  the  rectifying  of  them,  if  the  truth  be  as  it  is  so 
affirmed,  and  published  by  them,  and  here  in  some  MSS. 
presented  to  us : 

"  And  forasmuch  as  the  translation  by  Mr.  H.  Ainsworth  of 

1  Works,  vol.  I,  p.  xv,  ed.  Pitman,  London,  1825. 

2  The  preamble  is  given  on  p.  271. 


Moses  and  the  Psalms,  and  Song  of  Solomon,  is  greatly  com 
mended  by  many  of  the  learned  as  far  more  agreeable  to  the 
Hebrew  than  ours ;  and  it  is  said  that  there  are  MSS.  of  his 
translations  of  some  other  Scriptures  both  of  the  Old  and  New 
Testament.  And  also  in  other  parts  of  the  Holy  Scriptures, 
some  have  translated  verses  and  some  chapters ;  and  we  hear 
that  some  have  translated  the  New  Testament,  if  not  the  Old 
also,  and  would  have  them  printed  and  published  in  our  nation. 
Which  if  it  should  be  done  on  their  own  heads,  without  due 
care  for  the  supervising  thereof  by  learned  persons  sound  in  the 
fundamentals  of  the  Christian  religion,  might  be  a  precedent  of 
dangerous  consequence,  emboldening  other  to  do  the  like,  and 
might  tend  at  last  to  bring  in  other  Scriptures  or  another 
Gospel  instead  of  the  oracles  of  God  and  the  Gospel  of  our  Lord 
Jesus  Christ: 

"  For  the  reforming,  rectifying,  and  repairing  of  the  former 
injury  to  the  new  translation,  and  for  preventing  of  so  great 
inconveniences  of  such  dangerous  consequence,  and  for  the 
furtherance  (what  in  us  lieth)  and  the  benefit  and  edification 
of  many,  Be  it  enacted,  that  no  person  or  persons  whatsoever 
within  the  dominions  of  England,  Scotland,  and  Ireland,  with 
out  the  approbation  of  persons  hereafter  named  or  to  be  named 
by  authority,  shall  presume  to  print  or  publish  any  such 
translation  of  the  Bible  or  of  the  New  Testament. 

"  And  that  these  persons,  viz. :  Dr.  John  Owen,  Dr.  Ralph 
Cud  worth,  Mr.  Jenkins,  Mr.  William  Greenhill,  Mr.  Samuel 
Slater,  Mr.  William  Cowper,  Mr.  Henry  Jessey,  Mr.  Ralph 
Venninge,  and  Mr.  John  Row,  Hebrew  professor  in  Aberdeen, 
in  Scotland,1  shall  be  and  hereby  are  constituted,  appointed,  and 
authorized  in  and  about  all  these  particulars  following  to  be 
performed  by  them  in  the  fear  of  the  Lord,  for  the  good  of  His 
people,  namely : — 

"  That  these  or  any  three  or  more  of  them  may  search  and 
observe  wherein  that  last  translation  appears  to  be  wronged  by 
the  Prelates,  or  printers,  or  others ;  that  in  all  such  places,  as 
far  as  in  them  is,  it  may  be  rectified  and  amended  therein,  and 
the  evident  and  most  material  failings,  that  do  in  a  special 
1  Prof.  Row's  proposals  may  be  seen  on  p.  322. 


manner  call  for  reformation  (some  particulars  whereof  to  us 
have  been  presented  for  consideration),  and  that  this  may  be 
performed  with  all  speed  before  there  be  any  further  printing 
of  the  Bible  : 

"  And  further,  because  it  is  our  duty  to  endeavour  to  have 
the  Bible  translated  in  all  places  as  accurately  and  as  perfectly 
agreeing  with  the  original  Hebrew  and  Greek  as  we  can  attain 
unto,  to  remove  (whatever  in  us  lieth)  the  stumbling-blocks 
and  offence  of  the  weak,  or  the  cavils  of  others  when  they  hear 
in  sermons  preached  or  printed,  or  in  other  treatises,  that  the 
original  bears  it  better  thus  and  thus.  Be  it  [enacted]  that  the 
persons  beforesaid  may  seriously  consider  the  translation  of 
Mr.  H.  Ainsworth,  and  of  any  other  translations,  annotations, 
or  observations  made  or  that  may  be  made  by  any  of  them 
selves,  or  of  any  others  that  they  know  of,  or  may  confer  withal 
(who  are  desired  to  add  unto  them  their  best  assistance  for  the 
general  good  of  all),  and  consider  of  the  marginal  readings  in 
Bibles,  whether  any  of  them  should  rather  be  in  the  line.  And 
what  they,  after  serious  looking  up  to  the  Lord  for  His  gracious 
assistance  in  so  weighty  a  work,  and  advising  together  amongst 
themselves,  shall  judge  to  be  nearest  to  the  text,  and  to  the 
mind  of  the  Lord,  they  may  give  thereunto  their  approbation, 
and  this  with  all  speed  that  conveniently  they  are  able: 

"  And  be  it  further  enacted,  that  Dr.  Thomas  Goodwin,  Dr. 
Tuckney,  and  Mr.  Joseph  Caryl,  are  hereby  appointed  and 
authorized  to  be  supervisors  of  what  is  so  approved,  and  that 
what  those  persons  shall  so  approve  of,  shall  accordingly  be 
printed  and  published  for  the  general  edification  and  benefit  of 
the  whole  nation,  to  be  read  both  privately  and  in  the  public 

The  project  was  revived  afterwards,  and  referred  to  a 
sub-committee  to  consult  with  Walton,  S.  Clarke,  Cudworth, 
and  "  such  others  as  they  shall  think  fit  to  consider  of  the 
translations  and  impressions  of  the  Bible,  and  to  offer  their 
opinions  thereon  to  this  committee."  The  matter  was  com 
mitted  to  Lord  ""Commissioner  Whitelocke,  who  held  the  Great 
Seal,  and  the  committee  met  often  at  his  house.  "  Excellent 
and  learned  observations  "  were  made  on  some  mistakes  in  the 


Bible,  "  which  yet  was  agreed  to  be  the  best  of  any  translation 
in  the  world,  and  pains  took  in  it;  but  it  became  fruitless  by 
the  Parliament's  dissolution." 

But  now  may  we  not  have  a  better  text  after  a  collation  of 
many  MSS.  not  known  in  the  days  of  King  James,  and  after 
the  labours  of  Griesbach,  Lachmann,  Tregelles,  Tischendorf,  and 
others,  the  critical  apparatus  of  Dean  Alford,  the  collation  of 
Scrivener,  and  the  New  Testament  of  Drs.  Westcott  and  Hort 
not  yet  completed — the  labour  of  more  than  twenty  years  ?  l 
We  have  seen  what  kind  of  text  was  used  by  King  James's 
revisers,  and  that  it  has  no  great  authority.  Bentley  styles 
the  great  printer  and  editor  "  Pope  Stephens,"  and  sarcastically 
remarks  that  "  his  text  stands  as  if  an  apostle  was  his  com 
positor."  The  principles  advocated  by  Bentley,  and  adopted  by 
Lachmann,  are  now  virtually  espoused  by  editors  of  the  Greek 
Testament.  Tischendorf  tells  that  "  after  long  wavering  "  he 
substantially  adopted  them.2  His  third  edition  (1849)  and 
his  seventh  (1859)  differ  in  considerably  more  than  1,200  places, 
about  a  half  of  those  in  the  latter  returning  to  the  Textus 
Receptus ;  and  the  text  of  his  last  or  eighth  edition  differs  from 

1  The   British  and  Foreign  Bible  helped  to  fulfil  its  own  pretension. 

Society,    which    issues    daily    from  To   keep   a   verse,  the  genuineness 

London     and    its     foreign    [depots,  of  which  nobody  familiar  with  the 

8,500  copies  of  the  Bible  or  portions  principles   of    critical  evidence  will 

of  it,  binds  all  its  translators  through-  admit,  is  to  circulate  a  forgery  in  the 

out  the  world  to  take   the  Elzevir  divine  name,  and  is  as  perilous  as  to 

edition  of  1624,  which  was  reprinted  exclude   a  verse    which   has    every 

for  them  in  1852  ;  allowing  however  sanction.     A  collation  of  Stephens, 

such  variations  as  may  be  found  in  1550,    and   Elzevir,    1624,   may    be 

the     marginal     renderings     of     the  seen     in      Prebendary     Scrivener's 

English  version.     This  noble  institu-  Novuru    Testamentuni,   Cambridge, 

tion   has  in  this  way  declared    the  1872. 

Elzevir  text   "  authentic,"  and  done  2  See  also  Tregelles  in  the  Intro- 

for  it  what  the  Council  of  Trent  did  ductory  Notice  to  the  First  Part  of 

for  the  Vulgate.    "What  is  commonly  his  New  Testament,  1857;  the  clear 

called     the     "Received     Text"     is  and  compact  preface  of  Westcott  and 

chiefly  that  of  Stephens  and  Beza.  Hort  to   their  edition,    1870  ;    and 

The   unknown   editor   states  in  his  Ellis's  Bentleia  Critica,  Cambridge, 

preface,  1633,  that  it  was  a  "text  1862. 
received  by    all,"    and   the    eulogy 


that  of  the  seventh  in  3,350  places.  This  apparent  instability 
partly  induced  by  his  love  for  his  own  MS.,  was  also  caused 
by  his  intense  and  manifest  desire  to  find  out  the  truth  by  the 
careful  weighing  of  evidence  of  all  kinds.  The  theory  of 
Lachmann  commends  itself,  for  it  finds  the  text  in  the  oldest 
authorities,  which  reach  nearest  apostolic  times,  or  to  the  so- 
called  Western  authorities,  now  N  and  B,  the  Curetonian  Syriac 
and  the  unrevised  old  Latin  texts,  with  A,c,D,&c.;  the  Memphitic 
and  the  Vulgate;  while  such  Fathers  as  Origen,  Irenreus,  Tertul- 
lian,  Clement,  and  Eusebius,  are  not  to  be  overlooked.  The  text 
of  Tregelles  is  made  on  hard  and  fast  principles,  applied  with 
rigour,  so  that  little  account  is  taken  of  any  collateral  influences 
that  may  prompt  and  mould  a  sound  critical  judgment.  Gries- 
bach's  text  rests  also  on  Western  authorities,  or  what  he  called 
the  Western  "Recension"  or  "  Family,"  the  received  text  having 
come  chiefly  from  the  Eastern  or  Byzantine  Family.  If 
certainty  as  to  the  text  cannot  be  obtained  from  diplomatic 
sources,  the  highest  probability  must  be  the  guide,  after  the 
evidence  of  MSS.,  patristic  quotations  and  versions  some  of 
them  older  than  any  MS.,  the  special  style  of  the  author,  the 
temptations  of  copyists,  the  connection  of  the  context,  and 
other  minute  modifying  elements,  have  been  calmly  and 
patiently  weighed ;  each  sphere  of  proof  having  its  own  value 
in  proportion  to  its  history  and  character.  Or  the  source  of 
the  variations  may  be  discovered,  and  themselves  gradually 
traced  ;  or  the  readings  may  be  in  a  state  of  such  confusion 
that  to  unravel  the  tangled  mass  is  a  work  of  special  tact  and 
delicacy.  Or  the  mass  of  the  Cursives  may  be  ranged  against 
a  few  Uncials ;  or  the  versions  may  be  in  conflict  with  MSS ., 
while  the  polemical  influences  of  some  Father  may  be  very 
transparent  in  his  citations.  Clauses  may  disappear  that  had 
been  generally  accepted,  peculiar  alterations  may  startle,  read 
ings  may  be  brought  in  which  have  been  unknown  to  the 
English  reader,  favourite  texts  may  pass  out  or  appear  in  some 
different  form ;  but  truth  must  be  followed  for  its  own  sake  and 
at  all  hazards.  Let  us  look  at  some  of  the  changes  which  rest 
on  undoubted  authority,  and  which  are  now  found  in  the  best 
critical  editions  of  the  Greek  text. 


Few  readers  will  quarrel  with  the  change,  Matt,  vi,  1, 
"  Take  heed  that  ye  do  not  your  righteousness  before  men," 
and  of  that  righteousness,  alms,  fasting,  and  prayer  are  given 
as  examples  ;  or  xvii,  4,  where  Peter  says,  "  I  will  make  here 
three  tabernacles,"  so  like  himself;  or  with  the  additional  word 
in  Luke  xv,  17,  "I  perish  here  with  hunger";  and  22,  "bring 
quickly  the  best  robe  "  ;  or  Acts  xvi,  7,  "  the  spirit  of  Jesus 
suffered  them  not";  or  Rom.  iv,  1,  "our  forefather";  v,  1,  "let 
us  have  peace  "  ;  or  2  Tim.  iv,  14,  "the  Lord  will  reward  him  " ; 
or  James  iv,  12,  "  thou,  who  art  thou  that  judgest  another  ?  " 
or  1  Peter  iii,  15,  "sanctify  the  Lord  Christ  in  your  hearts"; 
or  1  John  iii,  1,  "  that  we  should  be  called  the  sons  of  God, 
and  we  are  such  "  ;  or,  Rev.  xix,  1,  "I  heard  as  it  were  a  great 
voice."  Nor  would  some  omissions  be  at  all  distressing,  as 
that  of  Matt,  i,  25,  "  till  she  brought  forth  a  son,"  "  firstborn  " 
standing  in  Luke  undisputed ;  or  v,  22,  "  whoso  is  angry  with 
his  brother  shall  be  in  danger  " — "  without  cause,"  having  no 
authority,  weakens  the  precept  in  terseness  and  spirit ;  or  the 
omission  of  "  openly  "  in  vi,  4  ;  the  substitution  of  "  wine  " 
for  "  vinegar"  in  xxvii,  84 ;  or  of  "  as  snow "  in  Mark 
ix,  3 ;  or  the  omission  of  "  implacable,"  Rom.  i,  31 ;  of  the 
last  clause  of  viii,  1,  "  who  walk  not  after  the  flesh,  but 
after  the  spirit,"  which  is  taken  from  verse  4 :  and  xiv,  9, 
of  "  rose,  and  revived  "  ;  or  1  Cor.  xi,  29,  of  the  adverb  "  un 
worthily,"  "eateth  and  drinketh  judgment  to  himself,  as  he 
does  not  discern  the  Lord's  body  "  ;  or  Gal.  iii,  1,  which  should 
read,  "  0  foolish  Galatians,  who  bewitched  you,  before  whose 
eyes  Jesus  Christ  was  evidently  set  forth,  crucified  " ;  or,  Rev. 
v,  8,  "and  they  reign  on  the  earth,"  for  "they  shall  reign." 

The  reason  of  the  following  unwarranted  emendations  is 
very  apparent :  Luke  ii,  33,  "  Joseph  and  his  mother,"  the 
true  reading  being  "his  father  and  his  mother,"  a  mode  of 
speech  that  might  seem  to  impugn  the  doctrine  of  the  incarna 
tion  ;  John  vi,  11,  "  Jesus  took  the  loaves,  and  gave  thanks, 
and  gave  to  them  that  were  set  down,"  the  intermediate  clause, 
"  he  distributed  to  the  disciples,  and  the  disciples  to  them  that 
were  set  down,"  must  be  left  out — it  was  inserted  to  bring  the 
verse  into  correspondence  with  Mark.  The  better  reading  in 


John  iii,  25,  is  "  a  question  between  some  of  John's  disciples 
and  a  Jew."  The  shorter  and  more  difficult  reading  is  usually 
the  genuine  reading. 

But  the  object  of  textual  criticism  is  not  to  supply  readings 
that  may  not  be  displeasing,  or  that  may  be  reckoned  improve 
ments.  No  notion  of  such  a  kind  can  be  entertained,  for  its 
purpose  is  to  find  out  fact  and  truth  apart  from  personal 
preference  or  dissatisfaction.  The  evidence  that  carries  in 
readings  that  are  liked  may  and  does  introduce  others  that 
may  stumble  and  perplex.  No  doubt  it  will  distress  some 
persons  to  find  the  familiar  doxology  of  the  Lord's  Prayer 
omitted,  though  it  does  not  occur  in  Luke,  and  the  third 
and  fourth  verses  of  John  v  left  out,  or  Acts  viii,  37,  or 
the  last  clause  of  1  Cor.  vi,  20,  reading  simply,  "  in  your 
bodies,"  without  the  addition,  "  and  your  spirit,  which  are 
God's."  For  the  famous  passage  about  the  three  witnesses  in 
1  John,  no  one  now  contends.  Other  changes  may  offend 
some,  as  if  they  should  find  only  two  lines  in  the  natal 
anthem,  "  Glory  to  God  in  the  highest,  peace  on  earth  among 
men  of  good  will."  But,  in  fact,  there  are  various  readings  in 
nearly  every  verse,  though  many  of  them  scarcely  affect  the 
translation.  Variations  of  nouns  and  personal  pronouns,  of 
position  in  the  names  of  Christ,  and  of  prepositions  and 
particles,  are  perpetually  occurring.  Scribes  often  added  ex 
planatory  words,  and  words  for  the  sake  of  emphasis.  Clauses 
are  taken  into  Matthew  from  the  other  gospels,  and  parallel 
passages  are  brought  into  verbal  coincidence.  It  is  not  easy  to 
account  for  the  interpolated  insertion  in  some  copies,  Matt, 
xxvii,  49,  of  a  verse  from  John  xix,  34,  for  the  piercing  of  Christ's 
side,  as  told  in  the  latter  gospel,  took  place  after  death,  as 
Origen  also  mentions.  The  following  are  specimens  of  words 
added  for  the  sake  of  supposed  clearness :  John  xi,  41,  "  from 
the  place  where  the  dead  was  laid"  ;  xvi,  16,  "because  I  go  to  my 
Father  "  ;  Ephes.  iii,  14,  "  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ  " ;  Col.  i,  14, 
"through  his  blood";  2  Thess.  ii,  4,  "as  God";  1  Tim.  iii,  3,  "not 
greedy  of  filthy  lucre  " — a  conformity  to  Titus  i,  7 ;  1  Tim.  vi,  5, 
"from  such  withdraw  thyself";  Heb.  xii,  20,  "or  thrust  through 
with  a  dart."  Those  clauses  have  not  the  ring  of  the  true 




metal.  At  the  same  time,  many  cases  defy  a  perfect  solution, 
and  scholars  take  different  views.  It  is  very  hard  to  decide 
on  the  true  reading  in  John  i,  18,  whether  it  should  be  "  the 
only  begotten  Son,"  or  "  God  only  begotten " ; ]  whether  it 
should  be,  Acts  xx,  28,  "  Church  of  God,"  or,  "  Church  of 
the  Lord,  which  he  hath  purchased  with  his  own  blood."  £ 
"  God  manifest  in  the  flesh,"  1  Tim.  iii,  16,  has  less  authority 
than  "who  was  manifest  in  the  flesh."3  The  genuineness 
of  the  appendix  to  St.  Mark  in  the  last  twelve  verses  of  that 
gospel,  and  of  the  story  of  the  woman  caught  in  adultery  in 
St.  John,  is  not  freely  and  generally  accepted. 

The  proper  reading  in  Rom.  iv,  19,  contradicts  the  present 
or  current  one  only  in  appearance,  "  and  being  not  weak  in 
faith,  he  considered  not  his  body  now  dead,  .  .  .  neither  yet 

1  May  it  not  be  conjectured  that  the 
Evangelist  wrote  simply  /^ovoyev?;?, 
as  in  v.  14,  "  the  only  begotten/'  and 
that  one  scribe,  looking  back  to  v.l, 
supplied  fcos,  and  another,  glancing 
only  at  v.  1 4,  "  only  begotten  of  the 
Father,"  naturally  wrote  vtds.    See  a 
learned  and   vigorous  paper  in  de 
fence  of  #eos  by  Dr.  Hort,  of  Cam 
bridge,  and  one  equally  learned  and 
vigorous  on  behalf  of  mos  by  Pro 
fessor    Ezra    Abbott,    of     Harvard 
University,  United  States. 

2  Though  the  Sinaitic  Codex  has 
in  John  i,  18,  #eos,  and  6eov  in  Acts 
xx,  28,  Tischendorf  does  not  admit  of 
these   readings,   and   Dr.  Davidson 
concurs.     Nor  did  he,  nor  could  he, 
follow  it  in  1  Cor.  xv,  51,  for  it  reads 
"  we  shall  all  sleep,  but  we  shall  not 
all  be  changed."     He  forsakes  it  also 
in  Luke  i  v,  44,  and  reads, "  synagogues 
of  Galilee"  instead  of  "synagogues  of 
Judsea,"  the  last  and  the  more  diffi 
cult  reading  being  well  supported. 
Tregelles  also   does  not  venture  to 
accept  it. 

3  The  readings,  Oeos  and  6',  may 
be  traced  from  6's:  the  first  taking 
up  into  itself  the  antecedent  which 
may  have  been  thought  too  vague 
or  remote;  and  the  second  laying  im 
mediate  hold  on  yuvcm/piov  as  a  near 
antecedent.  Though  the  result  is  not 
affected  by  the  Alexandrian  Codex 
in  the  British  Museum,  its  reading 
has  been  inspected  with  every  care, 
but  without  a  unanimous  decision. 
This  leaf  of  the  MS.  is  now  frail,  for 
it  has  of  ten  been  subjected  to  scrutiny 
of  all  kinds.  Bishop  Ellicott  affirms 
that  A  reads  6's  "  indisputably,  after 
minute  personal  inspection";  but  Dr. 
Scrivener  replies  in  direct  contradic 
tion,  and  he  possesses  eyes  which,  in 
his  own  words,  "  have  something  of 
the  power  and  too  many  of  the  de 
fects  of  a  microscope."  The  question 
is  whether  the  bar  across  the  G 
is  or  is  not  the  sagitta  of  an  g  on  the 
opposite  side  of  the  page.  Young, 
Huish,  and  others  who  examined  the 
MS.  long  ago,  agreed  that  the  reading 
was  0C,  that  is  #eos,  God. 


the  deadness  of  Sarah's  womb";  the  better  sustained  reading  is, 
"  and  not  being  weak  in  faith,  he  considered  his  own  body  now 
become  dead  .  .  .  and  the  deadness  of  Sarah's  womb,  yet  he 
wavered  not  through  unbelief."  The  first  and  feebler  form  is, 
he  did  not  think  of  his  age  and  that  of  Sarah,  when  he  laid 
hold  of  the  promise;  and  the  second  and  more  suggestive  form 
is,  that  though  he  was  fully  alive  to  his  own  age  and  that  of 
Sarah,  still  he  grasped  the  promise.  The  one  view  makes  his 
age  a  matter  of  indifference  to  him,  but  the  other  makes  it 
a  conscious  difficulty,  over  which  he  nobly  triumphed.  The 
true  reading  in  Matt,  xix,  16,  17,  is  "Master,  what  good  thing- 
shall  I  do  that  I  may  inherit  life  ?  And  he  said  unto  him,  Why 
askest  thou  me  concerning  the  good  thing  ?  One  there  is  who 
is  good."  The  common  reading  stands  in  Mark  x,  17,  and  in 
Luke  xviii,  18.  An  important  change  happens  in  1  Cor.  viii,  7, 
which  now  reads  "  for  some  with  conscience  of  the  idol  unto 
this  hour,  eat  it  as  a  thing  offered  unto  a  idol."  The  term  ren 
dered  "conscience"  must  pass  out,and  another  meaning  "custom" 
is  rightly  put  in  its  place  —  "  some  from  custom  in  respect  to 
the  idol,"  or  "  some  from  being  used  until  now  to  the  idol,  eat 
it  as  a  thing  sacrificed  to  an  idol."  l  A  necessary  change  in 
2  Cor.  iv,  6,  will  not  stumble  any  one,  instead  of  "  God  who 
commanded  the  light  to  shine  out  of  darkness,  hath  shined  in 
our  hearts,"  it  should  be,  "  for  it  is  God  that  said  light  shall 
shine  out  of  darkness,  who  shined  in  our  hearts."  1  John  v, 
13,  reads,  "  These  things  have  I  written  unto  you  that  believe 
on  the  name  of  the  Son  of  God,  that  ye  may  know  that  ye 
have  eternal  life,  and  that  ye  may  believe  on  the  name  of  the 
Son  of  God";  the  better  and  simpler  reading  being,  "These 
things  have  I  written  unto  you,  that  ye  may  know  that  ye 
have  eternal  life,  to  wit,  unto  you  that  believe  on  the  name  of 
the  Son  of  God."  2 

But  the  English  translation  itself  may  be  revised  and  brought 
to  be  as  far  as  possible  the  express  image  of  the  original  Greek, 
and  within  certain  limits  such  a  work  may  be  successfully 

for  trweiSrpris.  The  Words  of  the  New  Testament, 

2  See  an  excellent  and  popular  view    by  Professors  Milligan  and  Eoberts, 
of  the  subject  of  various  readings  in     Edinburgh,  1873. 


carried  out.  A  revision  is  not  a  new  translation,  such  as  some 
men  have  contended  for,1  nor  is  it  a  mere  modernizing  of  the  style, 
like  many  specimens  given  to  the  world,  neither  is  it  an  attempt 
to  remove  difficulties,  or  solve  discrepancies,  by  renderings  so 
cautiously  or  cunningly  moulded  as  to  suit  such  a  purpose.  A 
revision  may  and  ought  to  preserve  the  quaintness  and  beauty 
of  the  English  version,  and  it  will  not  attempt  to  sew  a  piece  of 
cloth  on  an  old  garment,  forming  an  unseemly  and  incongruous 
patch.  To  present  a  popular  as  well  as  a  literal  version  is  no 
doubt  a  task  of  uncommon  difficulty.2  A  literal  version  for 
scholars  or  for  private  study  would  be  a  comparatively  easy 
work ;  but  one  for  the  use  of  the  people  requires  the  nice  com 
bination  of  many  qualities,  as  correctness,  clearness,  rhythm, 
and  strength — for  it  must  not  be  rugged  on  the  plea  of  exact 
ness,  or  graceful  at  the  expense  of  fidelity.  It  should  bear  a 
close  relation  to  the  original,  "just  as  a  cast  from  a  fine  statue 
is  better  than  an  imitation."  It  must  be  lucid  without  any 
paraphrastic  dilution,  and  nervous  without  inversions  or  the 
use  of  unfamiliar  terms.  It  behoves  to  be  at  once  true  to  the 
original,  and  loyal  to  the  English  idiom,  expressing  the  mind 
and  thought  of  the  author  in  his  own  manner.  The  attempt  to 
follow  in  all  cases  the  order  of  the  Greek  words  would  produce 
a  cumbrous  and  awkward  translation,  especially  as  emphatic 
terms  do  not  occupy  the  same  position  in  Greek  and  English 

1  The  Kev.  Alfred  Dewes,  A.M.,  speaking  any  other  language  than 

in  his  "  Plea  for  a  New  Translation  his  own,  I  shall  treat  him  with  no 

of    the   Scriptures,"   London,   1866.  respect  whatever ;  but  if  he  speaks 

la  his  opinion  the  Authorized  Ver-  in  his  own  language,  I  shall  set  him 

sion  is  always  inaccurate,  very  often  on  my   head."     "  I've    got    him   in 

obscure,  and  so  bad  that  it  must  be  Italian,"   said   the  barber,    "  but   I 

superseded.     We  take  Eom.  i,  16,  as  don't  understand  him."  "Nor would 

a  specimen  of  his  new  translation  :  it  be  well  that  you  should,"  replied 

"  For  I  am  not  ashamed  of  the  glad  the  curate  :  "  and  we  would  never 

tidings,  seeing  that  every  one  who  have  found  fault  with  the  captain  if 

has  faith,  a  Jew  especially,  a  Gentile  he  had  never  brought  him  into  Spain, 

also,  finds  in  them  a  divine  power,  and  turned  him  into  a  Castilian,  for 

which  brings  him  to  salvation."  he  has  in  this  way  robbed  him  of 

2 "  If,"  said  the  curate  (el  cwra),  much    of    his     natural     excellence 

surveying  the  library  of  the  Cavalier  (valor)."    Don  Quijote,  cap.  VI. 
of  La  Mancha,   "if  I  find  Ariosto 

VOL.  II  Z 


clauses.  In  a  word,  the  present  version  came  to  be  what  it  is 
from  frequent  revision.  The  original  version  of  Tyndale,  five 
times  revised,  is  our  present  New  Testament.  Between  the 
Bishops'  and  it,  only  forty-three  years  elapsed,  and  during  the 
eighty-five  years  from  Tyndale's  first  edition  in  1526  to  1611, 
there  were  several  revisions.  But  no  formal  or  systematic  re 
vision  has  taken  place  since  1611,  or  for  more  than  two  centuries 
and  a  half.  Some  of  the  preceding  pages  show  that  the  version 
has  been  again  and  again  altered  in  many  ways,  but  not  by 
any  joint  process,  or  by  any  known  or  recognized  company. 
So  that  the  revision  of  the  Authorized  Version  does  not  cast 
any  discredit  on  it.  Who  would  not  wish  a  Greek  text  as 
perfect  as  possible,  and  a  version  as  exact  as  possible  ?  but  the 
perfection  of  the  one  and  of  the  other  is  only  to  be  reached  by 
slow  degrees  and  earnest  labour  on  the  part  of  all  willing  and 
scholarly  spirits. 

The  very  same  objections  brought  against  a  revision  in 
1872-6  did  similar  service  against  the  revision  in  1608-11. 

Lord  Shaftesbury  has  produced  the  economic  objection,  that 
many  Bibles  now  in  circulation  would  be  rendered  useless,  and 
no  small  amount  of  money  lost.  Such  fictitious  alarm  might 
have  been  raised  over  the  Great  Bible  in  1540,  the  Bishops' 
in  1568,  and  the  current  version  in  1611.  No  revision  will 
at  once  supersede  present  copies.  Its  circulation  can  only  be 
gradual,  and  those  who  possess  them  will  still  read  and  reve 
rence  them.  The  late  Lord  Panmure,  at  a  public  meeting 
in  Edinburgh,  January  10,  1857,  solemnly  declared,  "that  the 
project  of  a  new  version  is  fraught  with  the  utmost  danger 
to  the  Protestant  liberties  of  this  country,  if  not  to  the  Pro 
testant  religion  itself."  Surely  an  assertion  so  hastily  made  is 
a  libel  on  Protestantism,  which  is  born  of  the  light,  and  ought 
to  welcome  the  light  in  its  fullest  lustre.  On  the  one  hand  it 
is  argued,  that  revision  will  not  lead  to  any  alteration  in  the 
articles  of  the  church,  and  is  therefore  needless.  If  the 
errors  and  inaccuracies  are  so  slight  as  is  pleaded,  then  the 
slighter  they  are  they  can  be  the  more  easily  removed;  and 
why  should  anything  inaccurate,  small  even  as  a  jot  or  a  tittle, 
be  suffered  to  remain  in  the  English  Bible?  Why  dishonour  it 


by  the  perpetuation  of  any  thing  admitted  on  all  hands  to  be 
wrong?  Ought  not  the  Book  of  Life  to  be  without  spot  or 
blemish?  or,  as  Symonds  asked  in  1789,  "Is  error  so  valuable 
an  inheritance  that  it  ought  not  to  be  relinquished  ?  Can  it  be 
sanctioned  by  the  plea  of  a  long  prescription  ?"  On  the  other  hand, 
Dr.  Gumming,  the  well  known  expounder  of  prophecy,  warns 
against  revision,  "as  it  will  give  the  advantage  to  heterodox  par 
ties  in  the  religious  world."  But  does  orthodoxy  depend  on  mis 
translations  or  an  unrevised  version?  The  late  Albert  Barnes  of 
Philadelphia,  who  has  written  voluminous  expositions  of  the 
books  of  the  New  Testament,  condemns  revision,  and  yet 
practises  it  on  every  page  of  his  Commentaries,  amending  the 
translation  or  showing  where  it  wants  point  and  vigour.  A 
systematic  revision  is  surely  better  than  one  which  is  spasmodic 
and  intermittent  in  character.  Dr.  M'Caul  in  his  "  Reasons  for 
Holding  Fast,"  &c.,  says  the  "  changing  of  obsolete  words  would 
establish  a  principle  that  words  not  intelligible  to  the  general 
reader  must  be  altered";  and  one  may  ask,  Why  not?  His 
fear  that  in  this  way  our  theological  nomenclature  and  our 
theology  itself  might  be  altered,  haunted  him  like  a  dark 
spectre.  If  Scripture  has  in  it  words  not  understood,  it  is 
so  far  defective  and  cannot  serve  its  purpose  of  a  clear  teacher, 
and  the  dreaded  radical  revolution  cannot  be  produced  by  a 
cause  so  slight,  as  the  substitution  of  a  few  terms  so  simple  as 
to  be  "  known  and  read  of  all  men."  If  the  present  theology 
rests  on  the  pillars  of  old  and  ambiguous  words,  it  will  not  need 
a  Samson  to  shake  the  temple  into  ruin.  "  Wait,"  say  some 
waverers,  "  till  there  be  agreement  among  scholars  and  critics, 
till  at  least  a  Greek  text  be  fixed  or  accepted  by  all."  Such 
a  period  may  never  come,  critics  will  be  divided  in  opinion 
on  readings  and  their  evidence,  and^scholars  will  admit  the 
necessity  of  alternative  renderings.  Yet  without  this  unanim 
ity,  there  may  be  such  a  general  harmony  as  erudition  warrants, 
and  experience  may  confirm.1 

1  ILL  1787  was  witnessed  a,  strange  two   Protestants,    one    of    them    a 

controversy    on    Bible     translation,  clergyman  of  the  Established  Church 

when  Dr.  Geddes,  a  Catholic  priest,  of  England,  Dr.  Vicesimus  Knox. 
fought  a  battle  in  favour  of  it  against 


One  special  objection  against  revision,  that  any  change  will 
unsettle  the  minds  of  the  people,  refutes  itself.  For  do  not 
the  people  hear  clauses  and  verses  often  re-translated  in  the 
pulpit ;  are  they  not  accustomed  to  such  changes  made  with 
reason  and  without  it  in  a  variety  of  ways?  No  one  will 
call  the  version  perfect;  but  the  drift  of  such  objections  isr 
that  if  there  be  inaccuracies  in  the  English  Bible,  it  is 
better  that  the  people  should  not  know  the  fact  lest  they 
should  be  disturbed  in  mind.  In  the  same  spirit  a  stout 
opponent  of  revision  has  written,  "At  all  events,  all  the 
necessary  alterations  in  the  text  of  the  Authorized  Version 
may  be  introduced  into  it  by  men  of  wisdom  and  judg 
ment,  without  nine-tenths  of  the  nation  being  aware  of  it. 
Would  it  not,  therefore,  be  far  better  to  do  so,  if  it  is  to  be 
done  ?  " l  Another  bar  to  revision  has  been  thrown  up  in 
this  form,  that  if  more  versions  than  one  be  in  circulation,  "the 
right  of  private  judgment  would  be  destroyed,  and  people 
would  pin  their  faith  to  this  or  that  minister."  But  from  the 
publication  of  Matthew's  Bible  in  1537,  down  to  about  1640, 
more  versions  than  one  were  always  in  use  and  circulation,  and 
the  better  translation  soon  found  its  way  to  supi'emacy.  The 
two  versions  supposed  to  be  most  in  antagonism  had  much  in 

Some  cry  in  dismay  at  revision,  "  We  know  not  what  may 
be  forced  upon  us."  Nothing  will  be  forced  upon  anybody. 
"  Must  we  lose  our  present  beloved  Bible,  which  we  read  at  our 
mother's  knee  ? "  Surely  not;  the  Authorized  Version  will  not  be 
suppressed  in  any  sense  or  form  J  Others  have  objected  in 
scorn,  "  Churchmen  and  Dissenters  will  not  coalesce " ;  the 
easy  reply  is,  "Come  and  see."  A  Revision  of  the  Telegu 
and  Tamil  Scriptures  has  been  carried  out  in  India  by 
scholars  of  the  Episcopalian  and  Nonconformist  churches ; 
and  the  same  work  is  going  on  in  the  same  way  in  Caf- 
fraria,  in  Madagascar,  and  in  China,  all  exhibiting  the  unity 
of  the  Spirit  as  they  work  on  His  book.  Revision  has  been 

1  Vindication  of  the  Authorized  Eev.  S.  C.  Malan,  M.A.,  p.  346, 
"Version  of  the  English  Bible,  by  London,  1856. 


done,  or  is  going  on  in  Sweden,  Holland,1  and  Germany,2 
and  some  revised  versions  have  been  published.  "  Ah !  but 
the  Bible  will  be  so  changed  that  we  shall  not  be  able  to 
recognize  it ! "  No  such  result  may  be  anticipated. 

"  We  must  not  stint, 
Our  necessary  actions  in  the  fear, 
To  cope  malicious  censurers. 

If  we  stand  still, 

For  fear  our  motions  will  be  mocked  or  carped  at, 
We  should  take  root  here  where  we  sit,  or  sit 
State  statues  only." 

But  it  is  all  the  while  to  be  remembered  that  it  is  difficult 
to  accept  any  great  changes  in  words  so  familiar — familiar  as 
the  sunbeam,  and  like  the  sunbeam  welcome  every  morning, 
as  those  of  the  English  Bible.  Four  times  in  its  history  has  this 
very  obstacle  been  felt,  and  it  has  been  always  surmounted. 
The  new  at  length  gained  on  acquaintance,  and  as  the  novelty 
wore  off  it  became  as  an  old  friend,  not  taken  to  kindly  at  first, 
but  beloved  and  cherished  as  he  is  better  known.  Again  and 
again  the  alarmists  and  the  alarmed  alike  have  had  verified  to 
them  the  image  of  the  hymn, 

"  The  clouds  ye  so  much  dread, 
Are  big  with  mercy,  and  shall  fall 
In  blessings  on  your  head." 

It  would  serve  little  purpose  to  enumerate  or  criticize  the 
many  specimens  of  revised  or  new  translations  of  the  New 
Testament  which  have  appeared  from  time  to  time.  Too 
many  of  them  have  been  of  a  peculiar  character,  and  though 
not  without  merit,  they  want  some  element  that  should  belong 

1  Het  Nieuwe  Testament  of  alle  Grieksche  taal  in  onzeNederlandsche 

Boeken  des  nieuwen  Verbonds  van  getrouwelijk  overgezet.  Te  Londen, 

ouzen  Heer  Jezus  Christus,  door  last  1873. 

van  de  Hoog-mog.    Heeren   Staten  2  Das     Neue     Testament    unser, 

Generaal  der  Vereenigde  Nederlan-  Ilerrn  und  Heilandes  Jesu  Christi, 

den,  en  volgens  het  besluit  van  de  nach   Dr.   Martin   Luther's  Ueber- 

Synode  Nationaal,  gehouden  te  Dor-  setzung.     Revidirte  Ausgabe.     Ber- 

drecht,    in    de    jaren    MDCXVIII    en  lin,  1872. 
MDCXIX,     uit      de     oorspronkelijke 


to  a  popular  and  accurate  version.  Reference  might  be  made  to 
the  volumes  of  Purver,  Scarlett,  Harwood,  Wakefield,  Worsley, 
Newcome,  Whiston,  M'Ray,  Boothroyd,  Wynne,  Ainslie,  High- 
ton,  Rotherham,  Blackwood,  Granville  Penn,  Webster,  the 
Improved  Version  (Unitarian),  and  that  of  the  American  Bible 
Union  (Baptist).  A  few  samples  may  suffice. 

One  peculiarity  of  Scarlett's  volume  is  that  the  words  of 
different  speakers  in  a  chapter  are  marked  off  and  printed  as 
in  a  drama  : — 

"  Hist. — Then  Jesus  going  from  thence,  retired  to  the  coasts 
of  Tyre  and  Sidon.  And  behold,  a  woman  of  Canaan  coming 
out  of  these  parts,  cried,  saying  to  him, 

"  Canaanitish   Woman. — Have  pity  on   me,  O  Lord,   thou 
son  of  David ;  my  daughter  is  grievously  possessed  by  a  demon  : 
"  Hist. — But  he  answered  her  not  a  word.     And  his  disciples 
coming,  entreated  him,  saying, 

"  Disciples. — Dismiss  her,  because  she  crieth  after  us. 
"  Hist. — But  he  answering,  said, 

"  JESUS. — I  am  not  sent,  save  to  the  lost  sheep  of  the  house 
of  Israel. 

"  Hist. — Then  she  came  and  fell  prostrate  before  him,  saying, 
"  Canaanitish  Woman. — Lord,  help  me  ! 
"  JESUS. — It  is  not  fit  to  take  the  children's  bread,  and  throw 
it  to  the  dogs. 

"  Hist. — And  she  said, 

"  Canaanitish  Woman. — True,  Lord  :  yet  the  dogs  eat  of  the 
crumbs  which  fall  from  their  master's  table. 
"Hist. — Then  Jesus  answering,  said  to  her, 
"  JESUS. — 0    woman,   thy  faith   is   great !    be    it    to   thee 
according  to  thy  desire. 

"  Hist. — And  her  daughter  was  healed  from  that  hour." 
Purver  gives  a  very  long  list  of  words  "  superannuated  and 
not  fit  to  be  used  in  the  English  Bible";  but  in  that  list  are 
many  vivid  and  current  terms  as  fresh  as  when  they  came 
from  the  mint. 

Mr.  Ray,  or  M'Ray — a  man  of  some  scholarship,  and  of  no 
small  vanity  and  loquacity — lived  in  Glasgow,  and  here  is  a 
sample  of  his  work  : — 


"  Therefore,  when  he  was  gone  out,  Jesus  said,  Now  is  the 
Son  of  man  glorified,  (destroying  the  works  of  the  devil,')  and 
God  is  (thereby)  glorified  in  him.  If  God  be  glorified  in  him, 
God  will  also  glorify  him  with  himself,  (by  making  him  sit  at 
his  right  hand,}  and  shall  straightway  glorify  him.  Little 
children,  yet  a  little  while  I  am  with  you.  Ye  shall  seek  me  ; 
and  as  I  said  unto  the  Jews,  Whither  I  go  ye  cannot  (now) 
come ;  so  I  say  now  unto  you." 

Herman  Heinfetter  has  translated  the  Vatican  MS.  as  it 
could  be  had  at  the  time,1  from  the  collations  of  Bartolocci,  of 
Birch,  of  Bentley  through  the  Abbate  Mico,  and  of  the  Abbate 
Rulotta.  But  though  he  had  had  Tischendorf's  edition  of 

1867,  or  the  fac-simile  edition  of  Vercellone,  it  would  not  have 
been  of  any  great  moment.     Some  of  his  renderings  may  be 
quoted  : 

Matt,  i,  20,  "  Fear  not  to  take  unto  thee  Mary  thy  wife,  for 
that  which  is  conceived  in  her  exists  without  blemish  to  her 

Eph.  iii,  17,  "For  the  inner  man  to  dwell  in  the  Christ  by 
means  of  the  faith  that  exists  in  your  hearts." 

Heb.  ii,  5,  "  For  unto  angels'  assurances,  hath  he  not  put  in 
subjection  man's  knoiuledge  o/the  world  to  come." 

1  Pet.  ii,  2,  "As  newborn  babes  desire  the  reasonably  sin 
cere  milk  of  brotherly  love  that  ye  may  grow  thereby  unto 

Griesbach's  text  has  been  translated  by  Nathan  Hale  (Bos 
ton,  1836),  by  a  layman,  Edgar  Taylor  (London,  1840),  and  by 
Samuel  Sharpe  (6th  edition,  London,  1870). 

The  text  of  Tischendorf's  last  edition  has  been  translated, 
with  scholarly  care  and  great  exactness  and  fidelity,  by  Samuel 
Davidson,  D.D.  (London,  1875). 

Tischendorf's  text,  but  taken  from  various  editions,  had 
been  translated  by  G.  R  Noyes,  D.D.,  Harvard  University, 

1868.  The  English  version  is  often  good,  but  too  often  free,  as 
may  be  seen  in  the  examples  adduced  by  Dr.  Davidson  in  the 
Introduction  to  his  own  New  Testament. 

Joseph  B.  Rotherham  has  translated  the  text  of  Tregelles, 
1  A  nom  de  plume,  London,  1864. 


as  far  as  it  was  published,  and  furnished  his  version  with 
marks  pointing  out  the  emphatic  words  (London,  1872). 

Mr.  Darby's  anonymous  translation  is  often  excellent,  though 
the  various  readings  mentioned  are  treated  very  curtly,  and  the 
English  is  occasionally  rough. 

The  Baptist  translation  of  the  American  Bible  Union  merits 
commendation  in  many  respects,  though  it  is  more  than  faith 
ful  to  antipiedobaptist  opinions.  It  professedly  makes  the 
Bible  the  book  of  a  sect.  And  we  have  such  renderings  us 
these:  Matt,  iii,  1,  "John  the  immerser";  xxi,  25,  "John's 
immersion,  whence  was  it  ?  from  heaven  or  from  men  ? "  Acts 
xix,  3,  "  Unto  what  were  ye  immersed  ?  and  they  said,  Unto 
John's  immersion.  John  indeed  immersed  with  the  immersion 
of  repentance  "  ;  Rom.  vi,  4,  "  buried  with  him  by  the  immer 
sion  into  his  death."  But  the  verb  is  rendered  in  Luke  xii,  50> 
"  I  have  an  immersion  to  undergo  "  ;  and  the  meaning  of  the 
preposition  is  fallen  from,  almost  of  necessity,  in  1  Cor.  i,  13, 
"  or  were  ye  immersed  in  the  name  of  Paul  ? "  and  similarly 
in  Matt,  xxviii,  19,  "  into  the  name  "  being  the  right  transla 

A  person  of  the  name  of  Mace  published  a  New  Testament  in 
1729,  and  Lewis  gives  a  few  of  its  peculiar  renderings  :  Matt, 
vi,  16,  "  When  ye  fast,  don't  put  on  a  dismal  air  as  the  hypocrites 
do  " ;  xi,  17,  "  if  we  play  a  merry  tune  you  are  not  for  dancing ; 
if  we  act  a  mournful  part  you  are  not  in  the  humour  " ;  xii,  34, 
"  'tis  the  overflowing  of  the  heart  that  the  mouth  dischargeth"; 
xx,  31,  "  the  people  reprimanded  them  to  make  them  hold 
their  tongue,  but  they  bawl'd  out  the  more,  Have  mercy  on 
us  "  ;  xxii,  34,  "  the  Pharisees  hearing  that  he  dumb-founded 
the  Sadducees " ;  Mark  x,  34,  "  they  will  treat  him  with 
ignominy,  subject  him  to  the  lash";  xiv,  65,  "and  the 
domestics  slapt  him  on  the  cheeks " ;  Luke  x,  37,  "  He 
replied,  the  doctor  who  took  pity  on  him  "  ;  xvii,  27,  "  eat 
ing  and  drinking,  marriages  and  matches,  was  the  busi 
ness  " ;  John  i,  23,  "  I  arn,  said  he,  the  voice  of  one  crying  in 
the  wilderness,  rClear  the  way  of  the  Lord " ;  1  Cor.  vii,  36, 
"  If  any  man  thinks  it  would  be  a  reflection  upon  his  manhood 
to  be  a  stale  batchelor " ;  1  Thess.  v,  5,  "  You  inherit  the 


advantages  of  meridian  light:  we  are  not  involved  in  the 
obscurity  of  night "  ;  13,  "Don't  form  any  brigues  against 
them";  14,  "Comfort  the  pusillanimous";  James  ii,  3,  "If 
you  should  respectfully  say  to  the  suit  of  fine  clothes,  Sit  you 
there,  that's  for  quality  " ;  iii,  5,  6,  "  The  tongue  is  but  a  small 
part  of  the  body,  yet  how  grand  are  its  pretensions  !  A  spark 
of  fire  !  what  quantities  of  timber  will  it  blow  into  a  flame  ! 
The  tongue  is  a  brand  that  sets  the  world  in  a  combustion  :  it 
is  but  one  of  the  numerous  organs  of  the  body,  yet  it  can 
blast  whole  assemblies :  tipp'd  with  infernal  sulphur,  it  sets 
the  whole  train  of  life  in  a  blaze." 

"  A  new  and  corrected  version  of  the  New  Testament ;  or,  a 
minute  revision,  and  professed  translation  of  the  original  his 
tories,  memoirs,  letters,  prophecies,  and  other  productions  of  the 
evangelists  and  apostles  was  published  since  by  Rodolphus 
Dickenson,  Boston  (U.S),  1833."  Specimens  of  the  translation 
are,  Luke  ii,  "  And  it  happened,  that  when  Elizabeth  heard 
the  salutation  of  Mary,  the  embryo  was  joyfully  agitated,  and 
Elizabeth  was  pervaded  by  the  Holy  Spirit ;  and  she  exclaimed 
with  a  loud  voice,  and  said,  Blessed  are  you  among  women ! 
and  blessed  is  your  incipient  offspring !  And  whence  is  this 
occurrence  to  me,  that  the  mother  of  my  Lord  should  visit  me  ? 
For  behold,  when  the  voice  of  your  salutation  sounded  in  my 
ears,  the  embryo  was  enlivened  with  joy."  Acts  i,  "Moreover, 
this  man,  indeed,  caused  a  field  to  be  purchased  with  the 
recompense  of  his  iniquity ;  and  falling  prostrate,  a  violent 
internal  spasm  ensued,  and  all  his  viscera  were  emitted." 
xvii,  "Paul,  then  stood  in  the  centre  of  the  court  of  Areopagus, 
and  remarked ;  Men  of  Athens,  I  perceive  that  you  are  greatly 
devoted  to  the  worship  of  invisible  powers."  xxvi,  "  Festus 
declared  with  a  loud  voice,  Paul,  you  are  insane  !  Multiplied 
research  drives  you  to  distraction."  xxviii,  "And  the  Barbarians 
displayed  towards  us  no  ordinary  philanthropy." 

Noah  Webster,  the  author  of  the  Dictionary,  published  an 
edition  of  the  Bible,  with  amendments  of  the  language — that  is, 
"  by  the  exclusion  of  all  archaisms,  and  of  words  deemed  below 
the  solemnity  and  dignity  "of  the  subject,  by  the  insertion  of 
euphemisms,  with  many  verbal  and  grammatical  alterations," 


so  as  to  bring   it  into  accordance  with    the    lexicographer's 
standard  of  American  English.     Newhaven,  1833. 

Dean  Alford  issued  a  revised  translation  of  the  New 
Testament  which,  though  excellent  in  many  points,  is  of  un 
equal  merit,  as  the  work  was  done  in  haste ;  and  the  critical 
notes  on  the  Greek  text  are  too  vague  for  the  scholar,  and  too 
short  for  the  general  reader.  London,  1870. 

Granville  Penn  published  a  Revision  in  183G,  under  the  title 
of  The  Book  of  the  Covenant  of  our  Lord  and  Saviour  Jesus 
Christ.  Many  of  his  numerous  changes  are  not  of  great 

Macknight's  Translation  of  the  Epistles  is  loose  and  para 
phrastic,  and  so  is  Conybeare's,  in  that  deservedly  popular 
volume,  Life  and  Epistles  of  St.  Paul.  Principal  Campbell's 
Translation  of  the  Gospels  is  not  so  exact  as  it  should  be, 
though  he  laid  down  good  rules  for  a  translator.  One  is  that  he 
should  avoid  vulgarisms  and  affectations;  yet  he  has  himself: 
Matt,  v,  1,  "  Jesus  seeing  so  great  a  confluence  repaired  to  a 
mountain  "  ;  v,  3,  "  Happy  the  poor  who  repine  not  " — an  odd 
neological  specimen  to  be  found  so  near  the  base  of  Cairn 
gorm  ;  Luke  xviii,  5,  "  lest  she  come  perpetually,  and  plague 
me";  John  i,  38,  "Rabbi,  which  signifieth  Doctor";  vii,  6, 
"  my  time  is  not  yet  come,  but  any  time  will  suit  you  "  ;  xxi,  5, 
"  my  lads,  have  ye  any  victuals  ?  "  He  refers  to  other  two 
versions,  in  one  of  which  "  Zacharias  vented  his  divine  enthu 
siasm  "  is  read  for  "  he  prophesied,"  and  Jesus  is  called  "  guar 
antor  of  the  alliance"  for  "  mediator  of  the  covenant  "  ;  "  the 
Lord  of  the  celestial  militia  "  stands  for  "  Lord  of  hosts,"  and 
"  the  joy  of  thy  Lord  "  is  degraded  into  "  thy  master's  diver 

The  Religious  Tract  Society,  not  long  ago,  published  the 
Holy  Bible  arranged  in  paragraphs  and  sections,  with  emen 
dations  of  the  text.  The  preparation  of  this  fine  quarto  was 
the  work  of  more  than  ten  years.  The  emendations  are  printed 
with  brackets  in  the  heart  of  the  text. 

Tauchnitz's  "  Thousandth  Volume  " — the  Authorized  Version 
of  the  New  Testament,  with  an  Introduction  and  some  critical 
notes  by  Tischendorf,  1869 — is  a  literary  curiosity,  but  its 


notes  are  too  few,  and  also  too  curt,  to  be  of  very  great  benefit 
to  the  common  reader. 

Reference  needs  scarcely  be  made  to  the  well  known  Revision 
of  some  Books  of  the  New  Testament  by  "  Five  Clergymen." 
Besides  its  great  merits,  it  has  done  the  needful  work  of  a 

Lastly,  there  appeared  (London,  1875)  the  first  volume  of  a 
work  compactly  built  together — "  The  New  Testament :  a  new 
Translation,  on  the  basis  of  the  Authorized  Version,  from  a 
critically  revised  text,"  &c.  By  John  Brown  M'Lellan,  M.A., 
Vicar  of  Bottisham.  This  volume,  with  its  symmetrical  ar 
rangement  on  every  page  of  text,  marginal  and  expository 
remarks,  the  fruit  of  great  industry,  is  certainly  a  marvel 
of  printing,  and  various  forms  of  letter  are  employed.  For 
its  purity  and  integrity,  he  prints  the  "  Received  Text,"  and 
he  puts  it  far  above  the  very  latest  and  most  celebrated  critical 
editions  of  the  New  Testament.  The  volume  has  also  a  prefa 
tory  apparatus,  a  Harmony,  and  a  body  of  Exegetical  Notes. 

Rules  to  guide  a  reviser  of  the  English  version  are  apt  to  be 
frigid  and  mechanical.  Newcome  laid  down  fifteen  canons  in 
the  preface  to  his  "  Translation  of  the  Minor  Prophets,"  and 
he  repeated  them  with  some  variation,  and  at  greater  length, 
in  his  "  Historical  View  of  the  English  Biblical  Translations." 
These  rules  are  good ;  but  they  belong  to  the  outer  and  more 
visible  features,  and  take  no  cognizance  of  the  minuter 
lineaments  that  give  soul  and  character  to  any  translation. 
The  reader  is  referred  to  the  following  works  on  revision,  the 
product  of  scholarly  ability,  and  of  critical  and  exegetical 
experience:  Professor  Scholefield's  "Hints";1  Archbishop 
Trench  "  On  the  Authorized  Version  of  the  New  Testament ;": 
Bishop  Ellicott's  "  Considerations  on  the  Revision  of  the  Eng 
lish  Version";3  Canon  Lightfoot,  "On  a  Fresh  Revision  of  the 
English  New  Testament."4  In  these  volumes  will  be  found 
some  of  the  examples  quoted  in  the  following  pages.5 

1  Cambridge,  2nd  edition,  183G.  5  For  brief  biographical  sketches 

2  London,  1858.  of  King  James's  Eevisers,  see  "  The 

3  London,  1870.  Translators  Eevived,"  &c.,  by  A.  "W. 

4  London,  1871.  M'Clure.     New  York,  1853. 


The  two  critics  referred  to  in  the  previous  chapter  have  now 
passed  away,  each  having  left  his  work  to  some  extent  unfinished. 
The  learned  and  laborious  Constantine  von  Tischendorf l  died  in 
December,  1874,  and  the  conscientious  and  painstaking  Samuel 
Prideaux  Tregelles  died  in  April,  1875.  It  has  been  stated 
that  Tischendorf  was  greatly  swayed  by  the  Sinaitic  MS.; 
and  to  show  what  fascination  it  occasionally  exerted  upon  him, 
it  may  be  added  that  he  excludes  the  last  verse  of  St.  John's 
Gospel  (xxi,  25)  solely  because  in  that  manuscript  it  appeared 
to  be  written  with  fresher  or  darker  ink.  Other  eyes  than  his 
could  not  appreciate  the  difference  "  coloris  discrimen,"  and 
when  he  showed  the  page  to  Tregelles,  the  English  scholar  at 
once  exclaimed,  "  O  yes,  I  see  ;  the  scribe  took  a  new  dip  of 
ink  after  writing  verse  24th." 

1  By  an  imperial  ukase  he  was,  in     — an  honour  recognized  by  his  own 
186.9,  elevated  to  the  rank  of  a  here-     government, 
ditary  noble  of  the  Russian  empire 


A  FTER  all  that  has  been  said  in  the  previous  pages  in  merited 
praise  of  the  Authorized  Version  as  the  work  of  careful 
conscientious  scholars,  it  is  not  perfect  in  all  points.  There 
are  some  inaccuracies  and  misrenderings ;  Greek  idioms  are 
not  always  distinctly  apprehended,  and  ambiguities  are  found. 
Sometimes  the  version  falls  short  of  the  original  in  terseness 
and  point,  and  occasionally  a  different  turn  is  given  to  the 
thought.  The  Greek  article  is  dealt  with  very  capriciously ; 
the  shades  of  relation  marked  by  the  genitive  are  not  uniformly 
noted,  and  it  is  rendered  several  times  as  an  adjective  of 
quality;  the  time  marked  by  aorists  and  imperfects  is  not 
given  in  all  cases  even  where  the  English  idiom  might  allow 
it ;  the  full  meaning  of  the  compound  relative  and  of  compound 
verbs,  is  not  in  each  place  brought  out ;  tertiary  predicates 
sink  into  mere  epithets ;  the  emphasis  characterizing  the 
Greek  now  and  then  evaporates  in  the  English  ;  pre 
positions  are  not  in  all  cases  justly  distinguished;  equivocal 
senses  are  given  to  conjunctions ;  synonyms  are  not  always 
skilfully  discriminated ;  the  particles  have  not,  in  every 
instance,  their  due  and  delicate  significance ;  some  terse  and 
brief  idiomatic  clauses  are  diluted ;  the  same  Greek  term  has 
several  English  renderings,  and  the  same  English  term  stands 
for  several  Greek  words.  Some  clauses  of  the  earlier  versions 
had  set  a  bad  example,  which  was  heedlessly  copied.  Italic 
supplements  are  now  unduly  scattered  about,  many  of  them 
"no  better  than  dashes  of  water  thrown  into  the  sincere 
milk  of  the  word." 

Though  the  English  of  the  version  be  usually  so  lucid,  there 


are  some  ambiguities — some  creases  in  the  Coan  gauze  which 
dim  its  transparency.  In  Chap.  XLIV1  we  have  given  a  list  of 
peculiar  words  and  forms  found  in  the  version,  some  of  them 
obsolete  and  some  of  them  with  a  meaning  rarely  found  now, 
and  others  may  be  noted  or  again  referred  to  in  their  connection. 
"Of"  no  longer  means  "by";  "spoken  of  the  apostles  of  our  Lord," 
Jude  17,  where  "spoken  of"  might  be  readily  taken  to  mean 
"spoken  about."  When  "of"  really  means  "from"  it  is  now 
liable  to  be  misunderstood :  "  the  things  I  have  heard  of  him," 
or  "  which  I  have  heard  of  God,"  John  viii,  26,  40 ;  or  "  that  I 
have  heard  of  my  Father,"  xv,  15 ;  "friends  of  the  mammon  of 
unrighteousness,"  Luke  xvi,  9,  should  be  "  out  of"  ;  it  is  not 
making  Mammon  your  friend,  but  employing  this  world's  wealth 
in  a  right  way,  and  you  shall  be  benefited  by  your  beneficence. 
<l  By "  itself  is  equivocal,  for  it  is  sometimes  connected  with 
the  original  cause,  and  sometimes  with  the  instrumental  cause. 
It  might  be  often  rendered  "  through  " — 1  Cor.  viii,  6,  "  Jesus 
Christ,  through  whom  are  all  things."  "  For "  often  signifies 
"  because,"  but  it  was  taken  as  meaning  "  in  order  to " 
in  Rom.  iv,  3.  The  translation,  2  Cor.  v,  21,  "He  hath 
made  him  to  be  sin  for  us  who  knew  no  sin,"  though  not 
liable  to  be  misunderstood,  might  be  easily  changed  in  arrange 
ment;  but  it  is  surely  a  very  extreme  and  unwarranted 
opinion,  that  "  the  verse  as  it  stands  clearly,  perspicuously,  and 
unequivocally  declares  the  human  race  to  be  sinless,  2  and  is 
a  glaring  perversion  of  the  original  Greek."  Surely  no  one  has 
ever  so  taken  it,  or  has  been  perplexed  by  it ;  and  such  verbal 
order  was  far  from  being  uncommon  in  the  days  of  the  trans 
lators,  the  sense  being  guarded  by  the  punctuation.  The 
position  of  the  words,  in  instances  of  a  similar  kind,  might  be 
altered,  yet  who  ever  was  bewildered  by  the  statement,  "  and 
all  the  people  that  heard  him,  and  the  publicans,"  Luke  vii, 
29 ;  or  "  there  shall  a  man  meet  you,  bearing  a  pitcher  of 
water,"  xxii,  10  ;  or  "Judas  saith  unto  him,  not  Iscariot,  Lord," 
John  xiv,  22 ;  or  "  a  golden  cup  in  her  hand,  full  of  abomina- 

1  P.  208.  of  the  Church  of  Scotland,  p.  187. 

2  A  Plea  for  a  New  English  Ver-     London,  1864. 
sion  of  the  Scriptures,  by  a  Licentiate 


tion,"  Rev.  xvii,  4  ?  Amidst  all  the  changes  introduced  by 
printers,  in  so  many  editions,  no  one  thought  of  altering  the 
phrase  "  strain  at  a  gnat,"  Matt,  xxiii,  24,  which  was  probably 
a  misprint  in  the  first  edition  for  "strain  out  a  gnat,"  or  rather 
"strain  out  the  gnat" — "strain  out,"  the  proper  translation  of 
the  Greek  verb,  being  found  in  the  Bishops',  the  Genevan,  and 
older  versions.  Some,  however,  suppose  that  the  change  was 
intentional,  the  sense  being,  strain  the  liquor  at  the  appearance 
of  a  gnat  in  it.  A  solitary  edition  of  1754  did  make  the 
alteration,  but  it  had  no  followers. 

A  version  ought  never,  if  possible,  to  present  to  the  ordinary 
reader  a  doubtful  sense,  but  an  alternative  rendering  may  go 
into  the  margin.  His  question  is  not  what  means  the  Greek 
text,  but  what  mean  those  English  words?1 

1  Cor.  vii,  19,  reads  thus,  "Circumcision  is  nothing,  and  un- 
circumcision  is  nothing,  but  the  keeping  of  the  commandments 
of  God,"  and  the  declaration  has  sometimes  been  understood  as 
if  the  meaning  were,  the  one  or  the  other  is  nothing  but,  or 
nothing  else  than,  or  identical  with,  the  keeping  of  the  com 
mandments  of  God.  The  clause  (1  Tim.  i,  17),  "  the  only  wise 
God,"  might  imply  to  some  readers,  that  there  were  other 
gods,  but  of  them  wisdom  could  not  be  predicated. 

Matt,  xxi,  7,  seems  at  first  sight  quite  plain — "  and  brought 
the  ass  and  the  colt,  and  put  on  them  their  clothes,  and  they 
set  him  thereon,"  that  is,  on  the  clothes  spread  over  the  back  of 
the  colt,  Mark  xi,  2.  But  the  question  has  been  raised,  did  he 
not  use  both  animals  in  succession  ? 

In  the  first  edition  Mark  x,  18,  stands  thus :  "  There  is  no 

1  It  will  be  scarcely  credited,  though  that  his  discourse  was  designed  to 
it  is  quite  true,  that  the^term  "baud"  show  the  power  of  divine  grace  in 
in  the  clause,  "a centurion  of  the  band  the  conversion  of  Cornelius.  For 
called  the  Italian  band,"  Acts  x,  1,  lias  first,  he  was  a  soldier,  and  military 
been  misunderstood  not  above  twenty  life  is  not  favourable  to  piety,  and, 
years  ago.  An  English  preacher,  secondly,  he  was  leader  of  a  band  or 
belonging  to  a  denomination  that  company  of  foreign  musicians,  en- 
does  not  compass  the  education  of  largiug  eloquently  on  the  character 
all  its  ministers,  took  the  clause  of  opera  singers,  many  of  whom  still 
for  his  text,  when  he  occupied  a  come  from  Italy. 
Presbyterian  pulpit,  and  announced 


man  good,  but  one  that  is  God,''  and  it  was  not  changed  till 

Matt,  v,  16,  "  Let  your  light  so  shine  before  men,  that 
they  may  see  your  good  works,  and  glorify  your  Father 
which  is  in  heaven;"  "so"  is  usually  taken  to  be  emphatic: 
let  your  light  shine  so  brightly,  or  in  such  a  way,  that  others 
may  see.  But  the  "  so,"  or  "  even  so,"  simply  connects  the 
verse  with  the  one  before  it  ;  "  as  the  lamp  gives  light  to  all 
that  are  in  the  house,"  so,  or  in  like  manner,  "let  your  light 
shine  before  men." 

"  No  man,"  is  the  prevailing  translation  of  a  Greek  pronoun,1 
and  serves  the  purpose  well  enough  in  a  variety  of  places 
where  there  is  a  clear  reference  to  human  agents,  as  Matt,  vi, 
24,  "no  man  can  serve  two  masters";  or  in  ix,  16;  xx,  7; 
or  in  Luke  v,  36,  37,  39.  But  in  many  clauses  "  no  one  " 
would  be  the  better  rendering,  and  it  is  found  very  rarely, 
as  in  Mark  x,  18,  "  none  good  but  one  "  ;  John  xvii,  12, 
"  none  of  them  is  lost."  "  No  man  "  limits  the  reference  in 
John  x,  29,  and  "  man  "  is  printed  in  the  ordinary  letters 
in  the  first  edition.  The  form  "  no  one  "  is  never  used  in 
the  Authorized  Version.  Especially  in  Luke  vi,  38,  "  men  "  is 
an  infelicitous  insertion,  there  being  no  nominative  in  the 
original  :  "  good  measure  pressed  down  .  .  .  shall  they 
give  into  your  bosom,"  for  the  reference  is  not  to  any  human 
bestowal  of  reward.  "  One  "  would  be  often  a  more  appro 
priate  representative  of  another  pronoun  than  "  any  man." 
In  some  editions,  as  Fields's,  1G66,  the  reading  of  John  x,  28, 
is  "neither  shall  any  pluck";  and  in  verse  29,  "none  is  able 
to  pluck." 

"The  birds  of  the  air  have  nests,"  Matt,  viii,  20.  The 
translation  is  riot  accurate,  as  the  Greek  term  means  only 
dwelling-places,  though  in  the  erroneous  popular  view  a  nest  is 
the  home  of  the  bird.2  But  the  bird  builds  its  nest  and 
uses  it  only  for  incubation,  and  never  haunts  it  after  its 

"They  to  their  grassy  couch,  these  to 
2  The  mistake  is  a  common   oue.  their  nests 

Milton,  speaking  of  beasts  and  birds         "Were  slunk." 
returning  at  night,  says  — 


young  are  fledged  and  flown.  The  nest  is  not  to  the  bird  as 
the  hole  is  to  the  fox,  a  place  of  usual  retreat.  "  The  birds  of 
the  air  have  roosting  places  "  which  they  frequent.  In  Matt, 
viii,  18,  28,  "  the  other  side  "  is  vague,  and  might  be  rendered, 
"  the  other  shore  of  the  lake." 

"  Sat  at  meat,"  in  Matt,  ix,  10,  and  in  other  places,  suggests 
an  erroneous  posture,  and  might  be  easily  given  "  reclined  at 

The  "Cunaanite,"  in  the  phrase  "Simon  the  Canaanite," 
Matt,  x,  4,  is  incorrectly  spelled,  and  would  imply  that  in  some 
peculiar  sense  he  belonged  to  Canaan.  The  true  spelling  is 
Cananite ;  or  it  might  be  given  as  Canansean,  to  keep  it  distinct 
from  the  Old  Testament  form  of  name  belonging  to  the  abori 
gines.  Nor  does  the  epithet  mean  that  he  belonged  to  Cana  of 
Galilee,  though  some  have  supposed  that  his  marriage  was  the 
scene  of  Christ's  first  miracle  ;  the  Syro-chaldaic  epithet  has  its 
Greek  equivalent  in  "  Zelotes,"  Luke  vi,  15. 

Matt,  xii,  10,  "And  behold  there  was  a  man  which  had  his 
hand  withered.  And  they  asked  him,  saying,  Is  it  lawful  to 
heal  on  the  sabbath  days?" — "him"  might,  to  a  careless  reader, 
seem  to  refer  to  the  invalid. 

"  Offence,"  as  in  Matt,  xvi,  23,  "  thou  art  an